Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(8 words)

b. ʿAlī [See ibn al-daibaʿ.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(8 words)

b. al-ḳāsim. [See ibn al-ḳāsim.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(233 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. al-Manṣūr Muḥammed, the last ʿĀmiride of Cordova. After the premature death of his brother ʿAbd al-Malik b. al-Manṣūr [q. v.] he became in the year 399(1008) imperial administrator (Ḥād̲j̲ib) with the surname al-Nāṣir for the Umaiyad pretender-caliph, His̲h̲ām II. He was born about 376 (986) of a Christian princess, the daughter of a certain Sancho, for which reason he is also sometimes called Sanchol, i. e. little Sancho. On account of his origin he was but little loved by the Mussulmans, and …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(101 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. ʿAbd Allāh al-G̲h̲āfiḳī, a governor of Spain, first temporarily in 103 (728), then from 112 to 114 (730—732). After defeating Duke Eudo of Aquitaine at Toulouse, he penetrated far into France, but was together with the greater part of his army annihilated by Charles Martel in Ramaḍān 114 (October 732) between Tours and Poitiers. The battle-field is called by the Arabs Balāṭ al-S̲h̲uhadāʾ, the Pavement of the Martyrs (pavement = paved Roman road) or briefly al-Balāṭ. (C. F. Seybold) Bibliography al-Ḍabbī (ed. Codera et Ribera), N°. 1021. Maḳḳarī, i. 146 ii. 9 Weil, Gesch. d. Chalifen, i.…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(226 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ḥabīb b. Abī ʿUbaida b. ʿOḳba b. Nāfiʿ al-Fihrī, governor of Ifrīḳīya, died in 137 (755). When his father, whom he had in his youth accompanied on raids in Sicily and other places, had fallen in the Berber revolt (142 = 740), ʿAbd al-Raḥmān fled to Spain, but afterwards returned to Africa and rebelled in Tunis in 126 (744) against the Umaiyads. The Umaiyad governor Ḥanẓala b. Ṣafwān thereupon quitted Ḳairawān, and since the ʿAbbāside uprising was in progress, it was not a very difficult task for ʿAbd …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(505 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
b. Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd, the Bar Ḵh̲ālid of the Syriac chroniclers, seemed to have inherited the ascendancy and military faculties of his father, “The Sword of God“. When barely 18, he commanded a division at the battle of al-Yarmūk, and later at Ṣiffīn, where he distinguished himself by the side of Muʿāwiya. He figures also at the head of the principal expeditions in Anatolia. The memory of his father, who died and was buried at Ḥimṣ (Emesa), and the government of this important province to which M…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (ʿAbdu’r-Raḥmān) K̲h̲ān

(4,155 words)

Author(s): Dames, M. Longworth
, emīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān (1844-1901), was perhaps the most remarkable ruler of an independent Mussulman state in the present day. His life may be conveniently dealt with under the following four heads: 1. Childhood and youth, up to the death of Emīr Dost Muḥammed (1844—1863). — 2. The period of civil wars (1863—1869). — 3. Exile (1869—1880). — 4. Reign as emīr (1880—1901). I. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was the son of Afḍal, the eldest son of Dost Muḥammed after Akbar Ḵh̲an’s death in 1266 (1849). Dost Muḥammed had five sons by a wife of the Bāmezai Popalzai clan, whom h…

ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd

(122 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr al-Ḥusainī al-Madanī al-Tattawī, a Persian lexicographer, born in Tatta, but a Saiyid by descent; died after 1069 (1658). His principal work is a Persian dictionary, usually called Farhang-i Ras̲h̲īdī, which was compiled in 1064 (1683-1684) and published in 1875 in the Bibliotheca Indica. Splieth revised the preface ( Muḳaddama): Grammaticae persicae praecepta ac regulae (Halle, 1846). ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd dedicated an Arabic-Persian dictionary, Muntak̲h̲ab al-lug̲h̲āt (1046 = 1636-1637), to the S̲h̲āhd̲j̲ahān (editions: Calcutta 1808, 1816, 18…

ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ

(2,542 words)

Author(s): Macdonald
Kamāl al-Dīn b. Abu ’l-G̲h̲anaʾim al-Ḳās̲h̲ānī (or Kās̲h̲ānī or Ḳās̲h̲ī or Kāsānī), celebrated Ṣūfī author, died, according to Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa (ed. Flügel, IV. 427), in 730 (1329). Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, however, confusing him with the historian of the same name, the author of the Maṭlaʿal-saʿdain, says in another place (ii. 175) that he died in 887 (1482) and, besides, gives his name as Kamāl al-Dīn Abu’l-G̲h̲anāʾim ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ b. Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn al-Kās̲h̲ī al-Samarḳanḍī. Little is known of ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ’s life; according to Ḏj̲āmī ( Nafaḥāt al-uns, quoted by St. Guyard…

ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ

(303 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Kamāl al-Dīn b. Isḥāḳ al-Samarḳandī, a Persian historian, author of the well-known Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdain wa-mad̲j̲maʿ al-baḥrain, born at Herāt in 816 (1413), where he died in 887 (1482). His father was ḳāḍī and Imām at the court of Sultan S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ [q. v.]. In 845 (1441) ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ went to India as an ambassador (returned in 848 = 1444), and in 850 (1446) to Gīlān; he died in the reign of the sultan Ḥusain Baiḳarā [q. v.] as governor of the Ḵh̲ānḳāh of S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲. His work depicts, with a ¶ brief mention of the birth (704 = 1304-1305) and accession (716 = 1316-1317) of the Īl…

ʿAbd al-Salām

(475 words)

Author(s): Doutté, E.
b. Mas̲h̲īs̲h̲ al-Ḥasanī, a celebrated Moroccan Saint; was murdered about the year 625 (1227-1228). He appeared to be a paragon of Ṣūfism in Northern Africa. He was a disciple of Abū Madyān S̲h̲aʿaib [q. v.] and the master of Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī, who has given his name to one of the largest Mussulman confraternities. Little is known of his life, which is for the greater part legendary: he seems to have had as a rival Muḥammed b. Abī Ṭuād̲j̲in, who was the religious head of the Morocca…

ʿAbd al-Wād

(326 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
, an ancestor of the kings of Central Mag̲h̲rib (Tlemcen) [see ʿabdalwādides]. The following is the genealogy of ʿAbd al-Wād as given by Yaḥyā b. Ḵh̲aldūn: „The origin of this name goes back to ʿAbd al-Wādī, so called from the ascetic life led by the ancestor of the ʿAbdalwādides. — He was a son of S̲h̲ad̲j̲īh…b. Muḍar b. Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān, according to the opinion given to us by Ibn Abi’l-Faiyāḍ and other authors“. Notwithstanding the slight value of this genealogy, it still shows that ʿAbd al-Wād …

ʿAbd al-Wahhāb

(9 words)

[See Muḥammed ʿabd al-wahhāb and wahhābites.]

ʿAbd al-Wahhāb

(481 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rostem, second Imām of the Abāḍite dynasty of the Rostemides of Tāhert. He succeeded his father in 168 (784-785) and died in 208(823-824). At the time of his accession the town of Tāhert, founded by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, had already greatly developed. The great merchants of Ifrīḳīya, of the Mag̲h̲rib and even of Egypt and the East, who were sure of finding justice and safety in this town, had brought their wealth there. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb himself, before he attained to power, had devoted himself to commerce and had acquired a considerable private fortune. This influx of people w…

ʿAbd al-Wahhāb

(42 words)

(Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Malik al-Manṣūr) b. al-Malik al-Mud̲j̲āhid S̲h̲ams al-Dīn ʿAlī, of the family of the Ṭāhirides [q. v.], ruled in Yemen after the death of his father Zabīd in 883 (1478) till 894 (1488). Bibliography Johannsen, Historia Jemanae, pp. 214—229.

ʿAbd al-Wāḥid

(846 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
al-Ras̲h̲īd, ninth Al-mohade emperor, son of and successor to Abu’l-ʿAlaʾ Idrīs (al-Maʾmūn). His mother, Ḥabāb, who was a Christian captive, helped by her cleverness in having the young prince, then only fourteen years old, proclaimed emperor. The death of al-Maʾmūn took place suddenly on the last day of 629 (17th Oct. 1232) according to the author of the Ḳarṭās, or at the beginning of 630 according to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, when he had just raised the siege of Ceuta — where his brother Abū Mūsā had stirred up a revolt against him — and was marching on Marrākus…

ʿAbd al-Wāḥid

(66 words)

b. ʿAlī al-Tamīmī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī Abū Muḥammed, surnamed Muḥyi’l-Dīn, was born in Morocco in 581 (1185), and subsequently sojourned in Spain and Egypt. The date and place of his death are unknown. In 621 (1224) he wrote a history of the Almohades entitled: al-Muʿd̲j̲ib fī talk̲h̲īṣ ak̲h̲bār al-Mag̲h̲rib (edited by Dozy; transl. into French by Fagnan). Comp. Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litter., i. 322.

ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ

(148 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḏj̲abalī b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ, a Persian poet, one of the panegyrists of the Seld̲j̲uḳ Sultan Sand̲j̲ar. A native of the province of G̲h̲ard̲j̲istān, he lived at first for some time at Herāt, and then went to G̲h̲azna, where he entered the service of Sultan Bahrām S̲h̲āh, son of Masʿūd, of the dynasty of the G̲h̲aznewides; after four years, when Sultan Sand̲j̲ar came to G̲h̲azna to support Bahrām S̲h̲āh, who was his first cousin on his mother’s side, he took advantage ¶ of the occasion to address an ode to him. It is said that he died in 555 (1160). His Dīwān was published at Lahore in 1862. (Cl. Huart…

Aben, Abn, Aven

(81 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, pronunciation of the Spanish Arabs for ibn, “son“. Hence: Avicen(n)a = Ibn Sīnā; Averroes = Ibn Rus̲h̲d; Avempace = Ibn Bād̲j̲d̲j̲a; Aben Pascualis = Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl; often also by the Spanish-Arabic Jews, as Avencebrol, Avicebron = Ibn Gabirol; Abendana; Abenatar; [see also abencerages]. — The classical form ibn also occurs though rarely; comp. Pedro de Alcalá, s. v. hi jo = ibn and Anales Toledanos, ii: Ibnabiámer, a surname of Almanzor [comp. kunya]. (C. F. Seybold)
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