Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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ʿAbd Allāh

(509 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muʿāwiya, ʿAlide rebel. After the death of Abū Hās̲h̲im, a grandson of ʿAlī, claims were laid to the Imamate from several quarters. Some asserted that Abū Hās̲h̲im had formally transferred his rights to the dignity of Imām to the ʿAbbāside Muḥammed b. ʿAlī. Others thought he had spoken in favor of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAmr al-Kindī and wanted to proclaim him Imām. As he, however, did not come up to the expectations of his followers, they turned from him and declared ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya, a great-gr…

ʿAbd Allāh

(581 words)

Author(s): Ophuysen, Van
b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (Malay pronunciation Abdu’llah bin Abdu’l-Kadir), surnamed Muns̲h̲iʾ, i. e. teacher of languages, was born in 1796 in Malacca, where his grandfather, the son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, who came originally from Yemen, had settled. At an early age, ʿAbd Allāh received lessons in Malay from his father, who is said to have been an expert Malay scholar, and endeavored to make himself fully master of this language by reading Malay writings and by associating with educated Malays. As he learn…

ʿAbd Allāh

(10 words)

b. ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir. [See ibn ʿabd al-hẓāhir.]

ʿAbd Allāh

(433 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. Ubaiy, also called Ibn Salūl after his mother, chief of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ites. Before the coming of Muḥammed to Medina ʿAbd Allāh had dominion over Aws and Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ — the only case, says Ibn His̲h̲ām explicitly, in which these two tribes united under a common chief. — After the coming of Muḥammed ʿAbd Allāh was obliged to follow the example of the masses and embrace Islām, in order not to be entirely set aside; but in his heart he bore a bitter grudge against his rival, whom he now looked on as a…

ʿAbd Allāh

(8 words)

b. Barrī. [See ibn barrī.]

ʿAbd Allāh

(414 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. Rawāḥa, a Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ite, belonging to the most esteemed clan of the Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲. At the second ʿAḳaba assembly in March 622, ʿAbd Allāh was one of the 12 trustworthy men, whom the already converted Medinians conformably to the Prophet’s wish had chosen. When Muḥammed had emigrated to ¶ Medina, ʿAbd Allāh proved himself to be one of the most energetic and upright champions of his cause. Muḥammed appears to have thought a great deal of him, and often entrusted him with honorable missions. After the battle of Bedr in the year 623, in wh…

ʿAbd Allāh

(839 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Abū Fāris) b. Aḥmed al-Manṣūr b. Muḥammed S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Mahdī, surnamed al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ bi-’llāh, governor of Marrākus̲h̲ (Morocco), was proclaimed sultan in this town on Friday, 28 Rabīʿ I 1012 (5 Sept. 1603), a few days after the death of his father and the proclamation of his brother Zaidān by the inhabitants of Fez. ¶ Immediately after he was proclaimed, the new sultan of Morocco was forced to fight against his brother, who contested the supreme authority. The ʿulamāʾ of Fez, having been won over to the party of Mawlā Zaidān, decided by a fetwā (judicial decision) that Abū Fāris ʿAbd …

ʿAbd Allāh

(324 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ḥamdān b. Ḥamdūn, called Abu ’l-Haid̲j̲āʾ, of the tribe of Tag̲h̲lib, was appointed governor of al-Mawṣil (Mosul) by the caliph al-Muktafī in the year 293 (905), in which place he had to fight against the loot-loving Kurds. He took no part in the conspiracy to proclaim Ibn al-Muʿtazz [q. v.] caliph instead of al-Muḳtadir, in which his brother Ḥusain played a leading part; he was indeed, on the failure of this enterprise, entrusted with the task of capturing his fugitive brother, in which he was …

ʿAbd Allah

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Seligsohn, M.
b. al-Zubair, a Ḳorais̲h̲ite general, who contested the caliphate of the Umaiyads for nine years, was born at Medina in the year I (622), or, according to al-Wāḳidī, 20 months after the Hid̲j̲jra (S̲h̲aʿbān 2 = Feb. 624), killed in a battle against al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, near Mecca, on the 17th Ḏj̲umādā I 73 (4th Oct. 692); comp., however, Wellhausen, Das arabische Reich und sein Sturz, p. 124. Besides the fact that his father, al-Zubair, belonged to one of the noblest families of Ḳorais̲h̲ and was on his mother Ṣafīya’s side a cousin of the Prophet, ʿAbd Allā…

ʿAbd Allāh

(581 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
b. Salām, a Jew from Medina, originally called al-Ḥuṣain and belonged to the Banū Ḳainuḳāʿ. Muḥammed gave him the name of ʿAbd Allāh when he embraced Islām. This conversion is said to have taken place immediately after Muḥammed’s arrival at Medina, but according to others, when Muḥammed was still in Mecca. Another account which makes him accept Islām in the year 8 (629-630) is worthy of more credence — though Mohammedan critics think it badly accredited, — for his name is sought in vain in the battles which Muḥammed had to wage in Medina. The few unimportant mentions in the Mag̲h̲āzī may well …

ʿAbd Allāh

(394 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Saba, often called by Arabian historians, Ibn al-Sawdāʾ after his mother, was said to be a Jew from Ṣanʿāʾ, having been converted to Islām during the government of the caliph ʿOt̲h̲mān. After wandering about in the Ḥid̲j̲āz, in Baṣra and Kūfa, whence he was expelled, he proceeded to Egypt via Syria and there joined the regiment of ʿOt̲h̲mān’s malcontents. He here evolved a peculiar dogma which was subsequently further developed by his followers and has made his name famous. It is, however, dif…

ʿAbd Allāh

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
b. al-ʿAbbās, surnamed Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, cousin of the Prophet. His birth is said to have taken place when the Has̲h̲imides were blocked in al-S̲h̲iʿb, a couple of years before Muḥammed’s emigration to Medina. According to al-Buk̲h̲ārī, he and his mother had already been converted before his father al-ʿAbbās [see al-ʿabbās b. ʿabd al-muṭṭalir] accepted the Islamic faith. But this is doubtlessly a pleasant fiction invented either by himself or by others. He began to come into prominence under ʿOt̲h̲mān. The caliph, to whom, according to his own state…

ʿAbd Allāh

(298 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, son of the caliph ʿOmar II. In the year 126 (744) ʿAbd Allāh was appointed governor of the ʿIrāḳ by Yazīd III, but in a short time aroused the discontent of the Syrian chiefs in that place, who felt that they were unfavorably treated by the new governor compared with the inhabitants of the ʿIrāḳ. After the accession of Marwān II, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya [q. v.], a descendant of ʿAlī’s brother Ḏj̲aʿfar, rebelled in Kūfa in Muḥarram 127 (October 744), but was expelled by ʿAbd…

ʿAbd Allāh

(110 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Wahb al-Rāsibī, a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite, bore the surname of the „Man with the callosities“ ( d̲h̲u ’l-t̲h̲afināt), because he had received callosities from his many prostrations. ʿAbd ¶ Allāh belonged to the prominent men amongst the first Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites, so that he was chosen to be caliph by his followers, when they had separated from ʿAlī (37 = 658). He fell in the same year (May-June 658) in the bloody battle of Nahrawān. (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Mubarrad, Kāmil, pp.558 et seq. Ṭabarī, i. 3363 et seq. Dīnawarī (ed. Girgas and Rosen) pp. 215 et seq. Brünnow, Die Charidschiten, pp. 18 et seq.…

ʿAbd Allāh

(8 words)

b. ʿAbd Allāh. [See al-Mayorḳī.]

ʿAbd Allāh

(8 words)

b. Suraid̲j̲. [See ibn Suraid̲j̲.]

ʿAbd Allāh

(539 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿOmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb, eldest son of the caliph ʿOmar I, and one of the most respected of all Muḥammed’s companions, generally called Ibn ʿOmar. ʿAbd Allāh was born several years before the Hid̲j̲ra, his mother’s name was Zainab bint Maẓʿūn. He became a convert ¶ to Islām in his boyhood at the same time as his father. At the battles of Bedr and Uḥud he was kept in the background by Muḥammed, because he was still too young, but he took part in the campaign of the Ditch and fought in all the battles of the Prophet. Subsequently also his na…

ʿAbd Allāh

(8 words)

b. Muḥammed. [See ibn al-faraḍī.]

ʿAbd Allāh

(669 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
b. Muḥammed, successor of the Mahdī in the Sudan. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammed al-Taʿāʾis̲h̲ī, the notorious Ḵh̲alīfa and successor of the Sudanese Mahdī Muḥammed Aḥmed [q. v.], was born, it seems, in the middle of the forties of the 19th century. He was a native of the South-West Dārfūr and belonged to the tribe of the Arab-Sudanese Baggāra (Baḳḳāra), more particularly to the Ḏj̲ubarāt and here again to the group of the Awlād Umm Surra. His father Muḥammed al-Faḳīh left his home in the seventies with his whole family with the intention to…

ʿAbd Allāh

(451 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Maimūn, well-known sectarian, died about 261 (874-875), came originally from al-Ahwāz. His father Maimūn practiced as an oculist in that place, whence his name Maimūn al-Ḳaddāḥ. In that district there dominated since long heretical religious views hostile to Islām, and the oculist appears indeed to have had relations with the Ḵh̲aṭṭābīya [q. v.] and the Bardesanians [q. v.]. The son became a learned theologian, who according to Maḳrīzī examined nearly all religious systems and evolved one of h…
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