Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Abd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān

(18 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography in Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 973. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd

(21 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
He died in 110 (728—729); see Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 183. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Efendi

(310 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḳara Čelebī Zāde, ḳaḍī-ʿaskar and historian of the Ottoman empire, the son of Ḥusām. He was nominated Istambol ḳaḍī-si by the sultan Murād IV (1043 = 1633), and then deprived of his office in the same year on account of a famine which he had not remedied; he was put on board a boat to be drowned at Prince’s Island; he was saved through the intercession of the vizier, Bairām Pas̲h̲a, and was banished to Cyprus (Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ed. Flügel, v. 233). It was on this occasion that he wrote his poem Guls̲h̲an-i niyāz. By his intrigues be succeeded in obtaining the title of honorary muftī (7th Ramaḍān…

ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār

(154 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-Azdī, a governor. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār, who had already taken part in the battles against the partisans of the Umaiyads, was according to the usual accounts appointed governor of Ḵh̲orāsān in 140 (757-758) by Caliph al-Manṣūr, and there he soon made himself known through his cruelty. In the following year, however, the caliph grew suspicious of him, and after some correspondence, in which al-Manṣūr and his governor each tried to outwit the other, the caliph sent an expedition again…

ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl

(7 words)

Abu’l-Maḥāsin. [See al-dihistānī ]

ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Fūmanī

(105 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Persian historian, lived probably in the 16th and 17th centuries. Having entered the government service at Gīlān (Ch. Schefer, Chrest. pers., ii. 93), he was entrusted with the surpervision of the accounts by the vizier of this place, Behzād-beg, about 1018 or 1019 (1609-1610); and was then sent by ʿĀdil S̲h̲āh to ʿIrāḳ. He wrote, in Persian, the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Gīlān, a history of Gīlān from 923 (1517) to 1038 (1628), which has been published by B. Dorn. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography ʿAbdu’l-Fattâh Fûmeny’s Gesch. von Gîlân (3d vol. of the Muhamm. Quellen zur Gesch. d. Südl. Küstenländer d…

ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār

(6 words)

al-Ak̲h̲ras. [See al-Ak̲h̲ras.]

ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār

(8 words)

b. ʿAbd al-Karīm. [See al-ijazwInI.]

ʿAbd al-G̲h̲anī

(723 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
al-Nābulusī, a mystic and very voluminous writer, born on the 5th Ḏh̲u ‘l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1050 (19th March 1641). Having lost his father at an early age, he entered the Ṣūfī order of the Ḳādirīya and of the Naḳs̲h̲bandīya and studied for seven years in Damascus in his house in the vicinity of the Umaiyad Mosque the mystical works of Ibn ʿArabī and ʿAfīf al-Dan al-Tilimsānī. At the age of 25 he made his first journey to Bagdad and stayed there some time. In his manhood, as he had already gained a certain ¶ reputation as a mystic, he made several circular journeys, especially in his native …

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(837 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyu’l-Marīnī, chief of the Zanāta-Marīnides and founder of the dynasty of the Marīnides. His father, Abū Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyū, the chief of his tribe, having died in 592 (1197), ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ was chosen as his successor. At that time the Marīnides overran the high table-lands of the Central Mag̲h̲rib (Algeria), to the south of the Tāhert and Tlemcen mountains from the Zāb to Sid̲j̲ilmāsa in a nomadic state. They had their summer camps in the valleys of the Wādī Zā and of the Upper Mulūya, between Aḳersif and al-W…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(137 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Saif al-Dīn al-Turk al-Dihlawī al-Buk̲h̲ārī, with the tak̲h̲allus Ḥaḳḳī, a Persian historian, born 958 (1551), died 1052 (1642). ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ in 996 (1588) visited the Ḥid̲j̲āz to study there the traditions. Of his many writings the following may be quoted: Persian commentaries to the Arabic collections of traditions Mis̲h̲kat al-maṣābīḥ and Safar al-saʿāda (in manuscript in British Museum; C. Rieu, Cat. of Persian MSS., pp. 14 et seq.); a general history of India entitled Ḏh̲ikr al-mulūk ( loc. cit., pp. 823, 855); biographies, mainly of Indian Saints, Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār fī a…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ Ḥāmid

(417 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, a modern and still living Turkish statesman and poet, born at Bebek (Constantinople), on the 5th Feb. 1852. His father, the well-known historian Ḵh̲air Allāh Efendi ¶ was Turkish ambassador in Teheran; his grand-father ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ, physician in ordinary to the sultans Maḥmūd and ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, founded the Faculty of Medicine in Constantinople. ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ received his education in Constantinople and Paris and began his official career as secretary to the Turkish embassy in Teheran, then returned to the capital and,…

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(401 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
II, the present sovereign ruler in the Ottoman empire, son of Sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, born the 4th S̲h̲aʿbān 1258 (21th Sept. 1842), was thirty-three when the ministers, having deposed his brother, Murad V, called him to the throne of ʿOt̲h̲mān (10th S̲h̲aʿbān 1293 = 31th Aug. 1876). For particulars about the principal events in his reign, the insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the war with Servia and Montenegro, then with Russia, etc. see special articles. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II has continued the work of reform ( tanẓīmāt): during his reign legislation has been perfected by the…

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(89 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
Lahōrī, a Persian historian, died 1065 (1655), author of the Padsiah name, ¶ an official history of the Indian prince S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān. The work is divided into 3 parts each containing the history of one decade. Only the first two parts (published in the Bibliotheca Indica in 1867), comprising the years 1037—1057 (1627—1647), are by ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd himself; the last part was arranged by Muḥammed Wārit̲h̲. (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, vii. 3 et seq. Rieu, Cat. of Persian MSS., p. 260.

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(768 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
I (Turkish pronunciation Abdu ’l-Hamīd), Turkish sultan. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd was born in 1725, and was the son of Aḥmed III. He ascended the Ottoman throne on the 21st Jan. 1774. He carried on the war with Russia pompously, but the fresh victories of the Czarina in Bulgaria forced him to accept the terms dictated to his representatives at Küčük-Kainard̲j̲e on the 16th July 1774, which were decisive for the future. Besides Asow Russia obtained the fortified ports of Kertsh, Yeniḳalʿe and Kinburn and thus became the strongest naval power in the Black Sea. She fur…

ʿAbdī

(164 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(abbreviation of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān), an Ottoman historian, was brought up as a page ( ič og̲h̲lān) at Galata-Serai; he was entrusted by the sultan Muḥammed IV to write the annals of his reign and the sovereign condescended to collaborate with him, drawing some insignificant facts to his notice. He was appointed private secretary (1079 = 1668); in the following year he took the place of ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a as Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i (scribe appointed to make out the tug̲h̲ra and was promoted to the rank of vizier. He was chosen as Ḳāʾim maḳām during the campaign of Cehryn (8th Rabīʿ II 1089 = 30th May 1678). In 1…

Abd̲j̲ad

(755 words)

Author(s): Weil
(or Abud̲j̲ad), the first of the 8 voces memoriabiles, with which the Arabs used to designate the letters of their alphabet. These eight words are usually pronounced as follows: ʾabd̲j̲ad hawwaz ḥuṭṭiy kalaman saʿfaṣ ḳaras̲h̲at t̲h̲ak̲h̲ad̲h̲ ḍaẓag̲h̲. The Mag̲h̲rib Mussulmans arrange the last four words as follows: ṣaʿfaḍ ḳarasat t̲h̲ak̲h̲ad̲h̲, ẓag̲h̲as̲h̲. The order of the letters — only the consonants are to be counted — in this series is the same as in Hebrew and Aramaic, and thus, together with the paleographic proofs, confirms the theory …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(1,587 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
b. G̲h̲aibī al-Ḥāfīhẓ al-Marāg̲h̲ī, the greatest of the Persian writers on the theory of music (Bouvat, J.A., 1926, calls him ʿAbd al-Ḳādir Gūyandī. The forms Ibn ʿĪsā, Ibn G̲h̲anī, Ibn G̲h̲ainī, Ibn ʿAini are all misreadings of Ibn G̲h̲aibī, as the autographs of the latter prove). He was born about the middle of the viiith (xivth) century at Marāg̲h̲a in Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. In the late “seventies” of that century he was one of the “boon companions” of al-Ḥusain, the Ḏj̲alāʾirid Sulṭān (1374—1382) of al-ʿIrāḳ, who spent so much time with his minstrels ( J.A., 1845). Ibn G̲h̲aibī himself …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,418 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. Muhyi’l-Dīn al-Ḥasanī, the Emīr, born in 1223 (1808) near al-Maʿaskar (Mascara). His family was one of the most influential in the Hās̲h̲im tribe, which, after having resided for a longtime in Morocco, removed and established itself in the 18th century in the beylic of Oran. In addition to the prestige derived by this family from its princely source was added the reputation for holiness gained by Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammed b. Muk̲h̲tār, the grandfather of ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, and above all by Muḥyi’l-Dīn, his father. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, then, grew …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,067 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
al-Ḏj̲īlī (Gīlānī) Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ṣāliḥ Zengi Dōst, preacher and Ṣūfī, after whom the Ḳādirī order is named, born in 470 (1077-1078), died in 561 (1166). The numerous biographies of this personage teem with fictions, out of which some history may be gleaned. Thus his pedigree is traced on the father’s side to al-Ḥasan, grandson of the Prophet, in the direct line. But this is contradicted by the foreign name of his father, and the fact that the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ was called ʿAd̲j̲amī (foreigner) …
▲   Back to top   ▲