Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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ʿAbd al-Malik

(467 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Nūḥ, the name of two Sāmānides. 1. ʿAbd al-Malik (Abu’l-Fawāris) b. Nūḥ I, prince of Ḵh̲orāsān and Transoxania (343—350 = 954—961), successor to his father Nūḥ b. Naṣr. According to a more recent authority (Aḥmed al-Ḳubāwī, Nars̲h̲ak̲h̲ī, ed. Schefer, p. 95,1. 19), he was only 10 years old on his accession. The war commenced by Nūḥ. against the Būyides was put ¶ an end to in his reign by a peace which was disadvantageous to the Sāmānides (344 = 955-956); as the coins prove, this peace was conditional on the recognition of the caliph al-Muṭīʿ. Little is …

ʿAbd al-Malik

(136 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. al-Manṣūr. Two ʿĀmirides bore this name together with the surname of al-Muẓaffar: 1. ʿAbd al-Malik, the son of the famous Almanzor, had already in his father’s lifetime the title of Ḥād̲j̲ib (since 991), and after the latter’s death in 392 (1002) became his successor. His short reign (till 399 = 1008). was a happy one for his people. 2. ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Manṣūr b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, grandson of Almanzor, reigned after his father in Valencia (453—457 = 1061— 1065). He was hard pressed by Ferdinand I, king of Castile and Leon, and was finally taken…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(8 words)

b. His̲h̲ām. [See ibn his̲h̲ām.]

ʿAbd al-Muʾmin

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
b. ʿAlī, a Zanāta chief and founder of the Almohade dynasty, born towards the end of 487 = 1094 (other dates are also given) in a village, a day’s journey from Tlemcen. In accordance with a custom which exists to this day ʿAbd al-Muʾmin studied the Ḳorʾān in his village and afterwards went to Tlemcen to complete his studies. The chroniclers vie with one another in praising his physical and moral qualities and the height of his intelligence. His attractive appearance, his open countenance, the broadness of his views and the width of his judgment immediat…

ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(317 words)

Author(s): Hurgronje, Snouck
, the last S̲h̲erīf of Mecca, of the powerful s̲h̲erīf family of the Ḏh̲awī Zaid which was in power for about 200 years. He was the son of G̲h̲ālib, who was exiled from the Ḥid̲j̲āz after the defeat of the Wahhābites. In 1243 (1827) he took up the duties of s̲h̲erīf for ¶ the first time, but was shortly afterwards at the orders of the Egyptian viceroy Muḥammed ʿAlī replaced by Muḥammed b. ʿAwn of the ʿAbādila family. He spent the whole of his long life (he only died in 1886) in endeavoring to wrest the power from the ʿAbādila that were favored bo…

ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(440 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
b. Hās̲h̲im, the Prophet’s grandfather. The only tradition concerning him, which is perhaps of historical value, is that which relates how he looked after his grandson after the death of his son ʿAbd Allāh [q. v.]. All other stories about him are Meccan or Medinian fictions. His real name is said to have been S̲h̲aiba. It is told of his mother Salma, who belonged to the Banū Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār in Medina, that she had stipulated with his father Hās̲h̲im, that she should give birth to her child in Medina. Hās̲h̲im died shortly after while…

ʿAbd al-Raḥīm

(8 words)

b. Muḥammed. [See ibn nubāta.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥīm

(7 words)

b. ʿAlī, [See al-ḳāḍi’l-fāḍil.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥīm K̲h̲ān

(742 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, A. S.
Ḵh̲ān-i Ḵh̲anān, known to his contemporaries as Ḵh̲ān Mīrzā, was the son of the emperor Akbar’s first prime minister, Bairām Ḵh̲ān, and belonged to the Bahārlū tribe of Black Sheep Turkomans. His mother was a daughter of Ḏj̲amāl Ḵh̲ān Mewātī, whose elder daughter the emperor Humāyūn had married from motives of policy. He was born in Lahore on the 14th Ṣafar 964 (16th Dec. 1556) and died at the age of 71, in 1036 (1627) in Dihlī, where his tomb still stands near that of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Niẓām al-Dīn Awliyā. His chief wife was Māh Bānū, sister of Mīrzā ʿAzīz Kūka;…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(533 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the name of five Spanish Umaiyads: 1. ʿAbd al-raḥmān I B. Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām escaped from the slaughter which the ʿAbbāsides in 750 perpetrated on his family, and after long wanderings in North Africa came to Spain, where in 756 he founded the independent Emirate (subsequently also Sultanate) of the Umaiyads at Cordova. By his statesmanlike cunning and restless energy, which with all his determination and strength of character yet for the most part never degenerated into the often so useless cruelty and b…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(477 words)

Author(s): Seligsohn, M.
b. Muḥammed b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲, a Kindite general, who revolted against al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲. Being descended from the old kings ¶ of Kinda, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was at first the recipient of much kindness from al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, who went so far as to marry his son Muḥammed to ʿAbd al-Raḥman’s sister. In 76 (695-696) al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ sent him with an army to defend Madāʾin against S̲h̲abīb. In 80 (699) after the defeat of ʿUbaid Allāh b. Abī Bakra by Rutbīl (or Zunbīl; comp. Wellhausen, Das arab. Reich und sein Sturz, p. 144, note), king of Kābulistān, al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ gave ʿAbd a…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(220 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Abī Bekr Abū ʿAbd Allāh, son of the first caliph. His mother, Umm RiimSn, was also that of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a. His original name is said to have been ʿAbd al-Kaʿba, which was changed to ʿAbd al-Raḥmān only on his conversion, which took place very late, for he fought side by side with the Meccans at Bedr. ¶ Ḳorʾān, xlvi. 16 is therefore said to refer to him. He accompanied his sister in the battle of the Camel and was later on with ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣī when the latter marched against his brother, Muḥammed b. Abī Bekr, the governor of Egypt, but ʿAbd al-Raḥmān wa…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(8 words)

b. Muḥammed. [See ibn k̲h̲aldūn.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(505 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
b. Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd, the Bar Ḵh̲ālid of the Syriac chroniclers, seemed to have inherited the ascendancy and military faculties of his father, “The Sword of God“. When barely 18, he commanded a division at the battle of al-Yarmūk, and later at Ṣiffīn, where he distinguished himself by the side of Muʿāwiya. He figures also at the head of the principal expeditions in Anatolia. The memory of his father, who died and was buried at Ḥimṣ (Emesa), and the government of this important province to which M…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(1,183 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. His̲h̲ām, emperor of Morocco, born in 1778. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was the son of Mūlāi His̲h̲ām, governor of Mogador, brother of the sultan Mūlāi Sulaimān. His uncle nominated him on two occasions as his successor. On the death of Mūlāi Sulaimān on the 4th Rabīʿ I 1238 (22d Nov. 1822), ʿAbd al-Raḥmān had little difficulty in having himself proclaimed sultan. The Bok̲h̲arī handed over to him the 40000 piastres accumulated by his predecessor; two claimants, Ibrāhīm b. Yazīd and Sulaimān, his own cousin, who was proclaimed sultan by the people of T…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(453 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. Rostem, founder of the new Tāhert and head of an Abāḍite dynasty, which held its own ground in Central Mag̲h̲rib from 160 or 162 to 296 (776 or 778 to 908). ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was of Persian descent: according to the chroniclers of the Abadite sect he was the son of Rostem b. Bahrāin (comp. Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, i. 815) b. S̲h̲ābūr b. Bābek Ḏh̲i’l-Aktāf. This genealogy, which is evidently inexact and mutilated, is given by the historians to establish the fact that ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was of royal stock and was descended from the dynasty of the Sāsānides. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was born in ʿIrāḳ, his father, …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(181 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. ʿAwf, a Ḳorais̲h̲ite of the family of Zuhra, originally called ʿAbd ʿAmr (or ʿAbd al-Kaʿba). He was early converted to Islām, took part in both the Hid̲j̲ras to Abyssinia and to Medina, and was present at the battle of Bedr as well as at the other battles. He was the leader of the troops which Muḥammed sent against Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, and after the conquest of this oasis he married the daughter of the defeated prince. He belonged to the ten, to whom Muḥammed, according to Mussulman tradition, h…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(8 words)

b. ʿĪsā. [See ibn al-d̲j̲arrāḥ.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(396 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
al-Ṣūfī (his full name is Abu’l-Ḥosain ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿOmar al-Ṣūfī al-Razī), one of the most eminent astronomers and astrologers of the Arabs, born at Rai in December 903 and died in May 986. He was a friftnd, teacher, and astrologer of the Būyide ʿAḍud al-Dawla, who proudly boasted of three of his teachers: in grammar, Abū ʿAlī al-Fārisī al-Fasawī; in the knowledge of astronomical tables, S̲h̲erīf Ibn al-Aʿlam; and in the knowledge of the positions and movements of the fixed stars, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ṣūfī. He wrote: 1) Kitab al-kawākib al-t̲h̲ābita (or also al-Ṣuwar al-samāʾīya) muṣaw…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(166 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ṭag̲h̲airak, an influential Turkish emīr during the second period of the Seld̲j̲uk supremacy. His father was one of the emīrs of Sultan Barkiyāruḳ and held the town of Ḵh̲alk̲h̲āl [q. v.] in fee. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān himself was in 1141 appointed by Sultan Masʿūd majordomo ( ḥād̲j̲ib kabīr) with the surname of Fak̲h̲r al-Ḏīn. When in 1145 Buzābeh and ʿAbbās rebelled against the sultan, he was able to restore peace by allying himself with these men, by having the administration of Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān and Arzān transferred to himself, and by keeping…
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