Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(238 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
b. ʿOmar al-Bag̲h̲dādī, a well-known philologist, born in 1030 (1621) at Bagdad, studied for a year in Damascus and then at the Azhar Mosque in Cairo, where al-Ḵh̲afād̲j̲ī was his teacher. In 1085 (1674) he returned to Damascus and there made the acquaintance of the grand-vizier Aḥmed Kiöprülü, who then took him to Adrianople. As he could not stand the northern climate, he soon went back to Cairo. Later on he again tried his luck in Rumelia, but caught a disease of the eye and arrived at Cairo almost blind. He died there in 1093 (1682). ʿAbd al-Ḳādir’s chief work is a commentary on the quo…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(6 words)

Badāʿūnī. [See badā-ʿnī.]

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(73 words)

Dihlawī b. Walī Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān translated the Ḳorʾān into Urdu under the title of Muzih-i Kurān (i. e. Mūḍiḥ-i Ḳorʾān = "Interpretation of the Ḳorʾān"). This work, finished by the author in 1205 (1790-1791), was edited by Houghly in 1829; another edition, Bombay, 1270 (1853-1854). Bibliography Garcin de Tassy, Hist, de la littér. Hindouie (2d ed.), i. 76 et sea. idem, Chrestotnathie hindoustanie Journal des Savants (1873), pp. 435—443.

ʿAbd al-Ḳais

(1,408 words)

Author(s): Reckendorf
(but very rarely ʿAbd Ḳais; in Ptolemy ’Αβουχαιων?), i. e; “servant of (the god) Ḳais“, the name of a North Arabian tribe, which dwelt in Baḥrain; also a man’s name. — The nisba formed from it is ʿAbdī, more rarely ʿAbḳasī; a derived verb taʿabḳas. The pedigree of ʿAbd al-Ḳais, the founder of the tribe called after him, is stated as follows: ʿAbd al-Ḳais b. Afṣā b. Duʿmī b. Ḏj̲adīla b. Asad b. Rabīʿa. The most important branches of the Banū ʿAbd al-Ḳais, or ʿAbdites (comp. Wüstenfeld, Genealog. Tabellen, A.), were the Labūʾ and the Afṣā, which latter consisted of the two groups, S̲…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(113 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
Kas̲h̲mīrī, a Persian historian, died in 1198 (1784). ʿAbd al-Karīlm entered Nādir S̲h̲āh’s service in 1151 (1738-1739) and accompanied this prince on his march from Dehli to Ḳazwīn. From there he travelled to Mecca and returned to India by water. He is the author of a history of Nādir s̲h̲āh, entitled Bayān-i wāḳiʿ. Comp. Khojeh Abdulkurreem (A Cashmerian), Memoirs of a travel from Hindostan to Persia, when accompanying Nadirshâh, transl. from the Persian by P. Gladwin (London, 1793); Voyage de l’Inde à la Mecque, trad, par Langlès (Paris, 1797). (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Elliot an…

Abd al-Karīm

(155 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Buk̲h̲ārī, a Persian historian, wrote in 1233 (1818) a short summary of the geographical relations of Central Asiatic countries (Afg̲h̲ānistān, Buk̲h̲ārā, Ḵh̲īwā, Ḵh̲ōḳand, Tibet and Kas̲h̲mīr), and of historical events in those countries from 1160 (accession of Aḥmed S̲h̲āh Durrānī [q. v.] till his own times. ʿAbd al-Karīm had already left his native country in 1222 (1807-1808) and accompanied an embassy to Constantinople ; he remained there till his death, which took place after 1246 (1830), a…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(8 words)

Muns̲h̲iʿ. [See muḥammed ʿabd al-karīm.]

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(314 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲īlī, celebrated Mussulman mystic from Ḏj̲īl in the district of Bagdad, born about 767 (1365-1366); the date of his death is uncertain (811 = 1406— 820 = 1417). No exact data concerning his life have been handed down to us; in his works he mentions as his s̲h̲aik̲h̲ S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿIsmāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲abartī, with whom he lived iD Zabīd; at the same time he gives the following dates: 796 (1393-1394), 799 (1396-1397), 805 (1402-1403). ʿAbd al-Karīm followed the mystic ideas of Muḥyi ’l-Dīn b. ʿArabī [see ibn al-ʿarabī], whose works he commented, but whom he now a…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(8 words)

b. ʿAdjarrad. [See ibn ʿad̲j̲arrad.]

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(74 words)

Nādir Pas̲h̲a, a Turkish general, born at Čirpan in East Rumelia. In 1871 he was victorious over the Servians, and in the Russo-Turkish war he had the supreme command of the Turkish army of the Danube, but was dismissed for not being able to prevent the passage of the Russians across the Danube, and exiled to Rhodes where he died in 1300 (1883). Bibliography Comp. works on the Servo-Turkish and Russo-Turkish wars.

ʿAbd al-Laṭīf

(6 words)

Kastamunili. [See laṭīfī.]

ʿAbd al-Laṭīf

(296 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
(Muwaffaḳ al-Dīn Abū Muḥammed) b. Yūsuf b. Muḥammed b. ʿAlī al-Bag̲h̲dādī, also called Ibn al-Labbād, one of the versatile Arab scholars and prolific writers, born at Bagdad in 557 (1162), died there in 629 (1231). In Bagdad he studied grammar, Fiḳh, tradition, etc., and was induced by a Mag̲h̲ribine, who had come to the city of the caliphs to devote himself to philosophy, natural and secret sciences, which his great application enabled him to master. In 585 (1189) he went to al-Mawṣil (Mosul) and thence to S…

ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd

(9 words)

b. ʿAbd Allāh. [See ibn ʿabdūn.]

ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd

(532 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish sultan, born on the 11th S̲h̲aʿbān 1238 (23d April 1823), eldest son of Maḥmūd II, whom he succeeded on the 25th Rabīʿ II 1255 (8th July 1839). The first thing he did was to order the suspension of hostilities against Muḥammed ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a of Egypt, who had just won the victory of Nezīb; but the High-Admiral refused to comply with this order and led his fleet into the port of Alexandria. He ordered the proclamation of the Ḵh̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf of Gulk̲h̲āne (26th S̲h̲aʿbān = 3d Nov.), an imperial edict which confirmed, continued and extended the work of reform ( tanẓīmāt). Thanks to his e…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(232 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen,, K. V.
b. Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī, a cousin of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. In Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd’s reign ʿAbd al-Malik undertook several expeditions against the Byzantines. Such campaigns took place under his command in the years 174 (790-791) and 181 (797-798), according to some authorities also in 175 (791-792), whilst others state that in the latter year not ʿAbd al-Malik himself, but his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān held the command. Besides this he was governor of Medina for some time …

ʿAbd al-Malik

(9 words)

b. Zuhr. [See ibn zuhr ]

ʿAbd al-Malik

(1,643 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Marwān, Umaiyad caliph. According to general report he was born in the year 26 (646-647). His father was Caliph Marwān ¶ I; his mother’s name was ʿĀʾis̲h̲a bint Muʿāwiya. As a boy of ten he was an eyewitness of the storming of the palace of ʿOt̲h̲mān, and at the age of 16 he was appointend President of the Dlwan of Medina by Caliph Muʿāwiya. Here he remained till the outbreak of the rebellion against Muʿāwiya’s son, Yazīd I, in 63 (682). When the Umaiyads were expelled by the rebels, ʿAbd al-Malik had to leave th…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(125 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Ṣāliḥ. That he died in 196 is confirmed by Masʿūdī, al-Tanbīh wa ’l-Is̲h̲rāf, ed. de Goeje, B. G. A., viii. 348. Elsewhere his death is variously dated; according to Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, vi. 437 he died in 197, according to Ibn ¶ Ḵh̲allikān, transl. de Slane, i. 316 in 193, do., iii. 665, cf. iii. 667, not till 199. — See in general Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, Paris, vi. 302—305, 419 sq., 437 sq.; Guidi, Tables alphabétiques; Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 132, 155, 170, 185; Brooks, Byzantines and Arabs in the Time of the early Abbasids, in The English Historical Review, xv. 728 sqq.; xvi. 84 sqq.; Waṣīyat…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(246 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ḳaṭan b. Nufail b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Fihrī, successor of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh [q. v.] as governor of Spain. It was not on account of his crimes and extortions but for political reasons that in 116 (end of 734) he was forced to abdicate his position in favor of ʿOkba b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ al-Salūlī. When, however, the latter in 123 (741) fell dangerously ill during an uprising of the Berbers in Africa, he found himself obliged to restore ʿAbd al-Malik to his former post. Meanwhile the troops sent…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(176 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Marwān. On i. 49a, l. 47 it is to be noted that the chronology is very uncertain; cf. also the art. ʿabd al-raḥmān b. muḥammad b. al-as̲h̲ʿat̲h̲. (K. V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Add: Ahlwardt, Anonyme arabische Chronik, passim Yaʿḳūbī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, ed. Houtsma, ii. 320—338 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ al-Ḏh̲ahab, Paris, v. 193, 205 sqq. vi. 50 ix. 41, 50 do., al-Tanbīh wa ’l-Is̲h̲rāf, ed. de Goeje, B.G.A., viii. 312—317 Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, passim Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, al-Fak̲h̲rī, ed. Derenbourg, p. 167—173 Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, see Guidi, Tables alphabétiques al-Mubarrad, al-Kāmil, ed. Wri…
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