Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(20 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Cf. further Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 982. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir

(18 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography in Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 171. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd Allāh Ḏj̲ewdet

(5,826 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, Turkish poet, politician, translator of Shakespeare and ʿOmar Ḵh̲aiyām, free-thinker and prominent publicist. He belonged to the Kurdish family of the ʿOmar Og̲h̲ullari̊ whose home was in ʿArabgīr, and was born there on Sept. 9, 1869 (3rd Ḏj̲umādā II 1286 = Aug. 28, 1285 of the Turkish financial year). He was an only child. After a few years in Ḵh̲ōzāt and in ʿArabgīr, he moved with his father and his family to Maʿmūret al-ʿAzīz where he attended the Turkish military school and completed his studies there in 1885, so…

ʿAbd Allāh Pas̲h̲a

(217 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Muḥsin Zāde Čelebi,an Ottoman general, whose family originally ¶ came from Aleppo. He was made defterdār by the rebels, who put Sultan Aḥmed III on the throne of Turkey (9th Rabīʿ II 1115 = 22d Aug. 1703), filled many positions in the Financial Service, and was entrusted with the subjugation of Ḳaitās-beg, who had revolted in Egypt in 1126 (1714; comp. Rās̲h̲id Efendi, Taʾrīk̲h̲, ii. 92a Constantinople, 1153), and he sent his head to the Porte. He was the son-in-law of two grand viziers, Čorlūlu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a and Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a; he was governor of several pro…

ʿAbd Allāh Sari

(8 words)

[See sari ʿabd Allāh.]

ʿAbdalwādides

(709 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
(Banū ʿAbd al-Wād). This name was at first given to a part of the great Berber tribe of the Zanāta and was afterwards extended to many other portions of the same tribe. The dynasty of the kings of Central Mag̲h̲rib, who took Tlemcen as their capital and whose kingdom lasted from 637 to 962 (1239—1554) was of the Banū ʿAbd al-Wād family. During this period of 315 years, twenty-seven kings of this family (of whom two reigned together) ascended the throne of Tlemcen. These kings are also often called Banū Zaiyān, because one of their ancestors, the father of the first independent ¶ king of Tlemcen …

al-ʿAbdarī

(566 words)

Author(s): Mohammed ben Cheneb
(i. e. descendant of ʿAbd al-Dār b. Ḳuṣaiy b. Kilāb b. Murra, of the great family of the Ḳorais̲h̲ites), his real name Abū Muḥammed Muḥammed b. Muḥammed b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmed b. Suʿūd) (or Saʿūd or Masʿūd), known chiefly for the description of a journey called al-Riḥla al-mag̲h̲ribīya. We have no information about this learned traveller; it is only known that he was a native of Valencia an…

al-Abdarī

(210 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
Muḥammed b. Muḥammed b. Muḥammed b. al-ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ al-Fāsī al-Ḳairawānī al-Tilimsānī al-Mag̲h̲ribī al-Mālikī Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a theologian, studied in Fez, went to Cairo whilst on a pilgrimage, settled there as a professor and died in Ḏj̲umādā I 737 (December 1336). He was probably the son of the author of the Riḥla [comp, preceeding article], to which his appellation of Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ perhaps refers. That he is not identical with this latter, as Goldziher (in the Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Palästinavereins, xvii. 116 and Götting. Gelehrt. Anzeig., 1899, p. 466) assumes, is shown b…

Ābdast

(6 words)

(p.), ablution. [See wudūʿ.]

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(171 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. Mūsā b. Nuṣair, a governor. When his father, the famous conqueror of Spain, left this country in the year 95 (713), he remained behind as governor and married the widow of the Gothic king Roderick, named by the Arabs Eyilo, Ailo (Egilona), or Umm ʿĀṣim after her son. According to al-Wāḳidī and other Arabian chroniclers, it was the arrogance of this woman which caused the Arab troops to murder him in the year 97 (715) in the monastery of Santa Rufina near Seville, to day known as the Convento Cap…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(344 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Ibrāhīm, ¶ an Abāḍite doctor of the Banū Isgen (Mzāb), born about 1130 (1717), died in the month of Rad̲j̲ab 1223 (August-September 1808). He left in the Mzāb a well merited reputation for his science and piety. He devoted…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(122 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Muḥammed b. Saʿūd, a Wahhābite ruler in Central Arabia (1765-1803). ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was born in 1721, and on the 14th Oct. 1803 during a service in the Mosque of Darʿīya was stabbed by a fanatical S̲h̲īʿite, who was enraged at the looting and destruction of the S̲h̲īʿite sanctuary in Kerbelāʾ by the Wahhābites (1801). During his reign the dominion of the Wahhābites was extended far over the frontiers of Central Arabia (Ned̲j̲d), but it was not ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz himself who played the most important ¶ part in…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(221 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Marwān, son of Caliph Marwān I. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was appointed governor of Egypt by his father, and after ʿAbd al-Malik had ascended the throne, the latter confirmed the appointment. During his twenty years’ sojourn in Egypt, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz proved himself a good ruler who really had the welfare of his province at heart. When in the year 69 (689) ʿAbd al-Malik, after the assassination of the rebellious governor ʿAmr b. Saʿīd, was going to have the latter’s relatives executed also, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz int…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(623 words)

Author(s): Süissheim, K.
(Abdu’l-Azīz) b. Maḥmūd, a Turkish sultan. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, the second son of Maḥmūd II, was born in 1830, and on the 25th June 1861 ascended the Ottoman throne. At first he renounced a considerable part of his civil list, promised to content himself with one wife and reduced all household expenses, but soon his licentious nature broke out all the more violently. His reign was indeed spared foreign wars, but on the other hand it was year by year sorely tried by troubles at home. Montenegro rose to fight for its freedo…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(169 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. abī Dulaf, a governor. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was the son of an officer, Abū Dulaf, who had served under the caliph al-Amīn and then retired to Karad̲j̲, a town between Iṣpahān and Hamad̲h̲ān, where as chief of his clan he occupied an independent position. In the year 252 (866) ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who had joined al-Mustaʿīn’s party during the struggle for the throne, was entrusted by Waṣīf, the governor of Persian ʿIrāḳ, with the administration of that province. When in the following year al-Muʿtazz conferre…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(315 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K. V.
b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. ʿAbd al-Malik, an Umaiyad general. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was a faithful partisan of his cousin Yazīd III and one of his most eminent assistants. Already in al-Walīd II’s reign he helped Yazīd, who headed the malcontents, to enlist troops against the caliph, and when they had succeeded in getting together an army in Damascus, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz received the supreme command and marched against al-Walīd. Yazīd’s brother ʿAbbās, who was about to go to the caliph’s assistance, was attacked an…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(1,199 words)

Author(s): Doutte, E.
b. al-Ḥasan, the present sultan of Morocco, born on the 18th Rabīʿ 1298 (18th February 1881), son of Lālla Roḳīya, who was bought as a slave for the sultan in 1878 at Cairo. The little ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, whilst yet a child, accompanied his father in most of his expeditions. As he grew up he soon manifested, unseemly for an orthodox, a taste for images and drawing. He was always extremely rebellious against studies of the Ḳorʾān, his education was partly entrusted to Aḥmed b. Mūsā, the chamberlain ( ḥād̲j̲ib) known as Ba Aḥmed, who, in strict sympathy with Lālla Roḳiya, kept him under a…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(163 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Walīd, son of Caliph al-Walīd I. Under the generalship of his uncle Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik, in 91 (709-710), ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz made the campaign against the Byzantines, and is also said to have later on taken part in the battles against the same enemy. In 96 (714-715) his father endeavored to exclude from the succession Sulaimān b. ʿAbd al-Malik, who had already been appointed as his successor, in ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz’s favor; the effort proved fruitless though. After Sulaimān’s death in Dābiḳ(99 = …

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(132 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchol Abu ’l-Ḥasan, grandson of the great Al-manzor (al-Manṣur). ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz became prince of Valencia in 412 (1021), and in the year 429 (1038) when Zuhair, the prince of Almeria, had died, he took possession of the latter’s principality. Through this action, however, he came at loggerheads with Mud̲j̲āhid, the prince of Denia, and therefore in the year 1041 he installed his brother-in-law Abu’l-Aḥwaṣ, who soon made himself independent [see Ṣumādiḥ], ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who, like hi…

Abd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān

(18 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography in Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 973. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd

(21 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
He died in 110 (728—729); see Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 183. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Efendi

(310 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḳara Čelebī Zāde, ḳaḍī-ʿaskar and historian of the Ottoman empire, the son of Ḥusām. He was nominated Istambol ḳaḍī-si by the sultan Murād IV (1043 = 1633), and then deprived of his office in the same year on account of a famine which he had not remedied; he was put on board a boat to be drowned at Prince’s Island; he was saved through the intercession of the vizier, Bairām Pas̲h̲a, and was banished to Cyprus (Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ed. Flügel, v. 233). It was on this occasion that he wrote his poem Guls̲h̲an-i niyāz. By his intrigues be succeeded in obtaining the title of honorary muftī (7th Ramaḍān…

ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār

(154 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-Azdī, a governor. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār, who had already taken part in the battles against the partisans of the Umaiyads, was according to the usual accounts appointed governor of Ḵh̲orāsān in 140 (757-758) by Caliph al-Manṣūr, and there he soon made himself known through his cruelty. In the following year, however, the caliph grew suspicious of him, and after some correspondence, in which al-Manṣūr and his governor each tried to outwit the other, the caliph sent an expedition again…

ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl

(7 words)

Abu’l-Maḥāsin. [See al-dihistānī ]

ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Fūmanī

(105 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Persian historian, lived probably in the 16th and 17th centuries. Having entered the government service at Gīlān (Ch. Schefer, Chrest. pers., ii. 93), he was entrusted with the surpervision of the accounts by the vizier of this place, Behzād-beg, about 1018 or 1019 (1609-1610); and was then sent by ʿĀdil S̲h̲āh to ʿIrāḳ. He wrote, in Persian, the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Gīlān, a history of Gīlān from 923 (1517) to 1038 (1628), which has been published by B. Dorn. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography ʿAbdu’l-Fattâh Fûmeny’s Gesch. von Gîlân (3d vol. of the Muhamm. Quellen zur Gesch. d. Südl. Küstenländer d…

ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār

(6 words)

al-Ak̲h̲ras. [See al-Ak̲h̲ras.]

ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār

(8 words)

b. ʿAbd al-Karīm. [See al-ijazwInI.]

ʿAbd al-G̲h̲anī

(723 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
al-Nābulusī, a mystic and very voluminous writer, born on the 5th Ḏh̲u ‘l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1050 (19th March 1641). Having lost his father at an early age, he entered the Ṣūfī order of the Ḳādirīya and of the Naḳs̲h̲bandīya and studied for seven years in Damascus in his house in the vicinity of the Umaiyad Mosque the mystical works of Ibn ʿArabī and ʿAfīf al-Dan al-Tilimsānī. At the age of 25 he made his first journey to Bagdad and stayed there some time. In his manhood, as he had already gained a certain ¶ reputation as a mystic, he made several circular journeys, especially in his native …

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(137 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Saif al-Dīn al-Turk al-Dihlawī al-Buk̲h̲ārī, with the tak̲h̲allus Ḥaḳḳī, a Persian historian, born 958 (1551), died 1052 (1642). ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ in 996 (1588) visited the Ḥid̲j̲āz to study there the traditions. Of his many writings the following may be quoted: Persian commentaries to the Arabic collections of traditions Mis̲h̲kat al-maṣābīḥ and Safar al-saʿāda (in manuscript in British Museum; C. Rieu, Cat. of Persian MSS., pp. 14 et seq.); a general history of India entitled Ḏh̲ikr al-mulūk ( loc. cit., pp. 823, 855); biographies, mainly of Indian Saints, Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār fī a…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(837 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyu’l-Marīnī, chief of the Zanāta-Marīnides and founder of the dynasty of the Marīnides. His father, Abū Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyū, the chief of his tribe, having died in 592 (1197), ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ was chosen as his successor. At that time the Marīnides overran the high table-lands of the Central Mag̲h̲rib (Algeria), to the south of the Tāhert and Tlemcen mountains from the Zāb to Sid̲j̲ilmāsa in a nomadic state. They had their summer camps in the valleys of the Wādī Zā and of the Upper Mulūya, between Aḳersif and al-Waṭāt. The regions to the nor…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ Ḥāmid

(417 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, a modern and still living Turkish statesman and poet, born at Bebek (Constantinople), on the 5th Feb. 1852. His father, the well-known historian Ḵh̲air Allāh Efendi ¶ was Turkish ambassador in Teheran; his grand-father ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ, physician in ordinary to the sultans Maḥmūd and ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, founded the Faculty of Medicine in Constantinople. ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ received his education in Constantinople and Paris and began his official career as secretary to the Turkish embassy in Teheran, then returned to the …

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(89 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
Lahōrī, a Persian historian, died 1065 (1655), author of the Padsiah name, ¶ an official history of the Indian prince S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān. The work is divided into 3 parts each containing the history of one decade. Only the first two parts (published in the Bibliotheca Indica in 1867), comprising the years 1037—1057 (1627—1647), are by ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd himself; the last part was arranged by Muḥammed Wārit̲h̲. (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, vii. 3 et seq. Rieu, Cat. of Persian MSS., p. 260.

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(768 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
I (Turkish pronunciation Abdu ’l-Hamīd), Turkish sultan. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd was born in 1725, and was the son of Aḥmed III. He ascended the Ottoman throne on the 21st Jan. 1774. He carried on the war with Russia pompously, but the fresh victories of the Czarina in Bulgaria forced him to accept the terms dictated to his representatives at Küčük-Kainard̲j̲e on the 16th July 1774, which were decisive for the future. Besides Asow Russia obtained the fortified ports of Kertsh, Yeniḳalʿe and Kinburn and thus became the strongest naval power in the Black Sea. She fur…

ʿAbdī

(164 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(abbreviation of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān), an Ottoman historian, was brought up as a page ( ič og̲h̲lān) at Galata-Serai; he was entrusted by the sultan Muḥammed IV to write the annals of his reign and the sovereign condescended to collaborate with him, drawing some insignificant facts to his notice. He was appointed private secretary (1079 = 1668); in the following year he took the place of ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a as Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i (scribe appointed to make out the tug̲h̲ra and was promoted to the rank of vizier. He was chosen as Ḳāʾim maḳām during the campaign of Cehryn (8th Rabīʿ II 1089 = 30th May 1678). In 1…

Abd̲j̲ad

(755 words)

Author(s): Weil
(or Abud̲j̲ad), the first of the 8 voces memoriabiles, with which the Arabs used to designate the letters of their alphabet. These eight words are usually pronounced as follows: ʾabd̲j̲ad hawwaz ḥuṭṭiy kalaman saʿfaṣ ḳaras̲h̲at t̲h̲ak̲h̲ad̲h̲ ḍaẓag̲h̲. The Mag̲h̲rib Mussulmans arrange the last four words as follows: ṣaʿfaḍ ḳarasat t̲h̲ak̲h̲ad̲h̲, ẓag̲h̲as̲h̲. The order of the letters — only the consonants are to be counted — i…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(1,587 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
b. G̲h̲aibī al-Ḥāfīhẓ al-Marāg̲h̲ī, the greatest of the Persian writers on the theory of music (Bouvat, J.A., 1926, calls him ʿAbd al-Ḳādir Gūyandī. The forms Ibn ʿĪsā, Ibn G̲h̲anī, Ibn G̲h̲ainī, Ibn ʿAini are all misreadings of Ibn G̲h̲aibī, as the autographs of the latter prove). He was born about the middle of the viiith (xivth) century at Marāg̲h̲a in Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. In the late “seventies” of that century he was one of the “boon companions” of al-Ḥusain, the Ḏj̲alāʾirid Sulṭān (1374—1382) of al-ʿIrāḳ, who spent so much time with his minstrels ( J.A., 1845). Ibn G̲h̲aibī himself …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,418 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. Muhyi’l-Dīn al-Ḥasanī, the Emīr, born in 1223 (1808) near al-Maʿaskar (Mascara). His family was one of the most influential in the Hās̲h̲im tribe, which, after having resided for a longtime in Morocco, removed and established itself in the 18th century in the beylic of Oran. In addition to the prestige derived by this family from its princely source was added the reputation for holiness gained by Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammed b. Muk̲h̲tār, the grandfather of ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, and above all by Muḥyi’l-Dīn, his father. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir, then, grew …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,067 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
al-Ḏj̲īlī (Gīlānī) Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ṣāliḥ Zengi Dōst, preacher and Ṣūfī, after whom the Ḳādirī order is named, born in 470 (1077-1078), died in 561 (1166). The numerous biographies of this personage teem with fictions, out of which some history may be gleaned. Thus his pedigree is traced on the father’s side to al-Ḥasan, grandson of the Prophet, in the direct line. But this is contradicted by the foreign name of his father, and the fact that the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ was called ʿAd̲j̲amī (foreigner) …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(238 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann
b. ʿOmar al-Bag̲h̲dādī, a well-known philologist, born in 1030 (1621) at Bagdad, studied for a year in Damascus and then at the Azhar Mosque in Cairo, where al-Ḵh̲afād̲j̲ī was his teacher. In 1085 (1674) he returned to Damascus and there made the acquaintance of the grand-vizier Aḥmed Kiöprülü, who then took him to Adrianople. As he could not stand the northern climate, he soon went back to Cairo. Later on he again tried his luck in Rumelia, but caught a disease of the eye and arrived at Cairo almost blind. He died there in 1093 (1682). ʿAbd al-Ḳādir’s chief work is a commentary on the quo…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(6 words)

Badāʿūnī. [See badā-ʿnī.]

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(73 words)

Dihlawī b. Walī Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān translated the Ḳorʾān into Urdu under the title of Muzih-i Kurān (i. e. Mūḍiḥ-i Ḳorʾān = "Interpretation of the Ḳorʾān"). This work, finished by the author in 1205 (1790-1791), was edited by Houghly in 1829; another edition, Bombay, 1270 (1853-1854). Bibliography Garcin de Tassy, Hist, de la littér. Hindouie (2d ed.), i. 76 et sea. idem, Chrestotnathie hindoustanie Journal des Savants (1873), pp. 435—443.

ʿAbd al-Ḳais

(1,408 words)

Author(s): Reckendorf
(but very rarely ʿAbd Ḳais; in Ptolemy ’Αβουχαιων?), i. e; “servant of (the god) Ḳais“, the name of a North Arabian tribe, which dwelt in Baḥrain; also a man’s name. — The nisba formed from it is ʿAbdī, more rarely ʿAbḳasī; a derived verb taʿabḳas. The pedigree of ʿAbd al-Ḳais, the founder of the tribe called after him, is stated as follows: ʿAbd al-Ḳais b. Afṣā b. Duʿmī b. Ḏj̲adīla b. Asad b. Rabīʿa. The most important branches of the Banū ʿAbd al-Ḳais, or ʿAbdites (comp. Wüstenfeld, Genealog. Tabellen, A.), were the Labūʾ and the Afṣā, which latter consisted of the two groups, S̲…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(113 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
Kas̲h̲mīrī, a Persian historian, died in 1198 (1784). ʿAbd al-Karīlm entered Nādir S̲h̲āh’s service in 1151 (1738-1739) and accompanied this prince on his march from Dehli to Ḳazwīn. From there he travelled to Mecca and returned to India by water. He is the author of a history of Nādir s̲h̲āh, entitled Bayān-i wāḳiʿ. Comp. Khojeh Abdulkurreem (A Cashmerian), Memoirs of a travel from Hindostan to Persia, when accompanying Nadirshâh, transl. from the Persian by P. Gladwin (London, 1793); Voyage de l’Inde à la Mecque, trad, par Langlès (Paris, 1797). (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Elliot an…

Abd al-Karīm

(155 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Buk̲h̲ārī, a Persian historian, wrote in 1233 (1818) a short summary of the geographical relations of Central Asiatic countries (Afg̲h̲ānistān, Buk̲h̲ārā, Ḵh̲īwā, Ḵh̲ōḳand, Tibet and Kas̲h̲mīr), and of historical events in those countries from 1160 (accession of Aḥmed S̲h̲āh Durrānī [q. v.] till his own times. ʿAbd al-Karīm had already left his native country in 1222 (1807-1808) and accompanied an embassy to Constantinople ; he remained there till his death, which took place after 1246 (1830), a…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(8 words)

Muns̲h̲iʿ. [See muḥammed ʿabd al-karīm.]

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(314 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲īlī, celebrated Mussulman mystic from Ḏj̲īl in the district of Bagdad, born about 767 (1365-1366); the date of his death is uncertain (811 = 1406— 820 = 1417). No exact data concerning his life have been handed down to us; in his works he mentions as his s̲h̲aik̲h̲ S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿIsmāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲abartī, with whom he lived iD Zabīd; at the same time he gives the following dates: 796 (1393-1394), 799 (1396-1397), 805 (1402-1403). ʿAbd al-Karīm followed the mystic ideas of Muḥyi ’l-Dīn b. ʿArabī [see ibn al-ʿarabī], whose works he commented, but whom he now a…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(8 words)

b. ʿAdjarrad. [See ibn ʿad̲j̲arrad.]

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(74 words)

Nādir Pas̲h̲a, a Turkish general, born at Čirpan in East Rumelia. In 1871 he was victorious over the Servians, and in the Russo-Turkish war he had the supreme command of the Turkish army of the Danube, but was dismissed for not being able to prevent the passage of the Russians across the Danube, and exiled to Rhodes where he died in 1300 (1883). Bibliography Comp. works on the Servo-Turkish and Russo-Turkish wars.

ʿAbd al-Laṭīf

(6 words)

Kastamunili. [See laṭīfī.]

ʿAbd al-Laṭīf

(296 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
(Muwaffaḳ al-Dīn Abū Muḥammed) b. Yūsuf b. Muḥammed b. ʿAlī al-Bag̲h̲dādī, also called Ibn al-Labbād, one of the versatile Arab scholars and prolific writers, born at Bagdad in 557 (1162), died there in 629 (1231). In Bagdad he studied grammar, Fiḳh, tradition, etc., and was induced by a Mag̲h̲ribine, who had come to the city of the caliphs to devote himself to philosophy, natural and secret sciences, which his great application enabled him to master. In 585 (1189) he went to al-Mawṣil (Mosul) and thence to S…

ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd

(9 words)

b. ʿAbd Allāh. [See ibn ʿabdūn.]

ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd

(532 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish sultan, born on the 11th S̲h̲aʿbān 1238 (23d April 1823), eldest son of Maḥmūd II, whom he succeeded on the 25th Rabīʿ II 1255 (8th July 1839). The first thing he did was to order the suspension of hostilities against Muḥammed ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a of Egypt, who had just won the victory of Nezīb; but the High-Admiral refused to comply with this order and led his fleet into the port of Alexandria. He ordered the proclamation of the Ḵh̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf of Gulk̲h̲āne (26th S̲h̲aʿbān = 3d Nov.), an imperial edict which confirmed, continued and extended the work of reform ( tanẓīmāt). Thanks to his e…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(232 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen,, K. V.
b. Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī, a cousin of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. In Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd’s reign ʿAbd al-Malik undertook several expeditions against the Byzantines. Such campaigns took place under his command in the years 174 (790-791) and 181 (797-798), according to some authorities also in 175 (791-792), whilst others state that in the latter year not ʿAbd al-Malik himself, but his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān held the command. Besides this he was governor of Medina for some time …

ʿAbd al-Malik

(9 words)

b. Zuhr. [See ibn zuhr ]

ʿAbd al-Malik

(1,643 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Marwān, Umaiyad caliph. According to general report he was born in the year 26 (646-647). His father was Caliph Marwān ¶ I; his mother’s name was ʿĀʾis̲h̲a bint Muʿāwiya. As a boy of ten he was an eyewitness of the storming of the palace of ʿOt̲h̲mān, and at the age of 16 he was appointend President of the Dlwan of Medina by Caliph Muʿāwiya. Here he remained till the outbreak of the rebellion against Muʿāwiya’s son, Yazīd I, in 63 (682). When the Umaiyads were expelled by the rebels, ʿAbd al-Malik had to leave th…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(125 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Ṣāliḥ. That he died in 196 is confirmed by Masʿūdī, al-Tanbīh wa ’l-Is̲h̲rāf, ed. de Goeje, B. G. A., viii. 348. Elsewhere his death is variously dated; according to Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, vi. 437 he died in 197, according to Ibn ¶ Ḵh̲allikān, transl. de Slane, i. 316 in 193, do., iii. 665, cf. iii. 667, not till 199. — See in general Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, Paris, vi. 302—305, 419 sq., 437 sq.; Guidi, Tables alphabétiques; Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 132, 155, 170, 185; Brooks, Byzantines and Arabs in the Time of the early Abbasids, in The English Historical Review, xv. 728 sqq.; xvi. 84 sqq.; Waṣīyat…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(246 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ḳaṭan b. Nufail b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Fihrī, successor of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh [q. v.] as governor of Spain. It was not on account of his crimes and extortions but for political reasons that in 116 (end of 734) he was forced to abdicate his position in favor of ʿOkba b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ al-Salūlī. When, however, the latter in 123 (741) fell dangerously ill during an uprising of the Berbers in Africa, he found himself obliged to restore ʿAbd al-Malik to his former post. Meanwhile the troops sent…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(176 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Marwān. On i. 49a, l. 47 it is to be noted that the chronology is very uncertain; cf. also the art. ʿabd al-raḥmān b. muḥammad b. al-as̲h̲ʿat̲h̲. (K. V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Add: Ahlwardt, Anonyme arabische Chronik, passim Yaʿḳūbī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, ed. Houtsma, ii. 320—338 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ al-Ḏh̲ahab, Paris, v. 193, 205 sqq. vi. 50 ix. 41, 50 do., al-Tanbīh wa ’l-Is̲h̲rāf, ed. de Goeje, B.G.A., viii. 312—317 Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, passim Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, al-Fak̲h̲rī, ed. Derenbourg, p. 167—173 Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, see Guidi, Tables alphabétiques al-Mubarrad, al-Kāmil, ed. Wri…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(467 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Nūḥ, the name of two Sāmānides. 1. ʿAbd al-Malik (Abu’l-Fawāris) b. Nūḥ I, prince of Ḵh̲orāsān and Transoxania (343—350 = 954—961), successor to his father Nūḥ b. Naṣr. According to a more recent authority (Aḥmed al-Ḳubāwī, Nars̲h̲ak̲h̲ī, ed. Schefer, p. 95,1. 19), he was only 10 years old on his accession. The war commenced by Nūḥ. against the Būyides was put ¶ an end to in his reign by a peace which was disadvantageous to the Sāmānides (344 = 955-956); as the coins prove, this peace was conditional on the recognition of the caliph al-Muṭīʿ. Little is …

ʿAbd al-Malik

(136 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. al-Manṣūr. Two ʿĀmirides bore this name together with the surname of al-Muẓaffar: 1. ʿAbd al-Malik, the son of the famous Almanzor, had already in his father’s lifetime the title of Ḥād̲j̲ib (since 991), and after the latter’s death in 392 (1002) became his successor. His short reign (till 399 = 1008). was a happy one for his people. 2. ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Manṣūr b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, grandson of Almanzor, reigned after his father in Valencia (453—457 = 1061— 1065). He was hard pressed by Ferdinand I, king of Castile and Leon, and was finally taken…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(8 words)

b. His̲h̲ām. [See ibn his̲h̲ām.]

ʿAbd al-Muʾmin

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
b. ʿAlī, a Zanāta chief and founder of the Almohade dynasty, born towards the end of 487 = 1094 (other dates are also given) in a village, a day’s journey from Tlemcen. In accordance with a custom which exists to this day ʿAbd al-Muʾmin studied the Ḳorʾān in his village and afterwards went to Tlemcen to complete his studies. The chroniclers vie with one another in praising his physical and moral qualities and the height of his intelligence. His attractive appearance, his open countenance, the broadness of his views and the width of his judgment immediat…

ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(317 words)

Author(s): Hurgronje, Snouck
, the last S̲h̲erīf of Mecca, of the powerful s̲h̲erīf family of the Ḏh̲awī Zaid which was in power for about 200 years. He was the son of G̲h̲ālib, who was exiled from the Ḥid̲j̲āz after the defeat of the Wahhābites. In 1243 (1827) he took up the duties of s̲h̲erīf for ¶ the first time, but was shortly afterwards at the orders of the Egyptian viceroy Muḥammed ʿAlī replaced by Muḥammed b. ʿAwn of the ʿAbādila family. He spent the whole of his long life (he only died in 1886) in endeavoring to wrest the power from the ʿAbādila that were favored bo…

ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(440 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
b. Hās̲h̲im, the Prophet’s grandfather. The only tradition concerning him, which is perhaps of historical value, is that which relates how he looked after his grandson after the death of his son ʿAbd Allāh [q. v.]. All other stories about him are Meccan or Medinian fictions. His real name is said to have been S̲h̲aiba. It is told of his mother Salma, who belonged to the Banū Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār in Medina, that she had stipulated with his father Hās̲h̲im, that she should give birth to her child in Medina. Hās̲h̲im died shortly after while…

ʿAbd al-Raḥīm

(8 words)

b. Muḥammed. [See ibn nubāta.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥīm

(7 words)

b. ʿAlī, [See al-ḳāḍi’l-fāḍil.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥīm K̲h̲ān

(742 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, A. S.
Ḵh̲ān-i Ḵh̲anān, known to his contemporaries as Ḵh̲ān Mīrzā, was the son of the emperor Akbar’s first prime minister, Bairām Ḵh̲ān, and belonged to the Bahārlū tribe of Black Sheep Turkomans. His mother was a daughter of Ḏj̲amāl Ḵh̲ān Mewātī, whose elder daughter the emperor Humāyūn had married from motives of policy. He was born in Lahore on the 14th Ṣafar 964 (16th Dec. 1556) and died at the age of 71, in 1036 (1627) in Dihlī, where his tomb still stands near that of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Niẓām al-Dīn Awliyā. His chief wife was Māh Bānū, sister of Mīrzā ʿAzīz Kūka;…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(533 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the name of five Spanish Umaiyads: 1. ʿAbd al-raḥmān I B. Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām escaped from the slaughter which the ʿAbbāsides in 750 perpetrated on his family, and after long wanderings in North Africa came to Spain, where in 756 he founded the independent Emirate (subsequently also Sultanate) of the Umaiyads at Cordova. By his statesmanlike cunning and restless energy, which with all his determination and strength of character yet for the most part never degenerated into the often so useless cruelty and b…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(477 words)

Author(s): Seligsohn, M.
b. Muḥammed b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲, a Kindite general, who revolted against al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲. Being descended from the old kings ¶ of Kinda, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was at first the recipient of much kindness from al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, who went so far as to marry his son Muḥammed to ʿAbd al-Raḥman’s sister. In 76 (695-696) al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ sent him with an army to defend Madāʾin against S̲h̲abīb. In 80 (699) after the defeat of ʿUbaid Allāh b. Abī Bakra by Rutbīl (or Zunbīl; comp. Wellhausen, Das arab. Reich und sein Sturz, p. 144, note), king of Kābulistān, al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ gave ʿAbd a…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(220 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Abī Bekr Abū ʿAbd Allāh, son of the first caliph. His mother, Umm RiimSn, was also that of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a. His original name is said to have been ʿAbd al-Kaʿba, which was changed to ʿAbd al-Raḥmān only on his conversion, which took place very late, for he fought side by side with the Meccans at Bedr. ¶ Ḳorʾān, xlvi. 16 is therefore said to refer to him. He accompanied his sister in the battle of the Camel and was later on with ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣī when the latter marched against his brother, Muḥammed b. Abī Bekr, the governor of Egypt, but ʿAbd al-Raḥmān wa…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(8 words)

b. Muḥammed. [See ibn k̲h̲aldūn.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(1,183 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
b. His̲h̲ām, emperor of Morocco, born in 1778. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was the son of Mūlāi His̲h̲ām, governor of Mogador, brother of the sultan Mūlāi Sulaimān. His uncle nominated him on two occasions as his successor. On the death of Mūlāi Sulaimān on the 4th Rabīʿ I 1238 (22d Nov. 1822), ʿAbd al-Raḥmān had little difficulty in having himself proclaimed sultan. The Bok̲h̲arī handed over to him the 40000 piastres accumulated by his predecessor; two claimants, Ibrāhīm b. Yazīd and Sulaimān, his own cousin, who was proclaimed sultan by the people of T…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(453 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. Rostem, founder of the new Tāhert and head of an Abāḍite dynasty, which held its own ground in Central Mag̲h̲rib from 160 or 162 to 296 (776 or 778 to 908). ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was of Persian descent: according to the chroniclers of the Abadite sect he was the son of Rostem b. Bahrāin (comp. Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, i. 815) b. S̲h̲ābūr b. Bābek Ḏh̲i’l-Aktāf. This genealogy, which is evidently inexact and mutilated, is given by the historians to establish the fact that ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was of royal stock and was descended from the dynasty of the Sāsānides. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was born in ʿIrāḳ, his father, …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(181 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. ʿAwf, a Ḳorais̲h̲ite of the family of Zuhra, originally called ʿAbd ʿAmr (or ʿAbd al-Kaʿba). He was early converted to Islām, took part in both the Hid̲j̲ras to Abyssinia and to Medina, and was present at the battle of Bedr as well as at the other battles. He was the leader of the troops which Muḥammed sent against Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, and after the conquest of this oasis he married the daughter of the defeated prince. He belonged to the ten, to whom Muḥammed, according to Mussulman tradition, h…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(8 words)

b. ʿĪsā. [See ibn al-d̲j̲arrāḥ.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(396 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
al-Ṣūfī (his full name is Abu’l-Ḥosain ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿOmar al-Ṣūfī al-Razī), one of the most eminent astronomers and astrologers of the Arabs, born at Rai in December 903 and died in May 986. He was a friftnd, teacher, and astrologer of the Būyide ʿAḍud al-Dawla, who proudly boasted of three of his teachers: in grammar, Abū ʿAlī al-Fārisī al-Fasawī; in the knowledge of astronomical tables, S̲h̲erīf Ibn al-Aʿlam; and in the knowledge of the positions and movements of the fixed stars, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ṣūfī. He wrote: 1) Kitab al-kawākib al-t̲h̲ābita (or also al-Ṣuwar al-samāʾīya) muṣaw…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(166 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ṭag̲h̲airak, an influential Turkish emīr during the second period of the Seld̲j̲uk supremacy. His father was one of the emīrs of Sultan Barkiyāruḳ and held the town of Ḵh̲alk̲h̲āl [q. v.] in fee. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān himself was in 1141 appointed by Sultan Masʿūd majordomo ( ḥād̲j̲ib kabīr) with the surname of Fak̲h̲r al-Ḏīn. When in 1145 Buzābeh and ʿAbbās rebelled against the sultan, he was able to restore peace by allying himself with these men, by having the administration of Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān and Arzān transferred to himself, and by keeping…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(169 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḥusām Zāde, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām, son of Tulumd̲j̲u Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Ḥusām (died 1055 = 1645); born in 1003 (1594-1595), ḳāḍī at Aleppo (1050= 1640), at Constantinople (1054 = 1644), ḳāḍī ʿasḳar at Anatolia (1059= 1649), then in Roumelia (1062 = 1652), at first refused and then accepted the title of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām (1065 — 1655) in place of Abū Saʿīd Muḥammed Efendi. During the troubles of Ḏj̲umādā I 1066 (April 1656), known as the events of the Platane (Ćenar waḳʿa-si), having seen Ḳara ʿAbd Allāh massacred by the insurgent Sipāhīs (Hammer-Purgstall, Hist. de l’empire ottoman, x. 380; Jou…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(8 words)

b. ʿAlī [See ibn al-daibaʿ.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(8 words)

b. al-ḳāsim. [See ibn al-ḳāsim.]

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(233 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. al-Manṣūr Muḥammed, the last ʿĀmiride of Cordova. After the premature death of his brother ʿAbd al-Malik b. al-Manṣūr [q. v.] he became in the year 399(1008) imperial administrator (Ḥād̲j̲ib) with the surname al-Nāṣir for the Umaiyad pretender-caliph, His̲h̲ām II. He was born about 376 (986) of a Christian princess, the daughter of a certain Sancho, for which reason he is also sometimes called Sanchol, i. e. little Sancho. On account of his origin he was but little loved by the Mussulmans, and …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(101 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. ʿAbd Allāh al-G̲h̲āfiḳī, a governor of Spain, first temporarily in 103 (728), then from 112 to 114 (730—732). After defeating Duke Eudo of Aquitaine at Toulouse, he penetrated far into France, but was together with the greater part of his army annihilated by Charles Martel in Ramaḍān 114 (October 732) between Tours and Poitiers. The battle-field is called by the Arabs Balāṭ al-S̲h̲uhadāʾ, the Pavement of the Martyrs (pavement = paved Roman road) or briefly al-Balāṭ. (C. F. Seybold) Bibliography al-Ḍabbī (ed. Codera et Ribera), N°. 1021. Maḳḳarī, i. 146 ii. 9 Weil, Gesch. d. Chalifen, i.…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(226 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ḥabīb b. Abī ʿUbaida b. ʿOḳba b. Nāfiʿ al-Fihrī, governor of Ifrīḳīya, died in 137 (755). When his father, whom he had in his youth accompanied on raids in Sicily and other places, had fallen in the Berber revolt (142 = 740), ʿAbd al-Raḥmān fled to Spain, but afterwards returned to Africa and rebelled in Tunis in 126 (744) against the Umaiyads. The Umaiyad governor Ḥanẓala b. Ṣafwān thereupon quitted Ḳairawān, and since the ʿAbbāside uprising was in progress, it was not a very difficult task for ʿAbd …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(505 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
b. Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd, the Bar Ḵh̲ālid of the Syriac chroniclers, seemed to have inherited the ascendancy and military faculties of his father, “The Sword of God“. When barely 18, he commanded a division at the battle of al-Yarmūk, and later at Ṣiffīn, where he distinguished himself by the side of Muʿāwiya. He figures also at the head of the principal expeditions in Anatolia. The memory of his father, who died and was buried at Ḥimṣ (Emesa), and the government of this important province to which M…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (ʿAbdu’r-Raḥmān) K̲h̲ān

(4,155 words)

Author(s): Dames, M. Longworth
, emīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān (1844-1901), was perhaps the most remarkable ruler of an independent Mussulman state in the present day. His life may be conveniently dealt with under the following four heads: 1. Childhood and youth, up to the death of Emīr Dost Muḥammed (1844—1863). — 2. The period of civil wars (1863—1869). — 3. Exile (1869—1880). — 4. Reign as emīr (1880—1901). I. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was the son of Afḍal, the eldest son of Dost Muḥammed after Akbar Ḵh̲an’s death in 1266 (1849). Dost Muḥammed had five sons by a wife of the Bāmezai Popalzai clan, whom h…

ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd

(122 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr al-Ḥusainī al-Madanī al-Tattawī, a Persian lexicographer, born in Tatta, but a Saiyid by descent; died after 1069 (1658). His principal work is a Persian dictionary, usually called Farhang-i Ras̲h̲īdī, which was compiled in 1064 (1683-1684) and published in 1875 in the Bibliotheca Indica. Splieth revised the preface ( Muḳaddama): Grammaticae persicae praecepta ac regulae (Halle, 1846). ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd dedicated an Arabic-Persian dictionary, Muntak̲h̲ab al-lug̲h̲āt (1046 = 1636-1637), to the S̲h̲āhd̲j̲ahān (editions: Calcutta 1808, 1816, 18…

ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ

(2,542 words)

Author(s): Macdonald
Kamāl al-Dīn b. Abu ’l-G̲h̲anaʾim al-Ḳās̲h̲ānī (or Kās̲h̲ānī or Ḳās̲h̲ī or Kāsānī), celebrated Ṣūfī author, died, according to Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa (ed. Flügel, IV. 427), in 730 (1329). Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, however, confusing him with the historian of the same name, the author of the Maṭlaʿal-saʿdain, says in another place (ii. 175) that he died in 887 (1482) and, besides, gives his name as Kamāl al-Dīn Abu’l-G̲h̲anāʾim ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ b. Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn al-Kās̲h̲ī al-Samarḳanḍī. Little is known of ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ’s life; according to Ḏj̲āmī ( Nafaḥāt al-uns, quoted by St. Guyard…

ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ

(303 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Kamāl al-Dīn b. Isḥāḳ al-Samarḳandī, a Persian historian, author of the well-known Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdain wa-mad̲j̲maʿ al-baḥrain, born at Herāt in 816 (1413), where he died in 887 (1482). His father was ḳāḍī and Imām at the court of Sultan S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ [q. v.]. In 845 (1441) ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ went to India as an ambassador (returned in 848 = 1444), and in 850 (1446) to Gīlān; he died in the reign of the sultan Ḥusain Baiḳarā [q. v.] as governor of the Ḵh̲ānḳāh of S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲. His work depicts, with a ¶ brief mention of the birth (704 = 1304-1305) and accession (716 = 1316-1317) of the Īl…

ʿAbd al-Salām

(475 words)

Author(s): Doutté, E.
b. Mas̲h̲īs̲h̲ al-Ḥasanī, a celebrated Moroccan Saint; was murdered about the year 625 (1227-1228). He appeared to be a paragon of Ṣūfism in Northern Africa. He was a disciple of Abū Madyān S̲h̲aʿaib [q. v.] and the master of Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī, who has given his name to one of the largest Mussulman confraternities. Little is known of his life, which is for the greater part legendary: he seems to have had as a rival Muḥammed b. Abī Ṭuād̲j̲in, who was the religious head of the Morocca…

ʿAbd al-Wād

(326 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
, an ancestor of the kings of Central Mag̲h̲rib (Tlemcen) [see ʿabdalwādides]. The following is the genealogy of ʿAbd al-Wād as given by Yaḥyā b. Ḵh̲aldūn: „The origin of this name goes back to ʿAbd al-Wādī, so called from the ascetic life led by the ancestor of the ʿAbdalwādides. — He was a son of S̲h̲ad̲j̲īh…b. Muḍar b. Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān, according to the opinion given to us by Ibn Abi’l-Faiyāḍ and other authors“. Notwithstanding the slight value of this genealogy, it still shows that ʿAbd al-Wād …

ʿAbd al-Wahhāb

(9 words)

[See Muḥammed ʿabd al-wahhāb and wahhābites.]

ʿAbd al-Wahhāb

(481 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rostem, second Imām of the Abāḍite dynasty of the Rostemides of Tāhert. He succeeded his father in 168 (784-785) and died in 208(823-824). At the time of his accession the town of Tāhert, founded by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, had already greatly developed. The great merchants of Ifrīḳīya, of the Mag̲h̲rib and even of Egypt and the East, who were sure of finding justice and safety in this town, had brought their wealth there. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb himself, before he attained to power, had devoted himself to commerce and had acquired a considerable private fortune. This influx of people w…

ʿAbd al-Wahhāb

(42 words)

(Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Malik al-Manṣūr) b. al-Malik al-Mud̲j̲āhid S̲h̲ams al-Dīn ʿAlī, of the family of the Ṭāhirides [q. v.], ruled in Yemen after the death of his father Zabīd in 883 (1478) till 894 (1488). Bibliography Johannsen, Historia Jemanae, pp. 214—229.

ʿAbd al-Wāḥid

(846 words)

Author(s): Bel, A.
al-Ras̲h̲īd, ninth Al-mohade emperor, son of and successor to Abu’l-ʿAlaʾ Idrīs (al-Maʾmūn). His mother, Ḥabāb, who was a Christian captive, helped by her cleverness in having the young prince, then only fourteen years old, proclaimed emperor. The death of al-Maʾmūn took place suddenly on the last day of 629 (17th Oct. 1232) according to the author of the Ḳarṭās, or at the beginning of 630 according to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, when he had just raised the siege of Ceuta — where his brother Abū Mūsā had stirred up a revolt against him — and was marching on Marrākus…

ʿAbd al-Wāḥid

(66 words)

b. ʿAlī al-Tamīmī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī Abū Muḥammed, surnamed Muḥyi’l-Dīn, was born in Morocco in 581 (1185), and subsequently sojourned in Spain and Egypt. The date and place of his death are unknown. In 621 (1224) he wrote a history of the Almohades entitled: al-Muʿd̲j̲ib fī talk̲h̲īṣ ak̲h̲bār al-Mag̲h̲rib (edited by Dozy; transl. into French by Fagnan). Comp. Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litter., i. 322.

ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ

(148 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḏj̲abalī b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ, a Persian poet, one of the panegyrists of the Seld̲j̲uḳ Sultan Sand̲j̲ar. A native of the province of G̲h̲ard̲j̲istān, he lived at first for some time at Herāt, and then went to G̲h̲azna, where he entered the service of Sultan Bahrām S̲h̲āh, son of Masʿūd, of the dynasty of the G̲h̲aznewides; after four years, when Sultan Sand̲j̲ar came to G̲h̲azna to support Bahrām S̲h̲āh, who was his first cousin on his mother’s side, he took advantage ¶ of the occasion to address an ode to him. It is said that he died in 555 (1160). His Dīwān was published at Lahore in 1862. (Cl. Huart…

Aben, Abn, Aven

(81 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, pronunciation of the Spanish Arabs for ibn, “son“. Hence: Avicen(n)a = Ibn Sīnā; Averroes = Ibn Rus̲h̲d; Avempace = Ibn Bād̲j̲d̲j̲a; Aben Pascualis = Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl; often also by the Spanish-Arabic Jews, as Avencebrol, Avicebron = Ibn Gabirol; Abendana; Abenatar; [see also abencerages]. — The classical form ibn also occurs though rarely; comp. Pedro de Alcalá, s. v. hi jo = ibn and Anales Toledanos, ii: Ibnabiámer, a surname of Almanzor [comp. kunya]. (C. F. Seybold)
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