Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
 
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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Al-Ṭabarī

(719 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr ibn Yazīd al-Ṭabarī Date of Birth: Uncertain; probably 839 Place of Birth: Āmul, Ṭabaristān Date of Death: 17 February 923 Place of Death: Baghdad Biography Al-Ṭabarī’s unusual intellectual abilities were evident from a young age. As early as his mid-teens he began his travels in search of learning, and visited scholars in Rayy, Basra and Kūfa as well as further afield in Syria, Palestine and Egypt. In about 870 he settled in Baghdad, where he followed legal studies under the Shāfiʿī expert al-R…

 Al-tabyīn baʿd al-shakk

(78 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
'Demonstration after doubt’ Yūḥannā ibn Sawīrus Date: Unknown; after 1189 Original Language: Arabic Description This lost work is known only from the colophon of MS Vat Ar. 117. From the title it seems that it was theological and apologetic in character. Significance Nothing can be said without more information about the work’s contents. Manuscripts - Editions & Translations - Studies - Keywords Chronological Category: 1100-1200 Genre & Source Type: Apologies Christians: Copts Wadi Awad

 Tabyīn ghalaṭ Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-maʿrūf bi-Abī ʿĪsā l-Warrāq ʿammā dhakarahu fī kitābihi fī l-Radd ʿalā l-thalāth firaq min al-Naṣārā

(882 words)

Author(s): Platti, Emilio
Demonstration of the error of Muḥammad ibn Hārūn known as Abū ʿĪsā l-Warrāq in what he mentioned in his book ‘Refutation of the three Christians denominations’ Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description This is the most extensive of Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī’s works. Just as in his refutation of al-Kindī’s demonstration against the Trinity, he quotes, probably exhaustively, from Abū ʿĪsā l-Warrāq’s Refutation of the three Christian sects (see D. Thomas, Anti-Christian polemic in early Islam. Abū ʿĪsā al-Warrāq’s ‘Against the Trinity’, Cambridge, 1992, and Early Muslim…

 Tadhkira fῑ l-irshād ilā ṣawm al-Naṣārā wa-l-aʿyād

(146 words)

Author(s): Strohmaier, Gotthard
Note of guidance about the fasts and feasts of the Christians Al-Bīrūnī Date: Unknown; before 1048 Original Language: Arabic Description The work has not survived, and the title is only known from al-Bīrūnī's own bibliography, which he attached to the list of the works of al-Rāzī; see al-Bīrūnī, Risāla fī fihrist kutub Muḥammad ibn Zakariyāʾ al-Rāzī, ed. M. Mohaghegh, Tehran, 1985, p. 32, no. 53. Significance It can be assumed that the contents did not significantly add to the information contained in the Chronology and the Mas῾ūdic Canon. Manuscripts - Editions & Translations - Studies -…

 Tafnīd al-Qurʾān

(163 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Shurrāyā d-QurānRefutation of the Qurʾān Abū Nūḥ ʿAbd al-Masīḥ ibn al-Ṣalt al-Anbārī Date: Unknown, late 8th or early 9th c. Original Language: Arabic Description We know nothing about the contents of this treatise other than what we might expect from its title. While Sbath reports the existence of an Arabic 'Refutation of the Qurʾān', the Catalogue of ʿAbdīshūʿ of Nisibis lists Shurrāyā d-Qurān, 'Refutation of the Qurʾān', without indicating that the work was originally in Arabic. This leaves open the possibility that the work was composed in Syriac and then translated into Arabic. Sig…

 Tafṣīl al-zamān wa-maṣāliḥ al-abdān

(631 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Division of seasons and benefits of bodies Rabīʿ ibn Zayd Date: About 961 or soon after Original Language: Arabic Description Rabīʿ ibn Zayd’s Kitāb tafṣīl al-zamān wa-maṣāliḥ al-abdān (also known as Kitāb al-azmān), which was evidently a liturgical calendar, is extant only as a series of quotations in the Kitāb al-anwāʾ of ʿArīb ibn Saʿīd al-Kātib (d. 980) (q.v.). This work is preserved in an Arabic version written in Hebrew letters, and also in a Latin translation, the Liber anoe. This translation contains more saints’ names than the Arabic. Many of the passages about Ch…

 Tafsīr al-amāna al-kabīr

(192 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Commentary on the Creed Elias of Nisibis Date: Before 1046 Original Language: Arabic Description This work is divided into 19 parts ( fuṣūṣ) corresponding to the elements into which Elias divides the Creed. Each is given in Syriac, together with what is an Arabic paraphrase ( tafsīr) followed by a commentary ( taʾwīl). Significance It is clear that Elias writes about the Trinity and Incarnation with the views of Muslims, as well as Jacobites and Melkites, in mind. Manuscripts MS Vat - Ar. 143, fols 127r-148v (12th-13th century; missing some folios) MS Beirut, Bibliothèque orientale – …

 Tafsīr al-Ruʾyā

(456 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Commentary on the Apocalypse Ibn Kātib Qayṣar Date: 1266-67 Original Language: Arabic Description Ibn Kātib Qayṣar’s Commentary on the Apocalypse is a book-length work of considerable erudition. As Davis (‘Introducing an Arabic commentary’, p. 83) points out, the author is interested in the etymology of words; is fond of systematic classification; pays attention to historical context; and regularly cites earlier commentators, especially Hippolytus of Rome. (For a list of cited authors, see Graf, GCAL ii, p. 383.) Davis points out the author’s sensitivity with regard …

 Tafsīr Sifr al-Takwīn; Tafsīr Sifr al-Khurūj; Tafsīr Sifr al-Aḥbār

(1,532 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Commentaries on Genesis, Exodus, and Leviticus; Commentary on the Pentateuch Marqus ibn al-Qunbar Date: Unknown, between 1174 and 1208 Original Language: Arabic Description The Commentary on the Pentateuch poses a thicket of difficulties to the student: there are five books of commentary (although full commentaries, as opposed to brief glosses, have only been preserved for the first three) in four recensions (at least for the Genesis commentary), with varying attributions of authorship. While there are modern editions of …

 Tajrīd sayf al-himma li-istikhrāj mā fī dhimmat al-dhimma

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Yarbrough, Luke
‘Drawing the sword of ambition to extract what is owed by the dhimmīs’ Al-Nābulusī Date: Approximately 1240-41 Original Language: Arabic Description The Tajrīd sayf al-himma was written shortly after the Ayyubid sovereign al-Malik al-Ṣāliḥ had promulgated a decree re-imposing a number of social and legal disabilities on non-Muslims (c. 1239-40). Al-Nābulusī addressed his work to this ruler, whom he sought to persuade that the anti- dhimmī decree should be followed by an initiative to cleanse the bureaucracy of non-Muslim officials, particularly Copts. More sp…

 Takhjīl ahl al-Injīl wa-l-nahj al-ṣaḥīḥ fī radd ʿalā man baddala dīn ʿĪsā ibn Maryam al-Masīḥ

(706 words)

Author(s): Hoover, Jon
Al-takhjīl li-man baddala l-Tawrāt wa-l-Injīl; Al-takhjīl li-man ḥarrafa l-Tawrāt wa-l-Injīl‘The shaming of the followers of the Gospel and the correct way to refute those who have changed the religion of Jesus, son of Mary, the Christ’, ‘The shaming of those who have altered the Torah and the Gospel', 'The shaming of those who have corrupted the Torah and the Gospel' Ibn Taymiyya Date: Unknown; possibly before 1316 Original Language: Arabic Description Takhjīl ahl al-Injīl exists independently in two known manuscripts, one at the Bodleian Library in Oxford and anoth…

 Takhjīl man ḥarrafa al-Tawrāh wa-l-Injīl

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Demiri, Lejla
Takhjīl‘The shaming of those who have altered the Torah and the Gospel’, 'Shaming' Al-Jaʿfarī Date: Unknown (but before 1221) Original Language: Arabic Description The Takhjīl is al-Jaʿfarī’s first book in refutation of Jewish and Christian beliefs. As expressed in the prolegomena of his second work, Al-bayān al-wāḍiḥ, al-Jaʿfarī wrote the Takhjīl in the early days of his youth (ed. Triebs, p. 4), and its structure and text served as the basis for his two later books in the field, the Bayān and the Radd. In writing the Takhjīl, al-Jaʿfarī’s intention was first to demonstrate the t…

 Al-takmila li-Kitāb al-Ṣila

(629 words)

Author(s): Al-Jallad, Nader
‘The completion of the Continuation’ Ibn al-Abbār Date: 1253 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-takmila li-Kitāb al-Ṣila is considered one of the most valuable sources of information about al-Andalus, especially during the first century of Islamic rule. It provides biographies of at least 34 scholars not found in any other source. The book was written following the Andalusian tradition of biographical works. It is a continuation of Ibn Bashkuwāl’s Kitāb al-Ṣila (q.v.), itself a continuation of Ibn al-Faraḍī’s Taʾrīkh ʿulamāʾ al-Andalus. In fact, it can be considered …

 Talbīs Iblīs

(785 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
The devil’s deception Ibn al-Jawzī Date: Late 1190s Original Language: Arabic Description This work is a lengthy discussion about the numerous ways in which Ibn al-Jawzī believes Satan deceives the members of various sects, those who practice rituals, and various types of people, including the intelligent, the ignorant, observant Muslims, Shīʿīs, and followers of other religions. The number of people covered is deliberately so wide in order to ensure that no-one is omitted – that Satan deceives everybody. H…

 Tālī Kitāb wafayāt al-aʿyān

(502 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
'The continuation of "Obituaries of prominent people"' Ibn al-Ṣuqāʿī Date: 1325-26 Original Language: Arabic Description Ibn al-Ṣuqāʿī’s Tālī is a work very familiar in form to students of medieval Arabic literature: the biographical dictionary. One of the monuments of this genre is the Kitāb wafayāt al-aʿyān (‘Obituaries of prominent people’) of Ibn Khallikān (d. 1282); Ibn al-Suqāʿī made a condensed version of this work (now lost) and added his Tālī or ‘Continuation’. This Tālī originally consisted of 300 notices arranged alphabetically by name, treating selected p…

 Al-taʿlīq ʿalā al-Anājīl al-arbaʿa wa-l-taʿlīq ʿalā al-Tawrāh wa-ʿalā ghayrihā min kutub al-anbiyāʾ

(887 words)

Author(s): Demiri, Lejla
Al-taʿlīq ʿalā al-Anājīl‘Critical commentary on the four Gospels, the Torah and other books of the prophets’, ‘Critical commentary on the Gospels’ Al-Ṭūfī Date: Early 1308 (before April) Original Language: Arabic Description Written for polemical purposes, the Taʿlīq contains al-Ṭūfī’s critical comments and annotations on the Bible. It starts with an untitled introduction in which al-Ṭūfī explains the reason behind his writing such a book on the Christian scripture and the principles he will follow. In the subsequent sections, he …

 Taʿlīq Sharḥ al-uṣūl al-khamsa

(468 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Comments on the Commentary on the five principles Mānkdīm Shashdīw Date: Unknown; between about 990 and 1034 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʿlīq Sharḥ al-uṣūl al-khamsa is a commentary on ʿAbd al-Jabbār’s (q.v.) lost Sharḥ al-uṣūl al-khamsa (q.v.), which the latter dictated between 970 and 990 as a commentary on his own extant Kitāb al-uṣūl al-khamsa. Comparison between the Taʿlīq and ʿAbd al-Jabbār’s original work shows extensive additions and amplifications - ʿAbd al-Jabbār’s bare reference in a single sentence to the doctrine of the Trin…

 Tanbīh al-ghāfilīn al-ḥayārā, ʿalā mā warada min al-nahy ʿan al-tashbīh bi-l-Naṣārā

(287 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
‘Warning to those who are confused and neglectful, on the prohibition handed down against resembling Christians’ Aḥmad ibn Abī Bakr Date: 1428 Original Language: Arabic Description This short work, less than 10 folios long, is concerned to emphasize the distinctions between Muslims and Christians, and to remind Muslims who appear too lax in following the teachings that prohibit over-familiarity and copying, particularly with regard to religious observances and festivals. Aḥmad adduces verses from the Qur’an and Hadiths, and he also cites earlier scholars, among t…

 Taʿrīf al-tabdīl fī taḥrīf al-Injīl

(139 words)

Author(s): Yarbrough, Luke
'Intimation about substitution concerning falsification of the Gospel' Ibn al-Durayhim Date: Between about 1330 and 1360 Original Language: Arabic Description All that is known of this work is its title. It was evidently written to assert the well-known doctrine of taḥrīf, the deliberate falsification of pre-qur’anic scripture, in this case of the Gospel by Christians. The term tabdīl suggests that it may have laid special emphasis on the notion that the Christians had substituted some words and phrases for others, though taḥrīf and tabdīl are often used interchangeably. Significan…

 Ta’rīkh

(948 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Ta’rīkhHistory Al-Yaʿqūbī Date: 872 or soon after Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʾrīkh is a universal history with a structure similar to the works of al-Ṭabarī (q.v.), al-Masʿūdī (q.v.) and later historians. It is the earliest such work that is accessible, and it has been claimed as the first work of this kind. It begins with an account of the creation of the world (now lost), then in the first part traces the history from Adam to the coming of Islam, and in the second part traces Islamic history to the mid-9th century, ending at the year of the downfall of the Ṭāhirids.…

 Taʾrīkh iftitāḥ al-Andalus

(477 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The history of the conquest of al-Andalus Ibn al-Qūṭiyya Date: After 977 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʾrīkh iftitāḥ al-Andalus deals with the history of al-Andalus from the early days of the conquest up to the reign of the Caliph ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III. It prefaces this with a description of the Iberian Peninsula before the conquest. This work is thought to be by a disciple of Ibn al-Qūṭiyya, based on notes that contain his views about relations between the Umayyad rulers and their subjects. The various accounts offer a moralizing vision o…

 Ta’rīkh madīnat Dimashq

(977 words)

Author(s): Mourad, Suleiman A.
Ta’rīkh DimashqTa’rīkhHistory of Damascus Ibn ʿAsākir Date: Between 1134 and 1176 Original Language: Arabic Description The parts of Ibn ʿAsākir’s Taʾrīkh that are relevant to Christian-Muslim relations are the following entries: ʿIsā ibn Maryam (Jesus), xlvii, pp. 347-524 (also edited by Mourad, Sīrat al-Sayyid al-Masīḥ); Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyya (John the Baptist), lxiv, pp. 168-218; Ḥawāriyyūn ʿIsā ibn Maryam (Disciples of Jesus), lxviii, pp. 55-71; and Maryam bint ʿImrān (Mary), lxx, pp. 75-122. In these entries one comes across the variety of Muslim opinions about t…

 Al-ta'rīkh al-Manṣūrī

(601 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
‘The Manṣūrī history’ Ibn Naẓīf al-Ḥamawī Date: Almost certainly early 1230s Original Language: Arabic Description The work is a political history of the world from the creation up to the year 1233, dedicated to the Ayyūbid ruler al-Manṣūr, and is one of three known works by the author. The other two were a chronicle until the year 940, and a now lost universal history, of which Al-taʾrīkh al-Manṣūrī is but a brief summary. For the period up to 1192, Ibn Naẓīf al-Ḥamawī used ʿImād al-Dīn’s chronicle Al-bustān al-jāmiʿ as the main basis of his writing, and Al-taʾrīkh al-Manṣūrī does not diff…

 Ta’rīkh Mayyāfāriqīn wa-Āmid

(958 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
Ta’rīkh MayyāfāriqīnThe history of Mayyafariqin and Āmid, History of Mayyafariqin Ibn al-Azraq Date: 1164-65 and 1176-77 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʾrīkh Mayyāfāriqīn is a chronicle which, while generally focused on the area around Mayyāfāriqīn and Āmid in Diyār Bakr, includes discourses which are wide-ranging both geographically and historically. The chronicle probably originally started with the life of Muḥammad, as there are a number of missing folios at the beginning of MS BL Or. 5803, before the…

 Taʾrīkh al-Siʿīrd

(537 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The Chronicle of Seʿert The Chronicle of Se'ert Date: Before 1023 Original Language: Arabic Description This work is a universal history. It is divided into two parts, the first narrating the events of the years 251 to 422, and the second dealing with the period 484 up to 650, at which point the MS containing this part breaks off. The remainder of the Chronicle may have followed events up to the 11th century. The author, who is anonymous, was evidently a Nestorian priest who must have finished writing before the year 1023 (see Youssif, Chroniqueurs, p. 280). The Chronicle is based on a numbe…

 Ta’rīkh ʿulamāʼ al-Andalus

(438 words)

Author(s): de la Puente, Cristina
History of the scholars of al-Andalus Ibn al-Faraḍī Date: Unknown; before April 1013 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʼrīkh ʿulamāʼ al-Andalus is a biographical dictionary and the best known of Ibn al-Faraḍī’s works. The author describes it as ‘a compilation of the ʿulamāʼ, the muḥaddithūn and the most rigorous scholars of al-Andalus, summarized and arranged in alphabetic order’. It includes biographies of scholars from the time of the Arab conquest of al-Andalus in the 8th century to the end of the 10th century, although most come from the 9th and 10th centuries. Ibn al-Far…

Taronites

(425 words)

Author(s): Vucetic, Martin
Kōnstantinos (?) Tarōneitēs Date of Birth: Unknown: early 14th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography Our knowledge of Taronites derives from a letter that Gregory Palamas sent to his flock in Thessaloniki during his captivity in Ottoman Anatolia. From what Palamas says, Taronites was a Christian physician in the service of the Ottoman ruler ( ho megas amēras, the great emir) Orhan I. When the latter was suffering from a liver disease, he summoned Taronites to his summer court, which at that time was near Burs…

 Tarṣī῾ al-akhbār wa-tanwī῾ al-āthār wa-l-bustān fī gharā’ib al-buldān wa-l-masālik ilā jamī῾ al-mamālik

(1,068 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Niẓām al-marjān fī l-masālik wa-l-mamālikKitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik al-sharqiyya wa-kitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik al-gharbiyyaThe adornment of reports and classification of monuments and gardens on the wonders of lands and the routes to all kingdoms Al-῾Udhrī Date: Between 1066 and 1085 Original Language: Arabic Description The Tarṣī῾ al-akhbār is partially preserved in a codex made up of 48 folios, which, according to its editor al-Ahwānī, represents no more than a tenth of the whole book ( Nuṣūṣ ῾an al-Andalus, p. alif). Al-Ahwānī suggests that the extant copy was w…

 Tartīb al-madārik wa-taqrīb al-masālik bi-maʿrifat aʿlām madhhab Mālik

(434 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Tartīb al-madārikThe ordering of perception and facilitation of procedures for knowledge of the most eminent in the school of Mālik Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ Date: Before 1149 Original Language: Arabic Description The Tartīb is a collection of about 1,600 biographies of jurists of the Mālikī school of law, from the founder, Mālik ibn Anas, to ʿIyāḍ’s own time (the precise date of composition is unknown). It is one of the most important sources for the history of the Mālikī school. In the biography of Abū Bakr Yaḥyā ibn Hudhayl, ʿIyāḍ reports about celebrations of St John the Baptist’s Day, the mahrajān

 Tashʿītā awkīt neṣḥānē d-qaddīshā mār(i) tʾwdwṭʾ epīsqupā d-āmīd mdī(n)tā

(1,417 words)

Author(s): Palmer, Andrew
The Story or heroic deeds of the holy one, my lord Theoduṭe, bishop of the city of Āmīd/AmidaThe Life of Theoduṭe of Āmīd Symeon at the dictation of Joseph, disciple of Theoduṭe Date: Shortly after 698 Original Language: Syriac Description The Life, which is unpublished, will be divided in the first edition, which is being prepared by the author of the present article, into just over 100 sections averaging 500-1,000 words in translation. The most striking aspect of Christian-Muslim relations in this text is the total absence from most …

 Tashʿītā d-qaddīshā mār(y) Shmūʾēl w-mār(y) Shemʿūn w-mār(y) Gabrīʾēl

(2,068 words)

Author(s): Palmer, Andrew
The Story of my lord Samuel and my lord Symeon and my lord, Life of Gabriel Anonymous monk of the monastery of Qartmīn Date: Between 758 and 969, probably 9th c. Original Language: Syriac Description The Life of Gabriel of Qartmīn is part of a trilogy which comprises the Lives of Samuel of Eshtin and Symeon of Qartmīn, the 4th century founders of the monastery, and that of Gabriel, who died in 648. The author was perhaps a son of Gabriel’s village of Bēt Qusṭān, who hoped to add to its fame by linking Gabriel with the founders of the monastery of Qartmī…

 Tashʿītā d-qaddīshā rām ba-gbayyā mār(y) Shem’ūn d-zaytē

(1,255 words)

Author(s): Palmer and Jack Tannous, Andrew Nicholas
The story of St Simeon of the Olives, exalted among the elect Eyyūb of Bēth Man’em Date: Unknown; probably first half of the 8th century, with later additions Original Language: Syriac Description According to the Paris MS, the full title of this work is Tashʿ‘ītā d-qaddīshā rām ba-gbayyā mār(y) Shem’ūn d-zaytē d-hū ītawhy men Ḥabsenūs qastrā mshammahtā ba-tḥūm atrā da-mḥallemāyē (‘The story of St Simeon of the Olives, exalted among the elect, who is from the famous fort of Ḥabsenus on the border of Mḥallemī territory’). The title in the Mardin MS …

 Tashʿitā d-rabban Sargīs

(1,313 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The story of Rabban Sergius, The Legend of Sergius BaḥīrāThe Baḥīrā legend Unknown author Date: Unknown, probably early 9th c. Original Language: Syriac Description This ‘story’ is a Syriac polemical legend that seeks to explain the rise of Islam from a Christian perspective. It purports to reveal the influence of a Christian monk on Muḥammad during his early life and the beginning of his mission as prophet, and it exploits the story found in the Muslim biographies of Muḥammad (e.g. Ibn Isḥāq’s Sīra) about a monk called Baḥīrā who recognized Muḥammad as the true and final prophet. The legen…

 Tashʿyātā w-sharbē mawtrānē d-ʿal nāshā qaddishē (w-iḥidāyē) da-hwaw b-dār dār b-ʿumrā qaddishā d-Bēt ʿAbē

(421 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Ktābā d-rishānēThe useful histories and stories on the holy men (and solitaries), who generation after generation lived in the holy monastery of Bēt ʿAbē, The Book of Governors Thomas of Margā Date: Unknown, but while he was bishop of Margā Original Language: Syriac Description The work contains biographies of the abbots of the monasteries of Bēt ʿAbē and of many other figures of the Church of the East (e.g. Patriarch Ghiwargis I, Timothy I, etc.), covering the period between the late 6th and the mid-9th centuries. It contains important i…

 Taṣrīḥ al-Qurʾān bi-l-naṣr ʿalā man istaʿāna bi-kuffār al-ʿaṣr

(272 words)

Author(s): Yarbrough, Luke
‘Qurʾanic assurance of victory over those who seek the support of present-day infidels’ Al-Nābulusī Date: Before 1241 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taṣrīḥ al-Qurʾān is known only from the author’s reference in his Tajrīd (MS Tunis Jāmiʿ Zaytūna – IV 74, fol. 6r, MS Istanbul, Damād Ibrāhīm – 273, fol. 4r). After quoting qur’anic passages that discourage amity with non-Muslims, al-Nābulusī explains that those who flout these directives risk becoming infidels themselves. He adds: ‘If the jurisprudent wishes to refer to…

 Ta Synodika tou autou en hosia tē mnēmē Sōphroniou

(515 words)

Author(s): Sahas, Daniel J.
Epistola synodicaThe Synodika of the same Sophronius of holy remembrance, Synodical Letter Sophronius, ‘the Sophist’ Date: 634 Original Language: Greek Description As one of his first acts as patriarch, Sophronius convened a council of local bishops and abbots of monasteries to condemn the heresy of monothelitism to which the Eastern patriarchates (except Jerusalem), the pope and the Emperor Heraclius were aspiring as a means of compromise in the rift between the Chalcedonian Orthodox and non-Chalcedonian Monophysit…

 Tathbīt dalāʾil al-nubuwwa

(2,053 words)

Author(s): Reynolds, Gabriel Said
TathbītThe confirmation of the proofs of prophethood, The confirmation ʿAbd al-Jabbār Date: 995 Original Language: Arabic Description The only extant manuscript of the Tathbīt comprises 313 folios in two volumes (662 pages in the modern edition). The section concerned with Christianity, known as the ‘Critique of Christian origins’, comprises fols 42-99 (pp. 91-210). ʿAbd al-Jabbār himself identifies the date of its composition as 385 (995). He also refers in the text to the city of Rayy, where he served as a judge, an…

 Tathbīt nubuwwa Muḥammad

(826 words)

Author(s): Reynolds, Gabriel Said
Al-dalīl ʿalā nubuwwa MuḥammadConfirmation of the prophethood of MuḥammadProof for the prophethood of Muḥammad Al-Hādī ilā l-Ḥaqq Date: Unknown; before 911 Original Language: Arabic Description The Tathbīt nubuwwa Muḥammad is a short unpublished treatise, two folios in length, on the evidentiary signs or miracles which, al-Hādī argues, prove that Muḥammad was a prophet. It forms part of a group of brief treatises that al-Hādī wrote either to address specific topics (e.g. Al-radd ʿalā man zaʿama anna l-Qurʾān qad dhahaba baʿḍuhu; Tathbīt imāmat amīr al-muʾminīn; Kitāb al-manzila…

Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya

(284 words)

Author(s): Burman, Thomas E.
Unknown author Date of Birth: Unknown; fl. 12th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; possibly early 13th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography This author was probably an Andalusī Jew who had converted to Christianity, and who was active between 1150 and 1200. Primary Sources of Information This author’s only known work, Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya, is preserved in a much longer refutation of it by a certain al-Imām al-Qurṭubī (q.v.), in his Al-iʿlām. The little we know about the author appears in the sections of this work where Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya is quoted (ed. …

 Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya

(582 words)

Author(s): Burman, Thomas E.
'Trinitizing the oneness (of God)' Tathlīth al-waḥdāniyya Date: Approximately 1150-1210 Original Language: Arabic Description The fragments of this work that are quoted successively by al-Imām al-Qurṭubī amount to only 383 lines of text in the modern edition, or about 12 pages.  It is unclear whether al-Qurṭubī quoted the whole of the work. The author defends three Christian beliefs.  In the first section he argues in rational fashion that God is necessarily a Trinity.  God could only have created through his…

 Tawditā d-ashlem l-Ishmaʿlāyē Kaʿb sāprā – dukhrāneh l-lūttā

(647 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The Confession which Kaʿb the scribe – cursed be his memory – handed down to the Ishmaelites Unknown author Date: Unknown, 8th/9th c.? Original Language: Syriac Description This brief and somewhat cryptic piece of anti-Muslim polemic is to be found as an appendix to the East-Syrian recension of the Legend of Sergius Baḥīrā (q.v.). It describes how the ‘Sons of Ishmael’ had an idol called al-Kabar, who was the devil (‘Iblīs’), and how the worship of this idol resembles the demonic polytheistic and dualistic worship of the Persians, the Ephesians,…

 Taxis ginomenē epi tois apo sarakēnōn epistrephousi pros tēn katharan kai alēthē hēmōn tōn christianōn

(1,072 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Rite which came about for those from among the Saracens who converted to the pure and true faith of us Christians, Ritual of abjuration Unknown author Date: c. 880-90 Original Language: Greek Description In the Euchologion, the prayer book for the various rituals of the Byzantine Church, there is a rubric that contains a series of abjuration rituals for heretics, Jews and Muslims who convert to Christianity. The texts of these rituals contain a first section devoted to catechisms and liturgical procedures intended for the initiat…

Ten questions

(170 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Ten questions that one of the disciples asked of his master Date of Birth: Unknown; perhaps 11th century Place of Birth: Unknown; presumably Egypt Date of Death: Unknown; perhaps 12th century Place of Death: Unknown; presumably Egypt Biography Nothing is known of the author of a brief catechetical text in ten chapters, ʿAshara masāʾil saʾala ʿanhum baʿḍ al-talāmīdh min muʿallimihi, ‘Ten questions that one of the disciples asked of his master’, other than what can be gathered from the text. The author was clearly a Copt, probably a monk and/or a priest. …

 Teshuvot la-meḥaref

(1,375 words)

Author(s): Szpiech, Ryan
Respuestas al blasfemo‘Response to the blasphemer’ Abner of Burgos/Alfonso of Valladolid Date: Uncertain; late 1330s or early 1340s Original Language: Hebrew Description This is the last known text written by Abner/Alfonso, as is clear from its mention by name in most of his other major writings. Along with his earliest surviving work, the Moreh tsedeḳ/Mostrador de justicia (‘Teacher of righteousness’), it is also among his most important, for two reasons: it is his second longest surviving work (57 folios of Hebrew text, 48 in Castilian translation)…

Testament of our Lord (on the invasions of the Mongols)

(98 words)

Author(s): van Lent, Jos
Unknown author Date of Birth: Unknown; probably late 13th century Place of Birth: Unknown; Egypt or the Levant Date of Death: Unknown; early to mid-14th century Place of Death: Unknown; Egypt or the Levant Biography Nothing is known of the author of this pseudonymous apocalyptic text beyond what can be gathered from the text itself. Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Waṣiyyat rabbinā Yasūʿ al-Masīḥ li-tilmīdihī Buṭrus wa-huwa ḥāḍiruhu lammā kāna ṣāʿid ilā l-samāʾ ʿalā Jabal al-Zaytūn al-muqaddas Jos van Lent
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