Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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 Moreh Tsedeḳ

(1,981 words)

Author(s): Szpiech, Ryan
Mostrador de justicia‘Teacher of righteousness’ Abner of Burgos/Alfonso of Valladolid Date: Approximately 1321-24 Original Language: Hebrew Description This is the earliest surviving and most important work of Abner of Burgos/Alfonso of Valladolid. The authenticity of the work is not doubted, as it is referred to by numerous later writers, and in other works by the same author. Originally composed in Hebrew, it was translated into Castilian in the 14th century, very possibly by Abner/Alfonso himself. (He translated his earlier work, the now lost Sefer milḥamot Adonai, into Casti…

Moses bar Kephā

(800 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Biography Moses bar Kephā was baptized Moses after his learned uncle, who was a teacher of the reformer of Syriac church music, David bar Paulus d-Bēt Rabban, which points to the intellectual milieu in which bar Kephā grew up. The sources for his life are two Vitas, of which Vita A is extant in a shorter (10th-century) and a longer  (12th-century) recension, and some notes in later chronicles. Vita B is based on the longer recension of Vita A. Moses’ name Bar Kephā (Kephā meaning stone) goes back to his father, Simeon Kephā/Petrus, but is also attributed to the fact that…

Movsēs Daskhurants‘i / Movsēs Kaghankatuats‘i

(798 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
Movsēs Dasxurancʿi / Movsēs Kałankatuacʿi Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Early 10th c. Place of Death: Unknown Biography Traditionally, two names have been associated with the composition entitled History of Aghuank‘ ( History of Ałuank‘/Albania): Movsēs Daskhurants‘i and Movsēs Kaghankatuats‘i. Movsēs Daskhurants‘i was first named as the compiler of the work by Mkhit‘ar Gosh at the end of the 12th century, whilst Kirakos Gandzakets‘i (d. 1271) asserted that Kaghankatuats‘i was responsible. This double identification has generat…

Muʿārik ibn Marwān ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān ibn Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr

(323 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Muʿārik ibn Marwān al-Nuṣayrī Date of Birth: Unknown, 9th c. Place of Birth: Probably Egypt Date of Death: Unknown, 9th c. Place of Death: Probably Egypt Biography Muʿārik ibn Marwān was the great-great-grandson of Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr, the conqueror of al-Andalus. He is reported to have written a book entitled Akhbār al-Andalus ('Historical reports about al-Andalus') dealing with his ancestor's role in this conquest. His place of birth is not known for certain, though M. ʿAlī Makkī suggests that he must have been Egyptian since his great-grandfather…

Al-Mu’ayyad bi-llāh

(297 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Abū l-Ḥusayn Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Hārūnī l-Buṭḥānī, al-Mu’ayyad bi-Llāh Date of Birth: 944 Place of Birth: Āmul, Ṭābaristān Date of Death: 1020 Place of Death: Langā Biography The Imām al-Mu’ayyad bi-llāh came from a family of Iranian Imāmī Shīʿīs, though he and his brother came under Zaydī influence. He first studied fiqh and Baghdad Muʿtazilī kalām with his uncle in Baghdad, and also Basra Muʿtazilī kalām with the leader of the Basra school, Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Baṣrī (d. 980; q.v.). Through the latter, he would have come to know leading intellectuals of the …

Al-Mufaḍḍal ibn Abī l-Faḍāʾil

(356 words)

Author(s): Moawad, Samuel
Biography Al-Mufaḍḍal ibn Abī l-Faḍāʾil was a Coptic historian who lived in the 14th century. He became known through his single work Al-nahj al-sadīd (see below), which, according to the colophon of the unique manuscript, he finished in 1358. He may have been the nephew of the historian al-Makīn Jirjis ibn al-ʿAmīd (q.v.); Ghāzī Ibn al-Wāsiṭī (q.v.) in his Radd ʿalā ahl al-dhimma mentions a certain ‘Abū l-Faḍaʾil ibn ukht [son of the sister of] al-Makīn ibn al-ʿAmīd, known as secretary of war in Damascus’. Indeed, al-Mufaḍḍal’s work is no more than a continuation of al-Makīn's history Al-m…

 Mufāwaḍa maʿa Abī Muslim bi-ḥaḍrat al-wazīr Abī l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn al-Jarrāḥ fī l-thālūth

(441 words)

Author(s): Platti, Emilio
Jawāb ʿan masʾala jarat bayna yaday ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā ibn al-Jarrāḥ fī l-tathlīth wa-l-tawḥīdTalk on the Trinity with Abū Muslim in the presence of the vizier Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn al-Jarrāḥ, Answer to a question raised before ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā ibn al-Jarrāḥ concerning Trinity and Unity Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description This is a short answer to a question transmitted to Yaḥyā by one of his friends. The question had come up in a meeting with the famous vizier, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā ibn al-Jarrāḥ (d. 946 [q.v.]; he was a s…

 Al-mughnī fī abwāb al-tawḥīd wa-l-ʿadl

(2,033 words)

Author(s): Reynolds, Gabriel Said
Al-mughnīAl-mughnī fī uṣūl al-dīnSumma on the matters of divine unity and divine justice, SummaSumma on the principles of religion ʿAbd al-Jabbār Date: 970-90 Original Language: Arabic Description The Mughnī, ʿAbd al-Jabbār’s magnum opus, is a lengthy apology for Muʿtazilī theology and polemic against competing systems of religious thought. Composed in 20 parts ( ajzāʾ), the Mughnī is ostensibly dedicated to two theological categories, namely monotheism (5 parts) and justice (15 parts). Parts 1-3, 9 (partially), 10 (partially), 18, and 19 are not ex…

 Al-mughrib fī ḥulā l-Maghrib

(665 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
'The wondrous work, on gems of the West' Ibn Saʿīd al-Maghribī Date: 1250 Original Language: Arabic Description This work contains nearly 900 biographies of Muslim authors, giving important information about lost works and quoting from them. It comprises 15 books ( asfār), the first six devoted to Egypt, the next three to Tunis ( Ifrīqiya) and North Africa ( bilād al-Barbar), and the remaining six to al-Andalus. This third group contains details about Christian al-Andalus, as well as Europe north of the Pyrenees ( al-arḍ al-kabīra). Significance In the last six books Ibn Saʻīd giv…

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad al-Kātib

(82 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Biography This otherwise unknown author wrote his work for the Ayyūbid Sultan Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (r. 1174-93), and would therefore have been his contemporary, most likely living in the capital Cairo. Primary Sources of Information Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Nuwayrī, Nihāyat al-arab fī funūn al-adab, ed. M. Qumayḥa et al., 33 vols, Beirut, 2004-5, xxxi, p. 261 Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Al-durr al-thamīn fī manāqib al-muslimīn wa-mathālib al-mushrikīn David Thomas

Muḥammad ibn Saḥnūn ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥabīb al-Tanūkhī

(373 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Muḥammad ibn Saḥnūn Date of Birth: 817 Place of Birth: Qayrawān Date of Death: 870 Place of Death: Near Qayrawān Biography Muḥammad ibn Saḥnūn was a leading Mālikī legal expert of his day in his part of the world. He learnt legal thinking from his father, and also in Medina.   He is credited with almost 100 books on various subjects, and these show his involvement in the main intellectual discussions of the time. They include his encyclopedic al-Jāmiʿ, 'The compendium', which covered the branches of intellectual knowledge and jurisprudence, and also polemical works such as Kitāb al-ḥujja ʿ…

 Al-muḥīṭ bi-l-taklīf

(454 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
The comprehensive work on the [divine] imposition ʿAbd al-Jabbār Date: Between 990 and 1025 Original Language: Arabic Description This work, which postdated the Mughnī and was effectively an epitome of it, was framed as a digest of what was enjoined (or 'imposed') by God as necessary for a believer to know. It has not survived intact, though parts are accessible in fragmentary form, preserved in Arabic and Hebrew characters (see Schmidtke, pp. 396-406). It forms the basis of Ibn Mattawayh's Kitāb al-majmūʿ fī l-muḥīṭ bi-l-taklīf, ‘The comprehensive, on the all-embracing concern…

Muḥyī l-Dīn al-Iṣfahānī

(259 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Muḥyī l-Dīn al-ʿAjamī al-Iṣfahānī Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown; possibly Iṣfahān Date of Death: Possibly 12th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography We have little information about this author, who is called shaykh and imām. On account of his outspoken preference for the West Syrian doctrine on the Incarnation against the position of the other Christian communities, he must have belonged to the West Syrian (Jacobite) community, though Sbath and Graf (but the latter also refers to his ‘monophysite’ convictions)…

 Al-mujādala allati jarat bayna l-usquf Yuʾanīs ibn al-Shammāʿ al-Suryānī wa-l-malik al-Muʿizz bi-ḥuḍūr Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ, usquf al-Ashmunayn

(231 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Al-mujādala bayna Yuʾanīs ibn al-Shammāʿ wa-l-MuʿizzThe debate that took place between Bishop Yuʾanīs ibn al-Shammāʿ al-Suryānī and the ‘king’ al-Muʿizz with Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ, Bishop of al-Ashmunayn, in attendance, The debate between Yuʾanīs ibn al-Shammāʿ and al-Muʿizz Ibn al-Shammāʿ Yuʾanīs al-Suryānī Date: Late 10th century Original Language: Arabic Description We know nothing about the circumstances or course of this debate, or about the subjects covered, except that it would have been held in Cairo during the first years of Fatimid rule. …

 Mujādala maʿa jamāʿa min afāḍil al-Muslimīn bi-majlis al-Malik al-Kāmil ibn al-Malik al-ʿĀdil ibn Ayyūb, ḥaḍarahu fīhā l-qiss Būlus al-Būshī

(447 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
'A disputation with a group of eminent Muslims in the majlis of al-Malik al-Kāmil ibn al-Malik al-ʿĀdil ibn Ayyūb, in which he was attended by the priest Būlus al-Būshī', 'A disputation in the majlis of al-Malik al-Kāmil' Patriarch Cyril III ibn Laqlaq Date: Unknown; not later than 1243 (if Cyril is the author) Original Language: Arabic Description This mujādala or disputation-text is the sole work attributed to Patriarch Cyril III ibn Laqlaq in the bibliographical chapter of al-Shams ibn Kabar’s Miṣbāḥ al-ẓulma; a copy of the work was reported by P. Sbath in an inaccessible manuscript. Ac…

 Mujādala maʿ al-Yahūd wa-l-Naṣārā

(190 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
‘Disputation with the Jews and Christians’ Al-Raqilī Date: Unknown; before 1405 Original Language: Arabic Description Assuming that al-Raqilī wrote Taʾyīd al-milla soon after his conversion, as a statement about the errors in his former religion and a recantation of it, this disputation must have come later. He may have intended it as a fuller and more comprehensive refutation of Judaism than his earlier work, together with an examination of the weaknesses and errors in Christianity. It appears that the work has not been studied, though given the character of the arguments in Taʾyīd al…

 Mujādalat Abī Qurra maʿa l-mutakallimīn al-muslimīn fī majlis al-khalīfa l-Maʾmūn

(2,839 words)

Author(s): Bertaina, David
Mujādalat Abī QurraThe Debate of Abū Qurra with Muslim scholars at the court of the Caliph al-Maʾmūn, The Debate of Abū Qurra Unknown author Date: Unknown; after 829 Original Language: Arabic Description The text of a disputation between Theodore Abū Qurra (q.v.) and Muslim scholars before the ʿAbbasid Caliph al-Maʾmūn is preserved in at least 31 manuscripts in two different recensions, one Melkite and one Syrian Orthodox. Since Theodore Abū Qurra was the Melkite Bishop of Ḥarrān, it would follow that the Melkite recension is …

 Mujādalat al-rāhib al-qiddīs Ibrāhīm al-Ṭabarānī maʿa l-amīr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Ṣāliḥ al-Hāshimī

(1,652 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Mujādalat Ibrāhīm al-ṬabarānīThe Disputation of the saintly monk Ibrāhīm al-Ṭabarānī with the emir ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Ṣāliḥ al-Hāshimī, The Disputation of Ibrāhīm al-Ṭabarānī Unknown Date: After c. 820, probably later 9th c. Original Language: Arabic Description The text recounts a religious disputation ( mujādala) that took place in Jerusalem over the course of an unspecified number of days between the monk Ibrāhīm al-Ṭabarānī and a series of interlocutors at the court of the emir ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Ṣāli…

 Al-mukhtaṣar fī khabar sayyid al-bashar

(115 words)

Author(s): Demiri, Lejla
An abridgment of the news regarding the master of mankind Ibn Ẓafar Date: Unknown; probably after 1163 Original Language: Arabic Description As the title suggests, this must have been a summary of Khayr al-bishar. No sources mention it apart from Brockelmann, GAL S i, pp. 595-96. Significance - Manuscripts MS Mosul – 106, 90, 6 (see Brockelmann, GAL S i, pp. 595-96) Editions & Translations - Studies - Keywords Chronological Category: 1100-1200 Thematic Region: Mecca Related Historical People: Muhammad Dynasty/Ruling elite: Zengids Genre & Source Type: Proofs of Prophethood Theme: Bib…

 Mukhtaṣar kalām Sibilla l-ḥakīma l-ṭāhira ibnat Hūfalīs (= Harqalīs) raʾs ḥunafāʾ Afasus bi-l-Iskandariyya, wa-huwa taʿbīruhā manāmāt kahana bi-madīnat Rūmiyya allatī raʾawhā fīhā, wa-ʿadaduhum miʾat kāhin

(1,136 words)

Author(s): van Lent, Jos
An abridged account of the words of Sibilla, the wise, the pure, daughter of Heraclius, head of the pagans of Ephesus, in Alexandria, being her interpretation of the dreams of certain priests in the city of Rome which they saw there, and the priests numbered one hundredThe Copto-Arabic Sibylline prophecy; The Arabic Sibylline prophecy, version V; The Oriental Sibylline prophecy Arab. V; Sib. Or. Arab. V The Copto-Arabic Sibylline prophecy Date: Probably late 11th century Original Language: Arabic Description This work is a late recension of the Arabic Sibylline prophecy described in CM…
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