Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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 Taʾrīkh iftitāḥ al-Andalus

(477 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The history of the conquest of al-Andalus Ibn al-Qūṭiyya Date: After 977 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʾrīkh iftitāḥ al-Andalus deals with the history of al-Andalus from the early days of the conquest up to the reign of the Caliph ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III. It prefaces this with a description of the Iberian Peninsula before the conquest. This work is thought to be by a disciple of Ibn al-Qūṭiyya, based on notes that contain his views about relations between the Umayyad rulers and their subjects. The various accounts offer a moralizing vision o…

 Ta’rīkh madīnat Dimashq

(977 words)

Author(s): Mourad, Suleiman A.
Ta’rīkh DimashqTa’rīkhHistory of Damascus Ibn ʿAsākir Date: Between 1134 and 1176 Original Language: Arabic Description The parts of Ibn ʿAsākir’s Taʾrīkh that are relevant to Christian-Muslim relations are the following entries: ʿIsā ibn Maryam (Jesus), xlvii, pp. 347-524 (also edited by Mourad, Sīrat al-Sayyid al-Masīḥ); Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyya (John the Baptist), lxiv, pp. 168-218; Ḥawāriyyūn ʿIsā ibn Maryam (Disciples of Jesus), lxviii, pp. 55-71; and Maryam bint ʿImrān (Mary), lxx, pp. 75-122. In these entries one comes across the variety of Muslim opinions about t…

 Al-ta'rīkh al-Manṣūrī

(601 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
‘The Manṣūrī history’ Ibn Naẓīf al-Ḥamawī Date: Almost certainly early 1230s Original Language: Arabic Description The work is a political history of the world from the creation up to the year 1233, dedicated to the Ayyūbid ruler al-Manṣūr, and is one of three known works by the author. The other two were a chronicle until the year 940, and a now lost universal history, of which Al-taʾrīkh al-Manṣūrī is but a brief summary. For the period up to 1192, Ibn Naẓīf al-Ḥamawī used ʿImād al-Dīn’s chronicle Al-bustān al-jāmiʿ as the main basis of his writing, and Al-taʾrīkh al-Manṣūrī does not diff…

 Ta’rīkh Mayyāfāriqīn wa-Āmid

(958 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
Ta’rīkh MayyāfāriqīnThe history of Mayyafariqin and Āmid, History of Mayyafariqin Ibn al-Azraq Date: 1164-65 and 1176-77 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʾrīkh Mayyāfāriqīn is a chronicle which, while generally focused on the area around Mayyāfāriqīn and Āmid in Diyār Bakr, includes discourses which are wide-ranging both geographically and historically. The chronicle probably originally started with the life of Muḥammad, as there are a number of missing folios at the beginning of MS BL Or. 5803, before the…

 Taʾrīkh al-Siʿīrd

(537 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The Chronicle of Seʿert The Chronicle of Se'ert Date: Before 1023 Original Language: Arabic Description This work is a universal history. It is divided into two parts, the first narrating the events of the years 251 to 422, and the second dealing with the period 484 up to 650, at which point the MS containing this part breaks off. The remainder of the Chronicle may have followed events up to the 11th century. The author, who is anonymous, was evidently a Nestorian priest who must have finished writing before the year 1023 (see Youssif, Chroniqueurs, p. 280). The Chronicle is based on a numbe…

 Ta’rīkh ʿulamāʼ al-Andalus

(438 words)

Author(s): de la Puente, Cristina
History of the scholars of al-Andalus Ibn al-Faraḍī Date: Unknown; before April 1013 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʼrīkh ʿulamāʼ al-Andalus is a biographical dictionary and the best known of Ibn al-Faraḍī’s works. The author describes it as ‘a compilation of the ʿulamāʼ, the muḥaddithūn and the most rigorous scholars of al-Andalus, summarized and arranged in alphabetic order’. It includes biographies of scholars from the time of the Arab conquest of al-Andalus in the 8th century to the end of the 10th century, although most come from the 9th and 10th centuries. Ibn al-Far…


(425 words)

Author(s): Vucetic, Martin
Kōnstantinos (?) Tarōneitēs Date of Birth: Unknown: early 14th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography Our knowledge of Taronites derives from a letter that Gregory Palamas sent to his flock in Thessaloniki during his captivity in Ottoman Anatolia. From what Palamas says, Taronites was a Christian physician in the service of the Ottoman ruler ( ho megas amēras, the great emir) Orhan I. When the latter was suffering from a liver disease, he summoned Taronites to his summer court, which at that time was near Burs…

 Tarṣī῾ al-akhbār wa-tanwī῾ al-āthār wa-l-bustān fī gharā’ib al-buldān wa-l-masālik ilā jamī῾ al-mamālik

(1,068 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Niẓām al-marjān fī l-masālik wa-l-mamālikKitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik al-sharqiyya wa-kitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik al-gharbiyyaThe adornment of reports and classification of monuments and gardens on the wonders of lands and the routes to all kingdoms Al-῾Udhrī Date: Between 1066 and 1085 Original Language: Arabic Description The Tarṣī῾ al-akhbār is partially preserved in a codex made up of 48 folios, which, according to its editor al-Ahwānī, represents no more than a tenth of the whole book ( Nuṣūṣ ῾an al-Andalus, p. alif). Al-Ahwānī suggests that the extant copy was w…

 Tartīb al-madārik wa-taqrīb al-masālik bi-maʿrifat aʿlām madhhab Mālik

(434 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Tartīb al-madārikThe ordering of perception and facilitation of procedures for knowledge of the most eminent in the school of Mālik Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ Date: Before 1149 Original Language: Arabic Description The Tartīb is a collection of about 1,600 biographies of jurists of the Mālikī school of law, from the founder, Mālik ibn Anas, to ʿIyāḍ’s own time (the precise date of composition is unknown). It is one of the most important sources for the history of the Mālikī school. In the biography of Abū Bakr Yaḥyā ibn Hudhayl, ʿIyāḍ reports about celebrations of St John the Baptist’s Day, the mahrajān

 Tashʿītā awkīt neṣḥānē d-qaddīshā mār(i) tʾwdwṭʾ epīsqupā d-āmīd mdī(n)tā

(1,417 words)

Author(s): Palmer, Andrew
The Story or heroic deeds of the holy one, my lord Theoduṭe, bishop of the city of Āmīd/AmidaThe Life of Theoduṭe of Āmīd Symeon at the dictation of Joseph, disciple of Theoduṭe Date: Shortly after 698 Original Language: Syriac Description The Life, which is unpublished, will be divided in the first edition, which is being prepared by the author of the present article, into just over 100 sections averaging 500-1,000 words in translation. The most striking aspect of Christian-Muslim relations in this text is the total absence from most …

 Tashʿītā d-qaddīshā mār(y) Shmūʾēl w-mār(y) Shemʿūn w-mār(y) Gabrīʾēl

(2,068 words)

Author(s): Palmer, Andrew
The Story of my lord Samuel and my lord Symeon and my lord, Life of Gabriel Anonymous monk of the monastery of Qartmīn Date: Between 758 and 969, probably 9th c. Original Language: Syriac Description The Life of Gabriel of Qartmīn is part of a trilogy which comprises the Lives of Samuel of Eshtin and Symeon of Qartmīn, the 4th century founders of the monastery, and that of Gabriel, who died in 648. The author was perhaps a son of Gabriel’s village of Bēt Qusṭān, who hoped to add to its fame by linking Gabriel with the founders of the monastery of Qartmī…

 Tashʿītā d-qaddīshā rām ba-gbayyā mār(y) Shem’ūn d-zaytē

(1,255 words)

Author(s): Palmer and Jack Tannous, Andrew Nicholas
The story of St Simeon of the Olives, exalted among the elect Eyyūb of Bēth Man’em Date: Unknown; probably first half of the 8th century, with later additions Original Language: Syriac Description According to the Paris MS, the full title of this work is Tashʿ‘ītā d-qaddīshā rām ba-gbayyā mār(y) Shem’ūn d-zaytē d-hū ītawhy men Ḥabsenūs qastrā mshammahtā ba-tḥūm atrā da-mḥallemāyē (‘The story of St Simeon of the Olives, exalted among the elect, who is from the famous fort of Ḥabsenus on the border of Mḥallemī territory’). The title in the Mardin MS …

 Tashʿitā d-rabban Sargīs

(1,313 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The story of Rabban Sergius, The Legend of Sergius BaḥīrāThe Baḥīrā legend Unknown author Date: Unknown, probably early 9th c. Original Language: Syriac Description This ‘story’ is a Syriac polemical legend that seeks to explain the rise of Islam from a Christian perspective. It purports to reveal the influence of a Christian monk on Muḥammad during his early life and the beginning of his mission as prophet, and it exploits the story found in the Muslim biographies of Muḥammad (e.g. Ibn Isḥāq’s Sīra) about a monk called Baḥīrā who recognized Muḥammad as the true and final prophet. The legen…

 Tashʿyātā w-sharbē mawtrānē d-ʿal nāshā qaddishē (w-iḥidāyē) da-hwaw b-dār dār b-ʿumrā qaddishā d-Bēt ʿAbē

(421 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Ktābā d-rishānēThe useful histories and stories on the holy men (and solitaries), who generation after generation lived in the holy monastery of Bēt ʿAbē, The Book of Governors Thomas of Margā Date: Unknown, but while he was bishop of Margā Original Language: Syriac Description The work contains biographies of the abbots of the monasteries of Bēt ʿAbē and of many other figures of the Church of the East (e.g. Patriarch Ghiwargis I, Timothy I, etc.), covering the period between the late 6th and the mid-9th centuries. It contains important i…

 Taṣrīḥ al-Qurʾān bi-l-naṣr ʿalā man istaʿāna bi-kuffār al-ʿaṣr

(272 words)

Author(s): Yarbrough, Luke
‘Qurʾanic assurance of victory over those who seek the support of present-day infidels’ Al-Nābulusī Date: Before 1241 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taṣrīḥ al-Qurʾān is known only from the author’s reference in his Tajrīd (MS Tunis Jāmiʿ Zaytūna – IV 74, fol. 6r, MS Istanbul, Damād Ibrāhīm – 273, fol. 4r). After quoting qur’anic passages that discourage amity with non-Muslims, al-Nābulusī explains that those who flout these directives risk becoming infidels themselves. He adds: ‘If the jurisprudent wishes to refer to…

 Ta Synodika tou autou en hosia tē mnēmē Sōphroniou

(515 words)

Author(s): Sahas, Daniel J.
Epistola synodicaThe Synodika of the same Sophronius of holy remembrance, Synodical Letter Sophronius, ‘the Sophist’ Date: 634 Original Language: Greek Description As one of his first acts as patriarch, Sophronius convened a council of local bishops and abbots of monasteries to condemn the heresy of monothelitism to which the Eastern patriarchates (except Jerusalem), the pope and the Emperor Heraclius were aspiring as a means of compromise in the rift between the Chalcedonian Orthodox and non-Chalcedonian Monophysit…

 Tathbīt dalāʾil al-nubuwwa

(2,053 words)

Author(s): Reynolds, Gabriel Said
TathbītThe confirmation of the proofs of prophethood, The confirmation ʿAbd al-Jabbār Date: 995 Original Language: Arabic Description The only extant manuscript of the Tathbīt comprises 313 folios in two volumes (662 pages in the modern edition). The section concerned with Christianity, known as the ‘Critique of Christian origins’, comprises fols 42-99 (pp. 91-210). ʿAbd al-Jabbār himself identifies the date of its composition as 385 (995). He also refers in the text to the city of Rayy, where he served as a judge, an…

 Tathbīt nubuwwa Muḥammad

(826 words)

Author(s): Reynolds, Gabriel Said
Al-dalīl ʿalā nubuwwa MuḥammadConfirmation of the prophethood of MuḥammadProof for the prophethood of Muḥammad Al-Hādī ilā l-Ḥaqq Date: Unknown; before 911 Original Language: Arabic Description The Tathbīt nubuwwa Muḥammad is a short unpublished treatise, two folios in length, on the evidentiary signs or miracles which, al-Hādī argues, prove that Muḥammad was a prophet. It forms part of a group of brief treatises that al-Hādī wrote either to address specific topics (e.g. Al-radd ʿalā man zaʿama anna l-Qurʾān qad dhahaba baʿḍuhu; Tathbīt imāmat amīr al-muʾminīn; Kitāb al-manzila…

 Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya

(582 words)

Author(s): Burman, Thomas E.
'Trinitizing the oneness (of God)' Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya Date: Approximately 1150-1210 Original Language: Arabic Description The fragments of this work that are quoted successively by al-Imām al-Qurṭubī amount to only 383 lines of text in the modern edition, or about 12 pages.  It is unclear whether al-Qurṭubī quoted the whole of the work. The author defends three Christian beliefs.  In the first section he argues in rational fashion that God is necessarily a Trinity.  God could only have created through his…

Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya

(284 words)

Author(s): Burman, Thomas E.
Unknown author Date of Birth: Unknown; fl. 12th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; possibly early 13th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography This author was probably an Andalusī Jew who had converted to Christianity, and who was active between 1150 and 1200. Primary Sources of Information This author’s only known work, Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya, is preserved in a much longer refutation of it by a certain al-Imām al-Qurṭubī (q.v.), in his Al-iʿlām. The little we know about the author appears in the sections of this work where Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya is quoted (ed. …
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