Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(286 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Maʾmūn, pretender to the throne under al-Muʿtaṣim. His father, the caliph al-Maʾmūn, appointed him in 213 (828-829) as governor of Mesopotamia and the neighboring frontier district, and he then showed great bravery in fighting the Byzantines. On the death of al-Maʾmūn in 218 (833), his brother, Abū Isḥāḳ Muḥammed al-Muʿtaṣim bi-’llāh, by choice of the deceased, ascended the throne of the ʿAbbāsides. The army, which al-Maʾmūn had collected against the Greeks, proclamed, however, al-ʿAbbās ca…


(310 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
b. ʿAmr al-G̲h̲anawī, general and governor of note of the ʿAbbāside caliphs towards the end of the third century of the Hegira (about 900), known principally for the defeat suffered by him at the hands of the Karmathians, for his captivity and for his release. He was born in the country of Raḳḳa. Being the governor of Yamāma and Baḥrain, he was sent by the caliph al-Muʿtaḍid, against the celebrated Karmathian general, Abū Saʿīd al-Ḏj̲annābī, by whom, after a sanguinary battle, he was taken prisone…


(230 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. al-Ḥasan b. Aḥmed b. al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aiyūb al-Ḏj̲ard̲j̲arāyī Abū Aḥmed, born in 250 (864), and assassinated in 296 (908), vizier of the caliph al-Muktafī bi-’llāh from 291 (904) after the death of his predecessor, al-Ḳāsim b. ʿUbaid Allāh [q v.], and the rejection of ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā. This choice was not a fortunate one, for ʿAbbās was an insignificant man who neglected his duties and occupied himself only in his pleasures; he also made many enemies through his haughtiness. He brought about his own …


(783 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
I, surnamed the Great, king of Persia of the Ṣafawī dynasty, son and successor of Muḥammed Ḵh̲udābende, was born in 965 (1557) and died at Faraḥābād on the 19th Ḏj̲umādā I 1037 (27th January 1628), after a reign of forty-three years. He revolted against his father at Herāt, took Ḳazwīn and was from that time recognized as the sovereign (995 = 1587). He reorganized the State, which, in the feeble hands of Ismāʿīl II and of his father, was on the point of ruin, created regiments of troops whom he paid from the royal treasury and called by the Turkish name of tüfenkči (fusiliers); in imitation of t…


(852 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
b. Abi ’l-Futūḥ, his full name, al-Afdal Rukn al-Dīn Abu ’l-Fadl ʿAbbās b. Abi ’l-Futuḥ b. Tamīm b. Muʿizz b. Bādīs al-Ṣinhād̲j̲ī, a descendant of the well known princely house of the Banū Bādīs [q. v.] of Northern Africa. He seems to have been born shortly before 509 (1115), for in that year be was still a nursling. His father, Abu ’l-Futūḥ, was then in prison, and was banished in 509 to Alexandria, whither his wife Bullāra and the little ʿAbbās accompanied him. After Abu ’l-Futūḥ’s death his widow married ʿAlī b. …


(872 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, surnamed Abu ’l-Faḍl, uncle of Muḥammed. He was only three or, according to Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, two years older than the latter. He was a merchant and, differing in this very much from his brothers Abū Ṭālib and ʿAbd Allāh, he made a large fortune; he lent money at interest and possessed a garden at Ṭāʾif; according to Ibn His̲h̲ām (p. 953) and ¶ Ṭabarī (i. 1739), he took in his commerce travels the style of a descendant of the ancient kings. It may therefore well be, as it is reported, that the right of supplying drink to pilgrims was conferre…


(7 words)

b. al-Aḥnaf. [See ibn al-aḥnaf.]


(164 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
, lord of the city of al-Raï, and an influential emīr under the last Seld̲j̲uḳides, put to death in 541 (1147) by order of Sultan Masʿūd. As a slave of the emīr Ḏj̲awhar, he had governed al-Raï in his master’s name; the latter having been assassinated by the Ismāʿīlites, ʿAbbās took possession of the town in 534 (1139) and, to avenge Ḏj̲awhar, he made a war of extermination against the Ismāʿīlites, of whom it is said he killed a hundred thousand. He became, with Būzābeh [q. v.] and ʿAbd al-Raḥmā…


(481 words)

Author(s): Oestrup, J.
I, viceroy of Egypt (1848—1854), born in 1816 at Ḏj̲idda, where his father Ṭūsun Pas̲h̲a, son of Muḥammed ʿAlī, had stayed to take part in the campaign of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a against the Wahhābites. ʿAbbās was his grandfather’s favorite, although the beginning of that brutality of character which he later showed so strongly could already be seen in his childhood. Having been at a very early age entrusted with important offices, he behaved as a full-blooded despot of the best oriental type. Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a died in 1848 after a long illness, eight months befo…


(380 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
, name of different places: 1. Capital of a canton ( nāḥiya) of the same name, with 2083 inhabitants (3844 with its twenty-five dependencies) in Lower Egypt, province of S̲h̲arḳīya, district of Zaḳāzīḳ where the Wādī Ṭūmīlāt discharges its waters into the Delta, between Abū Ḥammad, a station on the Ismāʿīlīya railway, and Tell-el-Kebīr, which is renowned for the defeat of ʿArabī Pas̲h̲a. Now it is an insignificant ¶ village, but in the Middle Ages it held a decided importance in that it was the first Egyptian town on the road from Syria, and the place where more…


(610 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwaiḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; that inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommended the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakides through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥya ’l-Barmakī, with wh…


(198 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, i.e. „founded by ʿAbbās“, name of several places: 1. A Persian town in the north of the salt steppe of Ḵh̲orāsān, about half-way between Sebzawār on the east and S̲h̲āhrūd on the west. It owes its foundation to S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I (died 1628), who settled a hundred Georgian families there. This colony, which he fortified, could, according to his plans, serve as a centre for the North-East of Persia and as a base to make his rule over these regions secure. Comp. Ritter, Erdkunde, viii. 333—336. 2. and 3. There are two places of this name in the Māzanderān country, south of the Caspia…

ʿAbbās Efendi

(131 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
, eldest son of Bahāʾ Allāh [q. v.] and spiritual leader of the party among the Bābis that had rallied to his father, and who were therefore called the party of the Bahāʾis. He assumed his dignity on the death of his father in 1892, and, like the latter, resided at Akka. He is spoken of in the writings of the Bābis under the mystic name of G̲h̲uṣn-i Aʿẓam (Branch of the Most High), and also under that of Aḳa-yi Sirr Allāh (Aḳa, Mystery of God). He wrote a history of the Bāb, published by Browne under the title of A Traveller’s narrative to illustrate the episode of the Bāb (Cambridge, 1891); comp. Brow…


(132 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Persian silver coin stamped by ʿAbbās I, the Great, divided into 2 maḥmūdī and, towards the middle of the 17th century, was still worth 97 centimes. 50 ʿabbāsī made a toman. In 1660 five ʿabbāsī equalled nine livres. In order to procure the metal needed tor the coinage, Mexican piasters ¶ brought through Turkey by the commerce of Marseilles were melted. There were also ʿabbāsī of two and a half maḥmūdī, and pieces of five ʿabbāsī; the last were not used in commerce. In 1806 the ʿabbāsī was an imaginary coin, used only in reckoning, worth 40 centimes. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography P. Raphaël du Mans, Es…


(1,147 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
(Abbassides), the name of different dynasties: 1. Caliphs of Bagdad, the most celebrated dynasty of Islām, descended from the uncle of the Prophet, al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hās̲h̲im. His descendants multiplied under the first four caliphs and under the Umaiyads in the countries taken by the Arabs, and their relationship to the Prophet won them high consideration everywhere. They had many partisans, especially in Ḵh̲orāsān, the Persian province of that name being then much larger that it is now…


(471 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
The theory, generally accepted by European historians, of the solemn transfer of the caliphate by al-Mutawakkil, the last Egyptian ʿAbbāsid, to the Ottoman Sulṭān Selīm is devoid of any foundation and has been definitely relegated to the realm of legend by Barthold ( M. I., St. Petersburg 1912, i. 203—226, 345—400; see also Becker, Barthold’s Studien fiber Kalif und Sulṭān, in Isl., vi. 250—412) It owes its dissemination to a Stambul Armenian in Swedish service, Mouradgea d’Ohsson, who published it in his Tableau général de l’Empire Othoman, Paris 1788—1824, i. 232 and 269 sq.; cf. also…


(802 words)

Author(s): Basset, R.
, name of two towns in Northern Africa: 1. A town generally designated under the name of Ṭobna, the ruins of which still exist four kilometres to the south of Bariḳa, in the department of Constantine, at an elevation of 460 metres (about 1182 feet), on the quaternary plateau which separates the Wādī Bariḳa from the Wādī Baitam. It was a flourishing town known as Thubunae in the time of the Romans but was destroyed by the Vandals; it was restored by the Byzantines, ¶ who built a castle there the ruins of which may yet be seen. According to tradition, it was conquered by Mūsā b. …

ʿAbbās Mīrzā

(251 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, eldest son of Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, born in Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1203 (Sept. 1789), in the small market-town of Newā, died on the 10th Ḏj̲umādā II 1249 (25th October 1833). On his mother’s side he was the grandson of Fatḥ ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān Ḳad̲j̲ār Dawālu. He had been named presumptive heir to the throne of the Ḳād̲j̲ārs, with the title of Nāʾib al-Salṭana, but died, in his father’s lifetime at Mes̲h̲hed of a tumor on the kidneys, which had affected him for long time; this happened during the siege of Herāt by his son Muḥammed Mīrzā, who, in the following year, suc…


(3,587 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(a.), slave, servant. a. Islām and slavery in general. It is known that Islām has kept up the ancient Arabic institution of slavery, the legality of which the old Biblical world admitted. The Mussulman’s religion, allows him to appropriate to his own use the infidels of any country, which is neither subject to nor allied with the Islamic empire, and the slave-trade has for long been an important business for the Mussulman countries. A male slave is generally called in Arabic ʿAbd (plur. ʿabīd) or mamlūk, a female slave ama or d̲j̲āriya. Prisoners of war, including women and children, t…


(343 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I.
(a.; plur. of badal, „substitute“), one of the degrees in the Ṣūfī hierarchical order of saints, who, unknown by the masses ( rid̲j̲āl al-g̲h̲aib), participate by means of their powerful influence in the preservation of the arrangement of the universe. The different accounts in the Ṣūfī literature disagree as to the details about this hierarchy. According to the most generally accepted opinion, the Abdāl, forty in number, take the fifth place in the saints’ hierarchy issuing from the great Ḳuṭb [q. v.]. They are preceded after the Ḳuṭb by: 2) both assistants of the latter ( al-imāmān); 3) …
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