Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Abraha

(758 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
(Ethiopic form for Abraham) with the surname al-As̲h̲ram, an Ethiopian governor of Yemen about the middle of the 6th century C. E. According to Procopius, who makes him out to have originally been the slave of a Roman in ¶ Adulis, he put himself at the head of an uprising against the Ethiopian king (Ela Aṣbeḥa) and took prisoner the then governor of Yemen, Esimiphaeus, the Sumaifaʿ of the inscription of Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb. He repeatedly defeated the army sent out against him; but after the death of the king he submitted to the payment …

Abraham

(5 words)

[See ibrāhīm al-k̲h̲alīl.]

Abras̲h̲ahr

(13 words)

, the more ancient name of Nīsābūr or Nīs̲h̲āpūr [q. v.].

ʿAbs

(812 words)

Author(s): Reckendorf
, the name of several Arabian tribes, also that of persons and the name of a mountain as well as of a river in the territory of the Banū Asad. To the root ʿbs belong besides the names ʿAbas, ʿAbasa, ʿĀbis, (al-)ʿAbbās, ʿUbais; Safaitic , ; Palmyrenian , (Λβισσεον, ΑΨαιοΣ), Nabataean , (Οβαισηνων, ΟβαισιθοΣ, ΟβαισατοΣ); all probably from ʿabasa „to frown“. It is to be observed, however, that an appellative adjective ʿabs does not occur; perhaps therefore as rad̲j̲ulun ʿadlun, or collective of ʿābis, as ṣaḥbun of ṣaḥibun (the plural tribal names of Kilāb and Anmār also occur as names of per…

al-Abs̲h̲īhī

(9 words)

, wrong spelling of Ibs̲h̲aihlī [q. v.].

Abū

(138 words)

, that form of the word ab (father) which is used with a following genitive in order to designate a person, animal or any thing whatever as the possessor of a thing, a state or a property. This combination is most natural when anybody is called after his son (more rarely after his daughter) and for this reason many Arabian masculine names are compounded with Abū (sometimes abbreviated to ). Such a name is, it is true, not the real name of the person but his surname ( Kunya), which, however, is generally so frequently used in every day life when addressing the person, that the rea…

Abū ʿAbd Allāh

(341 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
al-Muḥtasib or al-S̲h̲īʿī, as he is also called, the establisher of the Fāṭimide rule in Africa. His real name was al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmed b. Muḥammed, and was a native of Ṣanʿā ʾ in Yemen; his surname al-Muḥtasib is said to be due to the fact that he was a market ¶ overseer [ Muḥtasib) in al-Baṣra or somewhere else in the ʿIrāḳ. Later on he was chosen by the Ismāʿīlīya propaganda to work amongst the Berbers as an emissary. He therefore made the acquaintance of some Berber pilgrims in Mecca and was taken by them to their native country. In 280 (893), o…

Abū ʿAbd Allāh

(335 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Yaʿküb b. Dāwūd, a vizier. Yaʿḳūb, who is eulogized by Arabian writers not only on account of his learning but also for his noble and amiable character, had joined the two ʿAlide rebels Muḥammed and Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd Allāh. He was on account of this, together with his brother ʿAlī, thrown into prison by Caliph al-Manṣūr after the suppression of the uprising, and only received his liberty from the latter’s son and successor Muḥammed al-Mahdī. By means of giving skilful advice he managed to win the co…

ʿAbū Abd Allāh

(25 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Yaʿḳūb. See also Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, al-Fak̲h̲rī, ed. Derenbourg, p. 250—255, 257, according to whom Yaḳūb died in 186. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Abū Aiyūb

(312 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḵh̲alid b. Zaid al-Anṣārī, standard bearer of the Prophet, died of dysentery under the walls of Constantinople during the siege of that city by the Arabs in 52 (672); he was buried there and his tomb was, it is pretended, recognized by S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Āḳ S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, when Sultan Muḥammed II came to invest the city. A mosque was built on this spot (863 = 1458), it was enlarged in 1000 (1591) by Etmekd̲j̲i Zāde Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a; two new minarets with galleries were built in 1136 = 1723. Sultan Maḥmūd depo…

Abuʾ l-ʿAlāʾ

(2,022 words)

Author(s): Nicholson
Aḥmed b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Sulaimān al-Maʿarrī, the celebrated Muḥammedan ¶ poet; born in 363 (973) at Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān, a small town in Northern Syria, between Aleppo and Emessa. He belonged to a respectable Arab family claiming descent from the tribe of Tanūk̲h̲, which had long been settled in this region. His grandfather had filled the office of ḳāḍī, and his father seems to have been a man of some cultivation. Abu ‘l-ʿAlāʾ was scarcely four years old when an attack of small-pox left him almost totally b…

Abū ʿAlī

(152 words)

Kalandar S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Pānīpātī, an Indian saint, came from the ʿIrāḳ to Pānīpāt, where he died in 724 (1324). It is related that he met there the famous saint Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Bak̲h̲tiyār Kākī [q. v.], although this latter died as early as 630 (1232). Quite as fabulous is the account which tells how, after a long stay in Pānīpāt, suddenly moved by the divine spirit, he went to Asia Minor to receive instruction from the famous mystics S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Tibrīzī and Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī. It is, however, cer…

Abū ʿAlī

(482 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Sīmd̲j̲ūr (Muḥammed b. Muḥammed), successor to his father Abu’l-Ḥasan [q. v.] as governor of Ḵh̲orāsān and hereditary vassal prince of Kūhistān. During his father’s lifetime he had been governor of Herāt; after the former’s death (Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 378 = March-April 989) he successfully stood his ground against the Sāmānides and the Pretorian Fāʾiḳ, at that time governor of Balk̲h̲. Without openly rebelling he in reality assumed the status of an independent ruler, gave himself high-sounding titl…

Abū ʿAlī

(202 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Muḥammed b. ilyās, lord of Kirmān, a native of Sogdiana. A brigand at first, then a general in the service of the Būyides, he made himself independent afterwards as the master of the province of Kirmān, which he governed for thirty-seven years; whilst in this position he received a flag of honor from the ʿAbbāside caliph Mutīʿ li-’llāh in 348 (959). Having been struck with paralysis and fearing for his life, he invested his eldest son Alyasaʿ with the government of Kirmān; then, becoming suspiciou…

Abū ʿAlī

(6 words)

al-Ḳālī. [See al-ḳālī.]

Abū ʿAlī

(8 words)

b. Sīnā. [See ibn sīnā.]

Abū ʿAlī

(11 words)

b. Muḥtād̲j̲. [See aḥmed b. abī bekr muḥammed.]

Abuām

(285 words)

Author(s): Doutté, E.
, capital of Tāfilālet. Like the other parts of this province, Abuām has been visited only by a very few Europeans: René Caillé, Rohlfs, Schmidt, Harris and Delbrel. It is a very important commercial center. Before the French occupation of Twāt, Abuām had centralized the commerce of Sudan, Sahara and Southern Morocco. Many merchants of Fez have settled there; a market is held there thrice a week and is very animated; dates, salt and skins are the chief native exchange products. The lether of Tāf…

Abū ʿAmr

(294 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
(Zabbān) b. al-ʿAlāʾ b. ʿAmmār b. al-Uryān al-Māzinī, one of the founders of Arabian philology and one of the seven canonical readers of the Ḳorʾān. He was born about the year 70 (689) in Mecca, and lived in Baṣra where he had intercourse with ʿĪsā b. ʿOmar al-T̲h̲aḳafī, the teacher of al-Ḵh̲alīl and of Sibawaih, and where al-Aṣmaʿī was his pupil for ten years. He died about the year 154 (770) in Kūfa on his return journey from Damascus where he had been visiting the governor ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. His main w…
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