Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Abencerages

(165 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(also Abencerrages), an Arabian noble family, whose name occurs only in the mythical history of the last days of Granada, and who are said to have been treacherously murdered by Boabdil in the Alhambra. The myth no doubt refers to executions under Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī (1461—1482); comp. Müller, Der Islam im Morgen- und Abendland, ii. 672, 676, who, however, also endeavors (as does Schack, Poesie und Kunst der Araber in Spanien und Sicilien, 2d ed., ii. 135: Ibn al-Sarrād̲j̲) to derive the name from Ibn Sarrād̲j̲, “the son of the saddler“ (as the name of a former vizier)…

Aben Ragel

(9 words)

= Ibn Abī Rid̲j̲āl. [See albohazen.]

Abeshr

(45 words)

, Abeshe, capital of Wadai in Central Sudan, 14° north lat. and 21° east long, to the south of the old capital Wara. It was founded in 1850, has from 20000 to 30000 inhabitants. [Comp. Wadai, where also will be found a bibliography.]

Abhar

(93 words)

, an ancient town in Persia, between Ḳazwīn and Zand̲j̲ān fortified by a citadel as early as under the Sāsānides. In the year 24 (645) it was conquered by the Muḥammedans under al-Barāʾ b. ʿĀzib, the governor of Rai. Though in the Middle Ages it was a fairly important town, it has now sunk to the position of an insignificant place. Bibliography Barbier de Meynard, Diction. géogr., hist, et littér, de la Perse (Paris, 1861), p. 11 G. le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, 1905), p. 221 et seq.

al-Abharī

(163 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
At̲h̲īr al-Din Mufaḍḍal b. ʿOmar, a philosophical writer, concerning whose life nothing is known; died in the year 663 (1264; according to Barhebraeus as early as 1262). He was the author of two greatly used and often commented works on scholastic philosophy: 1) Hidāyat al-ḥikma, in three parts, a. Logic ( al-Manṭiḳ); b. Physics ( al-Ṭabīʿīyāt); c. Theology (al-Ilāhīyāt). Amongst the commentaries the best known is that of the Indian Mīr Ḥusain al-Maibudī, written in 880 (1475), printed at Calcutta, lithographed at Lucknow (n. d.). — 2) Kitāb al-īsāg̲h̲ūd̲j̲ī, an adaptation from the…

Abḥur

(8 words)

, plur. of baḥr [q. v.].

Abīb

(40 words)

Author(s): Mahler, E.
is the designation used by the Arabs for the month of Epiphi which occurs in the calendar of the Egyptians or Copts ( Taʾrīk̲h̲ al- Ḳibṭ); comp. also the Ḥōdes̲h̲ hā-Ābib of the ancient Hebrews (Exodus, xiii. 4). (E. Mahler)

ʿAbīd

(112 words)

b. al-Abraṣ, a pre-Islamic poet of the tribe of Asad b. Ḵh̲uzaima (Muḍar). More exact data concerning his life are not known; he was a contemporary of al-Nābig̲h̲a al-Ḏh̲ubyānī, and lived, hig̲h̲ly esteemed as a poet, a great deal at the court of al-Ḥīra. His poems which have been handed down to us are distinguished by their flexibility of language and lively descriptions. Several anecdotes about him are to be found in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, which also tells of his violent death at the hands of King al-Mund̲h̲ir b. Māʾ al-Samāʾ. Bibliography Brockelmann, Gesch. d.arab. Litter., i. 26 Ibn Ḳot…

ʿĀbid

(10 words)

(a.), plur. ʿabada or ʿubbād, worshiper of God.

Ābiḳ

(8 words)

(a.), a runaway grown up slave.

Ābis̲h̲

(74 words)

, a Salg̲h̲uride princess, a daughter of Atabeg Saʿd b. Abī Bekr. After the death of Seld̲j̲uḳs̲h̲āh (1264) she was appointed to rule over Fārs by Hūlāgū and married his son Mengu Timūr. She, however, ruled in name only, for the Mongols were the actuel masters of the country, and died in Tibrīz in 1287. The dynasty of the Salg̲h̲urides [q. v.] became extinct with her. Bibliography D’Ohsson, Hist. des Mongols, iii. 402.

Abīward

(122 words)

Author(s): Streck
, a town east of Nisāʾ (Nasā), probably the present Muḥammedābād, and lying to the west of Merw, once belonging to the Persian province of Ḵh̲orāsān, now to Russian Turkistān. Abīward is mentioned as the see of a Syrian bishopric in the 6th century. For the name (also abbreviated Bāward) comp. Nöldeke, in the Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch., xxxiii. 147, and Marquart, ib., xlix. 628. (Streck) Bibliography Barbier de Meynard, Diction. géogr. hist. et littér, de la Perse (Paris, 1861), p. 13 G. le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, 1905), p. 394 Quatremere, Hist…

al-Abīwardī

(204 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu’l-Muhẓaffar, an Arabian poet and genealogist, of Umaiyad descent from the branch of the younger Muʿāwiya, a descendant of ʿAnbasa b. Abī Sufyān, born in Abīward in Ḵh̲orāsān, or according to al-Samʿānī in the village of Kūḳan in the neighborhood of the latter town, for which reason he is also called al-Kūḳanī, died from poison at Iṣpahān in the year 507 (1113; not in 557 = 1161-1162, as in the Būlāḳ edition of Ibn Ḵh̲allikān). His linguistic and historical-genealogical works, …

Abkāriūs

(115 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
Iskender Ag̲h̲ā b. Yaʿḳūb, a born Armenian, who lived in Beyrout and had devoted himself enthusiastically to the study of Arabic poetry. His work Nihāyat al-arab fī ak̲h̲bār al-ʿArab (Marseilles, 1852; a revised edition as Tazyīn nihāyat al-arab, Beyrout, 1858) was formerly much used also in Europe, but must now be considered obsolete since his authorities, viz. the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, as well as the Ḵh̲izānat al-adab of ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Bag̲h̲dādī, are accessible to us. A third edition of his English-Arabic Dictionary appeared in Beyrout as late as 1892. A history of ¶ Lebanon is to b…

Abk̲h̲āz

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a tribe of West Caucasia, on the Black Sea. The country of Abk̲h̲āzia comprises the region extending from the main ridge of the Caucasus to the sea-coast, between Gagry in the north and the mouth of the Ingur in the south. Before the union with Russia it was divided politically into three parts: 1) Abk̲h̲āzia proper, on the coast from Gagry to the Galidzga under the princely family of S̲h̲erwas̲h̲idze; 2) the Highlands of Tzebelda (without any centralized government); 3) the country of Samurza…

ʿAbla

(16 words)

, Arabic woman’s name, for example, that of the sweetheart of ʿAntara [q. v.].

al-Ablaḳ

(384 words)

Author(s): Seligsohn, M.
, the name of a strong castle which belonged to the Jew Samawʾal (Samuel) b. ʿĀdiyaʾ [q. v.], so called on account of the variety of its colors ( Bibliotheca Geography ed. de Goeje, vi. 128 et seo.; vii, 179; viii, 258). This castle became proverbial for its resistance to every assault, for which reason it is sometimes described under the name of al-Ablaḳ al-fard (al-Ablaḳ the incomparable). According to two verses of Samuel ( Ag̲h̲āni, ii. 45; Ḥarīrī, Maḳamāt, 2d ed., p. 278), al-Ablaḳ had been built by ʿĀdiyāʾ, the father (or grandfather) of Samuel. But al-Aʿs̲h̲ā, singin…

al-Abnāʾ

(348 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, literally „the sons“: 1. The descendants of Saʿd b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm, with the exception of his two sons Kaʿb and ʿAmr. This tribe dwelt in the sandy plain of al-Dahnāʾ. 2. The descendants of the Persian immigrants born in Yemen. Even in early times the Ethiopians, who had since long cast covetous glances towards the Arabian coast lying opposite them, had sent military expeditions against Yemen, and as their attacks were in the course of time repeated with increasing success, they at last became dangerous not only to the p…

al-Abnāʾ

(14 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
See also Caetani, Annali dell’ Islām, index, ii. 1251. (K. V. Zetterstéen)
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