Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Abdālī

(272 words)

Author(s): Dames, M. Longworth
, the former name of the Afg̲h̲ān tribe now known as Durrānī. This tribe belongs to the Sarbanī branch of the Afg̲h̲ān race, and is believed by the Afg̲h̲āns to derive its name from Abdāl (commonly called Avdal) b. Tarīn b. S̲h̲ark̲h̲abūn b. Sarban b. Ḳais, who received this name from Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Abū Aḥmed, an Abdāl or saint of the Čis̲h̲tiya order, in whose service he was. The Abdālī as the result of wars with the G̲h̲alzai had abandoned their original lands near Ḳandahār, and had long been settled near Herāt, but were restored by Nādir S̲h̲āh t…

ʿAbdalī

(21 words)

(ʿAbdelī), plur. ʿAbādil, collective name for the inhabitants of the sultanate of Laḥed̲j̲ (Laḥd̲j̲) in South Arabia [see laḥed̲j̲].

ʿAbd Allāh

(843 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Iskandar, a S̲h̲aibānide, the greatest prince of this dynasty, born in 940 (1533-1534; the dragon year 1532-1333 is probably more accurately given as the year of the cycle) at Āfarīnkent in Miyānkāl (an island between the two arms of the Zarafs̲h̲ān). The father (Iskandar Ḵh̲ān), grandfather (Ḏj̲ānī Beg) and great-grandfather (Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Muḥammed, son of Abu ’l-Ḵh̲air [s. d.]) of this ruler of genius are all described as very ordinary, almost stupid men. Ḏj̲ānī Beg (d. 935 = 1528-1529) had at the distribution of 918 (1512-1513) received Karmī…

ʿAbd Allāh

(8 words)

b. Saʿūd. [See ibn saʿūd.]

ʿAbd Allāh

(135 words)

Author(s): G. D., M.
(Muḥammed) b. Ibrāhīm II b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, tenth Ag̲h̲labide emīr. He was entrusted with many commands by his father; it was he who in 280 (893) massacred the d̲j̲und of Bilizma; in 284 (897) he fought the Nefūsis; in 286 (899) he made a campaign at Biskra. Finally in 287 (900) his father nominated him governor of Sicily, where he took possession of Palermo and Reggio. Ibrāhīm recalled him in 289 (902) and abdicated in his favor (Rabīʿ I = Feb.-March). He was assassinated on the 28th S̲h̲aʿbān 290 (27th July 903), by order of his son Ziyādat ʿAllāh. After his accession he appea…

ʿAbd Allāh

(431 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan, chief of the ʿAlides. ʿAbd Allāh was treated with great favor by the caliphs of the Umaiyad dynasty, and when he visited the first ʿAbbāside caliph Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ at Anbār, the latter received him with great distinction. Thence he returned to Medina, where he soon fell under the suspicion of the successor of al-Saffāḥ, al-Manṣūr. Yet ʿAbd Allāh owed his misfortune not so much to himself as to his two sons Muḥammed and Ibrāhīm. As early as the year 136 (754), when al-Manṣūr ¶ led the pilgrimage, the latter’s suspicions were aroused, because they did…

ʿAbd Allāh

(431 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAlī, uncle of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. ʿAbd Allāh was one of the most active participators in the battle of the ʿAbbāsides against the last Umaiyad caliph, Marwān II. He was commander-in-chief in the decisive battle at the Greater Zāb, where Marwān lost his crown, and when the latter took to flight, ʿAbd Allāh pursued him, soon after conquered Damascus and marched on to Palestine, whence he had the fugitive caliph pursued to Egypt. Even more im placably …

ʿAbd Allāh

(245 words)

Author(s): Basset, R.
b. Mūsā b. Nuṣair, eldest son of the famous conqueror of the Mag̲h̲rib and of Spain. He was entrusted by his father, when the latter set out for Spain, with the administration of Ifrīḳīya (93 = 711). He likewise took his father’s place when the latter, having been denounced by Ṭāriḳ, left for the East, whence he never returned. Involved in the downfall of his family brought about by the caliph Sulaimān, who could not see without distrust one son of Mūsā (ʿAbd Allāh) the governor of Ifrīḳīya, anothe…

ʿAbd Allāh

(316 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Abī Ṭālib, nephew of the caliph ʿAlī. ʿAbd Allāh’s father had gone over to Islām very early, and took part in the emigration of the first believers to Abyssinia, where, according to the common belief, ʿAbd Allāh was born. On his mother’s side he was a brother of Muḥammed b. Abī Bekr; the mother’s name was Asmāʾ bint ʿUmais al-Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿamīya. After some years the father returned to Medina taking his son with him. ʿAbd Allāh became known chiefly on account of his great generosity, and received the honorific surname of Baḥr al-Ḏj̲ūd, „the Ocean of Generosity“. He appears to h…

ʿAbd Allāh

(692 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
b. Saʿd, Muslim statesman and general. Abū Yaḥyā ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd b. Abī Sarḥ al-ʿĀmirī belonged to the clan of ʿĀmir b. Luʾaiy of Ḳorais̲h̲ and was as foster brother of the subsequent caliph ʿOt̲h̲mān a chief partisan of the Umaiyads. He was less a soldier than a financier. The judgements of historians on his character vary greatly. His name is connected in many ways with the beginnings of Islām. First he is mentioned as one of Muḥammed’s scribes: he is supposed to have arbitrarily altered the…

ʿAbd Allāh

(153 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
b. Ḥamza b. Sulaimān al-Imām al-Manṣūr bi-’llāh, South Arabian poet, born in Rabīʿ I 561 (January 1166), became Imām of the S̲h̲īʿite sects of Zaidites in Jemen in 594 (1198) and died in 614 (1217) at Kawkabān. His Dīwān is to be found in manuscript in Berlin ¶ (comp. Ahlwardt, Vera. d. arab. Handschr., No. 7703), Leyden (comp. Catalog. cod. or. bibl. ac. Lugduno Batavae, 2d ed., No. 675), and in British Museum (comp. C. Rieu, Supplement, No. 1065); a Rad̲j̲az on horses with commentary, in Berlin (comp. Ahlwardt, loc. cit., No. 6181), and in British Museum (comp. C. Rieu, loc. cit., No. 814). B…

ʿAbd Allāh

(370 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān, son of the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwan [q. v.], was born about the year 60 (680-681), perhaps somewhat earlier, as he is said to have been 27 years old in the year 85 (704). He grew up in Damascus and accompanied his father in several campaigns. We first meet him as an independent general in the year 81 (700-701), in one of the usual razzias against the Eastern Romans. Then in the year 82 (701-702), he was sent with Muḥammed b. Marwān to help al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ against…

ʿAbd Allāh

(241 words)

Author(s): Seligsohn, M.
b. Ḵh̲āzim al-Sulamī, governor of Ḵh̲orāsān and one of the companions of the Prophet whose traditions he transmitted. In the year 31 (651-652), he held the command of that part of the troops of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir [q. v.] which subdued Herāt and Sarak̲h̲s. In the following year, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḵh̲āzim, at the head of 4000 men, by an ingenious stratagem routed Ḳārin’s 40000 men and killed Ḳārin. It was then that he obtained from ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir the governorship of Ḵh̲orāsān. After the death of Muʿāwiya b. Yazīd (64 = 684), ʿAbd Allāh, having recognized ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair …

ʿAbd Allāh

(434 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muḥammed, Umaiyad prince in Spain. ʿAbd Allāh, who ascended the throne of Cordova after the sudden death of his brother al-Mund̲h̲ir in 275 (888), has been characterized as „one of the most repulsive phenomena in the whole history of Islām,“ and in truth his twenty-four years of power were a most unhappy period for his subjects. In order to secure his life and his throne against imaginary dangers, the suspicious tyrant treated his nearest relatives in the most cruel manner possible. His brothe…

ʿAbd Allāh

(83 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ḏj̲aḥs̲h̲, one of the first followers and nephew of the Prophet. ʿAbd Allāh belonged to those that had emigrated to Abyssinia and later came back to Medina. He was the leader of the ill-renowned raid on Nak̲h̲la during the sacred month, of which Ḳorʾān, ii. 214, treats. He took part in the battles of Bedr and Uḥud and met his death in the latter. (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, iiia. 62 et seq. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-G̲h̲āba, iii. 131.

ʿAbd Allāh

(8 words)

b. al-Muḳaffaʿ. [See ibn al-muḳaffaʿ.]

ʿAbd Allāh

(8 words)

b. Muslim. [See ibn ḳutaiba.]

ʿAbd Allāh

(509 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Muʿāwiya, ʿAlide rebel. After the death of Abū Hās̲h̲im, a grandson of ʿAlī, claims were laid to the Imamate from several quarters. Some asserted that Abū Hās̲h̲im had formally transferred his rights to the dignity of Imām to the ʿAbbāside Muḥammed b. ʿAlī. Others thought he had spoken in favor of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAmr al-Kindī and wanted to proclaim him Imām. As he, however, did not come up to the expectations of his followers, they turned from him and declared ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya, a great-gr…

ʿAbd Allāh

(581 words)

Author(s): Ophuysen, Van
b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (Malay pronunciation Abdu’llah bin Abdu’l-Kadir), surnamed Muns̲h̲iʾ, i. e. teacher of languages, was born in 1796 in Malacca, where his grandfather, the son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, who came originally from Yemen, had settled. At an early age, ʿAbd Allāh received lessons in Malay from his father, who is said to have been an expert Malay scholar, and endeavored to make himself fully master of this language by reading Malay writings and by associating with educated Malays. As he learn…

ʿAbd Allāh

(10 words)

b. ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir. [See ibn ʿabd al-hẓāhir.]
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