Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(20 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Cf. further Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 982. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir

(18 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography in Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 171. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd Allāh Ḏj̲ewdet

(5,826 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, Turkish poet, politician, translator of Shakespeare and ʿOmar Ḵh̲aiyām, free-thinker and prominent publicist. He belonged to the Kurdish family of the ʿOmar Og̲h̲ullari̊ whose home was in ʿArabgīr, and was born there on Sept. 9, 1869 (3rd Ḏj̲umādā II 1286 = Aug. 28, 1285 of the Turkish financial year). He was an only child. After a few years in Ḵh̲ōzāt and in ʿArabgīr, he moved with his father and his family to Maʿmūret al-ʿAzīz where he attended the Turkish military school and completed his studies there in 1885, so far as we know. He came to Con…

ʿAbd Allāh Pas̲h̲a

(217 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Muḥsin Zāde Čelebi,an Ottoman general, whose family originally ¶ came from Aleppo. He was made defterdār by the rebels, who put Sultan Aḥmed III on the throne of Turkey (9th Rabīʿ II 1115 = 22d Aug. 1703), filled many positions in the Financial Service, and was entrusted with the subjugation of Ḳaitās-beg, who had revolted in Egypt in 1126 (1714; comp. Rās̲h̲id Efendi, Taʾrīk̲h̲, ii. 92a Constantinople, 1153), and he sent his head to the Porte. He was the son-in-law of two grand viziers, Čorlūlu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a and Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a; he was governor of several pro…

ʿAbd Allāh Sari

(8 words)

[See sari ʿabd Allāh.]

ʿAbdalwādides

(709 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
(Banū ʿAbd al-Wād). This name was at first given to a part of the great Berber tribe of the Zanāta and was afterwards extended to many other portions of the same tribe. The dynasty of the kings of Central Mag̲h̲rib, who took Tlemcen as their capital and whose kingdom lasted from 637 to 962 (1239—1554) was of the Banū ʿAbd al-Wād family. During this period of 315 years, twenty-seven kings of this family (of whom two reigned together) ascended the throne of Tlemcen. These kings are also often called Banū Zaiyān, because one of their ancestors, the father of the first independent ¶ king of Tlemcen …

al-ʿAbdarī

(566 words)

Author(s): Mohammed ben Cheneb
(i. e. descendant of ʿAbd al-Dār b. Ḳuṣaiy b. Kilāb b. Murra, of the great family of the Ḳorais̲h̲ites), his real name Abū Muḥammed Muḥammed b. Muḥammed b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmed b. Suʿūd) (or Saʿūd or Masʿūd), known chiefly for the description of a journey called al-Riḥla al-mag̲h̲ribīya. We have no information about this learned traveller; it is only known that he was a native of Valencia and that he was living not far from Mogador, in the Ḥāḥa tribe, where his family was, when he started for Mecca on the 25th Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 688 (11 Dec. 1289). Of his masters are known only those, under whom he stud…

al-Abdarī

(210 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
Muḥammed b. Muḥammed b. Muḥammed b. al-ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ al-Fāsī al-Ḳairawānī al-Tilimsānī al-Mag̲h̲ribī al-Mālikī Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a theologian, studied in Fez, went to Cairo whilst on a pilgrimage, settled there as a professor and died in Ḏj̲umādā I 737 (December 1336). He was probably the son of the author of the Riḥla [comp, preceeding article], to which his appellation of Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ perhaps refers. That he is not identical with this latter, as Goldziher (in the Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Palästinavereins, xvii. 116 and Götting. Gelehrt. Anzeig., 1899, p. 466) assumes, is shown b…

Ābdast

(6 words)

(p.), ablution. [See wudūʿ.]

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(171 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. Mūsā b. Nuṣair, a governor. When his father, the famous conqueror of Spain, left this country in the year 95 (713), he remained behind as governor and married the widow of the Gothic king Roderick, named by the Arabs Eyilo, Ailo (Egilona), or Umm ʿĀṣim after her son. According to al-Wāḳidī and other Arabian chroniclers, it was the arrogance of this woman which caused the Arab troops to murder him in the year 97 (715) in the monastery of Santa Rufina near Seville, to day known as the Convento Cap…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(344 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Ibrāhīm, ¶ an Abāḍite doctor of the Banū Isgen (Mzāb), born about 1130 (1717), died in the month of Rad̲j̲ab 1223 (August-September 1808). He left in the Mzāb a well merited reputation for his science and piety. He devoted his life to the composition of many works on theology and jurisprudence. His chief work is the Kitāb al-nil wa-s̲h̲ifāʾ al-ʿalīl, autographed at Cairo in 1305(1887-1888). This treatise, conceived on the plan of the Muk̲h̲taṣar of Ḵh̲alīl, but written in a less concise style, is a complete statement of Abāḍite legislation taken from t…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(122 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Muḥammed b. Saʿūd, a Wahhābite ruler in Central Arabia (1765-1803). ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was born in 1721, and on the 14th Oct. 1803 during a service in the Mosque of Darʿīya was stabbed by a fanatical S̲h̲īʿite, who was enraged at the looting and destruction of the S̲h̲īʿite sanctuary in Kerbelāʾ by the Wahhābites (1801). During his reign the dominion of the Wahhābites was extended far over the frontiers of Central Arabia (Ned̲j̲d), but it was not ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz himself who played the most important ¶ part in bringing this about, but his son Saʿūd, who had been his co-regent since 1…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(221 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Marwān, son of Caliph Marwān I. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was appointed governor of Egypt by his father, and after ʿAbd al-Malik had ascended the throne, the latter confirmed the appointment. During his twenty years’ sojourn in Egypt, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz proved himself a good ruler who really had the welfare of his province at heart. When in the year 69 (689) ʿAbd al-Malik, after the assassination of the rebellious governor ʿAmr b. Saʿīd, was going to have the latter’s relatives executed also, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz int…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(623 words)

Author(s): Süissheim, K.
(Abdu’l-Azīz) b. Maḥmūd, a Turkish sultan. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, the second son of Maḥmūd II, was born in 1830, and on the 25th June 1861 ascended the Ottoman throne. At first he renounced a considerable part of his civil list, promised to content himself with one wife and reduced all household expenses, but soon his licentious nature broke out all the more violently. His reign was indeed spared foreign wars, but on the other hand it was year by year sorely tried by troubles at home. Montenegro rose to fight for its freedo…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(169 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. abī Dulaf, a governor. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was the son of an officer, Abū Dulaf, who had served under the caliph al-Amīn and then retired to Karad̲j̲, a town between Iṣpahān and Hamad̲h̲ān, where as chief of his clan he occupied an independent position. In the year 252 (866) ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who had joined al-Mustaʿīn’s party during the struggle for the throne, was entrusted by Waṣīf, the governor of Persian ʿIrāḳ, with the administration of that province. When in the following year al-Muʿtazz conferre…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(315 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K. V.
b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. ʿAbd al-Malik, an Umaiyad general. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was a faithful partisan of his cousin Yazīd III and one of his most eminent assistants. Already in al-Walīd II’s reign he helped Yazīd, who headed the malcontents, to enlist troops against the caliph, and when they had succeeded in getting together an army in Damascus, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz received the supreme command and marched against al-Walīd. Yazīd’s brother ʿAbbās, who was about to go to the caliph’s assistance, was attacked an…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(1,199 words)

Author(s): Doutte, E.
b. al-Ḥasan, the present sultan of Morocco, born on the 18th Rabīʿ 1298 (18th February 1881), son of Lālla Roḳīya, who was bought as a slave for the sultan in 1878 at Cairo. The little ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, whilst yet a child, accompanied his father in most of his expeditions. As he grew up he soon manifested, unseemly for an orthodox, a taste for images and drawing. He was always extremely rebellious against studies of the Ḳorʾān, his education was partly entrusted to Aḥmed b. Mūsā, the chamberlain ( ḥād̲j̲ib) known as Ba Aḥmed, who, in strict sympathy with Lālla Roḳiya, kept him under a…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(163 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Walīd, son of Caliph al-Walīd I. Under the generalship of his uncle Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik, in 91 (709-710), ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz made the campaign against the Byzantines, and is also said to have later on taken part in the battles against the same enemy. In 96 (714-715) his father endeavored to exclude from the succession Sulaimān b. ʿAbd al-Malik, who had already been appointed as his successor, in ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz’s favor; the effort proved fruitless though. After Sulaimān’s death in Dābiḳ(99 = …

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(132 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchol Abu ’l-Ḥasan, grandson of the great Al-manzor (al-Manṣur). ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz became prince of Valencia in 412 (1021), and in the year 429 (1038) when Zuhair, the prince of Almeria, had died, he took possession of the latter’s principality. Through this action, however, he came at loggerheads with Mud̲j̲āhid, the prince of Denia, and therefore in the year 1041 he installed his brother-in-law Abu’l-Aḥwaṣ, who soon made himself independent [see Ṣumādiḥ], ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who, like his grandfather, also bore the surname of al-Manṣūr, continued to rule…

Abd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān

(18 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography in Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 973. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd

(21 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
He died in 110 (728—729); see Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 183. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Efendi

(310 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḳara Čelebī Zāde, ḳaḍī-ʿaskar and historian of the Ottoman empire, the son of Ḥusām. He was nominated Istambol ḳaḍī-si by the sultan Murād IV (1043 = 1633), and then deprived of his office in the same year on account of a famine which he had not remedied; he was put on board a boat to be drowned at Prince’s Island; he was saved through the intercession of the vizier, Bairām Pas̲h̲a, and was banished to Cyprus (Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ed. Flügel, v. 233). It was on this occasion that he wrote his poem Guls̲h̲an-i niyāz. By his intrigues be succeeded in obtaining the title of honorary muftī (7th Ramaḍān…

ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār

(154 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-Azdī, a governor. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār, who had already taken part in the battles against the partisans of the Umaiyads, was according to the usual accounts appointed governor of Ḵh̲orāsān in 140 (757-758) by Caliph al-Manṣūr, and there he soon made himself known through his cruelty. In the following year, however, the caliph grew suspicious of him, and after some correspondence, in which al-Manṣūr and his governor each tried to outwit the other, the caliph sent an expedition again…

ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl

(7 words)

Abu’l-Maḥāsin. [See al-dihistānī ]

ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Fūmanī

(105 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Persian historian, lived probably in the 16th and 17th centuries. Having entered the government service at Gīlān (Ch. Schefer, Chrest. pers., ii. 93), he was entrusted with the surpervision of the accounts by the vizier of this place, Behzād-beg, about 1018 or 1019 (1609-1610); and was then sent by ʿĀdil S̲h̲āh to ʿIrāḳ. He wrote, in Persian, the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Gīlān, a history of Gīlān from 923 (1517) to 1038 (1628), which has been published by B. Dorn. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography ʿAbdu’l-Fattâh Fûmeny’s Gesch. von Gîlân (3d vol. of the Muhamm. Quellen zur Gesch. d. Südl. Küstenländer d…

ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār

(6 words)

al-Ak̲h̲ras. [See al-Ak̲h̲ras.]

ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār

(8 words)

b. ʿAbd al-Karīm. [See al-ijazwInI.]

ʿAbd al-G̲h̲anī

(723 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
al-Nābulusī, a mystic and very voluminous writer, born on the 5th Ḏh̲u ‘l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1050 (19th March 1641). Having lost his father at an early age, he entered the Ṣūfī order of the Ḳādirīya and of the Naḳs̲h̲bandīya and studied for seven years in Damascus in his house in the vicinity of the Umaiyad Mosque the mystical works of Ibn ʿArabī and ʿAfīf al-Dan al-Tilimsānī. At the age of 25 he made his first journey to Bagdad and stayed there some time. In his manhood, as he had already gained a certain ¶ reputation as a mystic, he made several circular journeys, especially in his native …

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(137 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Saif al-Dīn al-Turk al-Dihlawī al-Buk̲h̲ārī, with the tak̲h̲allus Ḥaḳḳī, a Persian historian, born 958 (1551), died 1052 (1642). ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ in 996 (1588) visited the Ḥid̲j̲āz to study there the traditions. Of his many writings the following may be quoted: Persian commentaries to the Arabic collections of traditions Mis̲h̲kat al-maṣābīḥ and Safar al-saʿāda (in manuscript in British Museum; C. Rieu, Cat. of Persian MSS., pp. 14 et seq.); a general history of India entitled Ḏh̲ikr al-mulūk ( loc. cit., pp. 823, 855); biographies, mainly of Indian Saints, Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār fī a…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(837 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyu’l-Marīnī, chief of the Zanāta-Marīnides and founder of the dynasty of the Marīnides. His father, Abū Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyū, the chief of his tribe, having died in 592 (1197), ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ was chosen as his successor. At that time the Marīnides overran the high table-lands of the Central Mag̲h̲rib (Algeria), to the south of the Tāhert and Tlemcen mountains from the Zāb to Sid̲j̲ilmāsa in a nomadic state. They had their summer camps in the valleys of the Wādī Zā and of the Upper Mulūya, between Aḳersif and al-W…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ Ḥāmid

(417 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, a modern and still living Turkish statesman and poet, born at Bebek (Constantinople), on the 5th Feb. 1852. His father, the well-known historian Ḵh̲air Allāh Efendi ¶ was Turkish ambassador in Teheran; his grand-father ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ, physician in ordinary to the sultans Maḥmūd and ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, founded the Faculty of Medicine in Constantinople. ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ received his education in Constantinople and Paris and began his official career as secretary to the Turkish embassy in Teheran, then returned to the capital and,…

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(89 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
Lahōrī, a Persian historian, died 1065 (1655), author of the Padsiah name, ¶ an official history of the Indian prince S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān. The work is divided into 3 parts each containing the history of one decade. Only the first two parts (published in the Bibliotheca Indica in 1867), comprising the years 1037—1057 (1627—1647), are by ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd himself; the last part was arranged by Muḥammed Wārit̲h̲. (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, vii. 3 et seq. Rieu, Cat. of Persian MSS., p. 260.

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(401 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
II, the present sovereign ruler in the Ottoman empire, son of Sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, born the 4th S̲h̲aʿbān 1258 (21th Sept. 1842), was thirty-three when the ministers, having deposed his brother, Murad V, called him to the throne of ʿOt̲h̲mān (10th S̲h̲aʿbān 1293 = 31th Aug. 1876). For particulars about the principal events in his reign, the insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the war with Servia and Montenegro, then with Russia, etc. see special articles. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II has continued the work of reform ( tanẓīmāt): during his reign legislation has been perfected by the…

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(768 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
I (Turkish pronunciation Abdu ’l-Hamīd), Turkish sultan. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd was born in 1725, and was the son of Aḥmed III. He ascended the Ottoman throne on the 21st Jan. 1774. He carried on the war with Russia pompously, but the fresh victories of the Czarina in Bulgaria forced him to accept the terms dictated to his representatives at Küčük-Kainard̲j̲e on the 16th July 1774, which were decisive for the future. Besides Asow Russia obtained the fortified ports of Kertsh, Yeniḳalʿe and Kinburn and thus became the strongest naval power in the Black Sea. She fur…

ʿAbdī

(164 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(abbreviation of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān), an Ottoman historian, was brought up as a page ( ič og̲h̲lān) at Galata-Serai; he was entrusted by the sultan Muḥammed IV to write the annals of his reign and the sovereign condescended to collaborate with him, drawing some insignificant facts to his notice. He was appointed private secretary (1079 = 1668); in the following year he took the place of ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a as Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i (scribe appointed to make out the tug̲h̲ra and was promoted to the rank of vizier. He was chosen as Ḳāʾim maḳām during the campaign of Cehryn (8th Rabīʿ II 1089 = 30th May 1678). In 1…

Abd̲j̲ad

(755 words)

Author(s): Weil
(or Abud̲j̲ad), the first of the 8 voces memoriabiles, with which the Arabs used to designate the letters of their alphabet. These eight words are usually pronounced as follows: ʾabd̲j̲ad hawwaz ḥuṭṭiy kalaman saʿfaṣ ḳaras̲h̲at t̲h̲ak̲h̲ad̲h̲ ḍaẓag̲h̲. The Mag̲h̲rib Mussulmans arrange the last four words as follows: ṣaʿfaḍ ḳarasat t̲h̲ak̲h̲ad̲h̲, ẓag̲h̲as̲h̲. The order of the letters — only the consonants are to be counted — in this series is the same as in Hebrew and Aramaic, and thus, together with the paleographic proofs, confirms the theory …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(1,587 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
b. G̲h̲aibī al-Ḥāfīhẓ al-Marāg̲h̲ī, the greatest of the Persian writers on the theory of music (Bouvat, J.A., 1926, calls him ʿAbd al-Ḳādir Gūyandī. The forms Ibn ʿĪsā, Ibn G̲h̲anī, Ibn G̲h̲ainī, Ibn ʿAini are all misreadings of Ibn G̲h̲aibī, as the autographs of the latter prove). He was born about the middle of the viiith (xivth) century at Marāg̲h̲a in Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. In the late “seventies” of that century he was one of the “boon companions” of al-Ḥusain, the Ḏj̲alāʾirid Sulṭān (1374—1382) of al-ʿIrāḳ, who spent so much time with his minstrels ( J.A., 1845). Ibn G̲h̲aibī himself …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,418 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. Muhyi’l-Dīn al-Ḥasanī, the Emīr, born in 1223 (1808) near al-Maʿaskar (Mascara). His family was one of the most influential in the Hās̲h̲im tribe, which, after having resided for a longtime in Morocco, removed and established itself in the 18th century in the beylic of Oran. In addition to the prestige derived by this family from its princely source was added the reputation for holiness gained by Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammed b. Muk̲h̲tār, the grandfather of ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, and above all by Muḥyi’l-Dīn, his father. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, then, grew …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,067 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
al-Ḏj̲īlī (Gīlānī) Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ṣāliḥ Zengi Dōst, preacher and Ṣūfī, after whom the Ḳādirī order is named, born in 470 (1077-1078), died in 561 (1166). The numerous biographies of this personage teem with fictions, out of which some history may be gleaned. Thus his pedigree is traced on the father’s side to al-Ḥasan, grandson of the Prophet, in the direct line. But this is contradicted by the foreign name of his father, and the fact that the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ was called ʿAd̲j̲amī (foreigner) …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(238 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
b. ʿOmar al-Bag̲h̲dādī, a well-known philologist, born in 1030 (1621) at Bagdad, studied for a year in Damascus and then at the Azhar Mosque in Cairo, where al-Ḵh̲afād̲j̲ī was his teacher. In 1085 (1674) he returned to Damascus and there made the acquaintance of the grand-vizier Aḥmed Kiöprülü, who then took him to Adrianople. As he could not stand the northern climate, he soon went back to Cairo. Later on he again tried his luck in Rumelia, but caught a disease of the eye and arrived at Cairo almost blind. He died there in 1093 (1682). ʿAbd al-Ḳādir’s chief work is a commentary on the quo…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(6 words)

Badāʿūnī. [See badā-ʿnī.]

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(73 words)

Dihlawī b. Walī Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān translated the Ḳorʾān into Urdu under the title of Muzih-i Kurān (i. e. Mūḍiḥ-i Ḳorʾān = "Interpretation of the Ḳorʾān"). This work, finished by the author in 1205 (1790-1791), was edited by Houghly in 1829; another edition, Bombay, 1270 (1853-1854). Bibliography Garcin de Tassy, Hist, de la littér. Hindouie (2d ed.), i. 76 et sea. idem, Chrestotnathie hindoustanie Journal des Savants (1873), pp. 435—443.

ʿAbd al-Ḳais

(1,408 words)

Author(s): Reckendorf
(but very rarely ʿAbd Ḳais; in Ptolemy ’Αβουχαιων?), i. e; “servant of (the god) Ḳais“, the name of a North Arabian tribe, which dwelt in Baḥrain; also a man’s name. — The nisba formed from it is ʿAbdī, more rarely ʿAbḳasī; a derived verb taʿabḳas. The pedigree of ʿAbd al-Ḳais, the founder of the tribe called after him, is stated as follows: ʿAbd al-Ḳais b. Afṣā b. Duʿmī b. Ḏj̲adīla b. Asad b. Rabīʿa. The most important branches of the Banū ʿAbd al-Ḳais, or ʿAbdites (comp. Wüstenfeld, Genealog. Tabellen, A.), were the Labūʾ and the Afṣā, which latter consisted of the two groups, S̲…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(113 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
Kas̲h̲mīrī, a Persian historian, died in 1198 (1784). ʿAbd al-Karīlm entered Nādir S̲h̲āh’s service in 1151 (1738-1739) and accompanied this prince on his march from Dehli to Ḳazwīn. From there he travelled to Mecca and returned to India by water. He is the author of a history of Nādir s̲h̲āh, entitled Bayān-i wāḳiʿ. Comp. Khojeh Abdulkurreem (A Cashmerian), Memoirs of a travel from Hindostan to Persia, when accompanying Nadirshâh, transl. from the Persian by P. Gladwin (London, 1793); Voyage de l’Inde à la Mecque, trad, par Langlès (Paris, 1797). (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Elliot an…

Abd al-Karīm

(155 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Buk̲h̲ārī, a Persian historian, wrote in 1233 (1818) a short summary of the geographical relations of Central Asiatic countries (Afg̲h̲ānistān, Buk̲h̲ārā, Ḵh̲īwā, Ḵh̲ōḳand, Tibet and Kas̲h̲mīr), and of historical events in those countries from 1160 (accession of Aḥmed S̲h̲āh Durrānī [q. v.] till his own times. ʿAbd al-Karīm had already left his native country in 1222 (1807-1808) and accompanied an embassy to Constantinople ; he remained there till his death, which took place after 1246 (1830), a…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(8 words)

Muns̲h̲iʿ. [See muḥammed ʿabd al-karīm.]

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(314 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲īlī, celebrated Mussulman mystic from Ḏj̲īl in the district of Bagdad, born about 767 (1365-1366); the date of his death is uncertain (811 = 1406— 820 = 1417). No exact data concerning his life have been handed down to us; in his works he mentions as his s̲h̲aik̲h̲ S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿIs…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(8 words)

b. ʿAdjarrad. [See ibn ʿad̲j̲arrad.]

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(74 words)

Nādir Pas̲h̲a, a Turkish general, born at Čirpan in East Rumelia. In 1871 he was victorious over the Servians, and in the Russo-Turkish war he had the supreme command of the Turkish army of the Danube, but was dismissed for not being able to prevent the passage of the Russians across the Danube, and exiled to Rhodes where he died in 1300 (1883). Bibliography Comp. works on the Servo-Turkish and Russo-Turkish wars.
▲   Back to top   ▲