Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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 Peri haireseōn

(1,316 words)

Author(s): Glei, Reinhold F.
De haeresibus, cap. 100On heresies, ch. 100 Johnannes Damascenus Date: The precise date of composition is unknown. It is part of the Pēgē gnōseōs that was completed after 743, but it is possible that several chapters were written earlier. Original Language: Greek Description Chapter 100 of De haeresibus is the last of the group of 100 heresies that form the second part of the Pēgē gnōseōs . Earlier numberings that count 101 or even more chapters must be rejected for reasons of uniformity and traditional use of the 'century' number. Some scholars have doubted t…

 Peri tēs monēs hodou pros tēn sōtērian tōn anthrōpōn

(673 words)

Author(s): Todt, Klaus-Peter
ʻOn the only way to salvation for humankind' Gennadius II Scholarius Date: 1455/56 Original Language: Greek Description Gennadius wrote this treatise at the request of Sultan Mehmed II. The sultan visited him at his new patriarchal residence in the Pammakaristos monastery in 1455, and asked detailed questions about the Christian faith. At the end of the conversation, Mehmed charged him to write down what he had said and to send it to him. Gennadius begins diplomatically by commenting that nobody can please God without the right faith, although the path that leads to …

 Peri tēs monēs hodou pros tēn sōtērian tōn anthrōpōn. Deuteron edothē touto, ezētēthē gar anti tou prōtou, syntomōteron kai saphesteron

(995 words)

Author(s): Todt, Klaus-Peter
ʻOn the only way to salvation for humankind. This was given as a second version, because it was ordered in a shorter and clearer version than the firstʼ Gennadius II Scholarius Date: 1455/56 Original Language: Greek Description Mehmed thought that the original ʻOn the only way to salvation for humankindʼ was too long and bulky and requested a shorter version. Gennadius therefore wrote this shorter version, probably in 1455 or the beginning of 1456, summarizing the most important Christian beliefs (the full title in manuscripts of the Ottoman Turkish translation is: Tou soph ōtatou kai l…

Peter of Cluny

(608 words)

Author(s): Iogna-Prat & John Tolan, Dominque
Petrus Venerabilis, Peter the Venerable Date of Birth: 1092 or 1094 Place of Birth: Montboissier, Auvergne Date of Death: 25 December 1156 Place of Death: Cluny, Burgundy Biography Peter of Cluny, known as Peter the Venerable since the end of the 12th century, was the ninth abbot of Cluny (1122-56). Born into a Montboissier family of the middle aristocracy of Auvergne, Peter became an oblate at the Cluniac monastery of Sauxillanges in the Auvergne, then followed a typical cursus honorum within the Cluniac church: choir monk at Cluny, schoolmaster at Vézelay, and prior at D…

Peter of Damascus

(287 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Biography Peter was metropolitan of Damascus in the first half of the 8th century. John of Damascus wrote his Contra Jacobitas on his behalf (Kotter, iv, p. 109), and he was also the recipient of John’s Libellus de recta sententia ( PG 94, col. 1421A). According to Theophanes and Michael the Syrian, the Caliph al-Walīd II (r. 743-44) ordered that Peter should have his tongue cut out and be exiled to Yemen ( Arabia Felix) because he did not abstain from ‘reproving the impiety of the Arabs and Manichees’. Despite having no tongue, he was still able to recite the liturgy…

Peter of Toledo

(426 words)

Author(s): González Muñoz, Fernando
Petrus Toletanus Date of Birth: End of 11th or beginning of 12th century Place of Birth: Spain, perhaps Toledo Date of Death: After 1142 Place of Death: Unknown Biography In 1142, Peter of Toledo, in collaboration with Peter of Poitiers, the secretary of Peter of Cluny (q.v.), made the Latin translation of the epistles attributed to ʿAbdallāh ibn Ismāʿīl al-Hāshimī and ʿAbd al-Masīḥ ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (9th century). This translation is part of the Collectio Toletana, a corpus of texts on Islam written between the years 1142 and 1143 in the Iberian Peninsula, on the ini…

Peter Tudebode

(535 words)

Author(s): Bull, Marcus
Petrus Tudebodus, Petrus Tudebovis Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown, probably western France in or near Poitou Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography Nothing is known about the historical figure of Peter Tudebode, other than what can be gleaned from a handful of autobiographical references in the text of his Historia. In three of the four surviving manuscripts his name is rendered as Petrus sacerdos Tudebovis Sivracensis. Since the first discovery and championing of the Historia by the 17th-century Poitevin scholar Jean Besly, ‘ Sivracensis’ has usual…

Petrus Alfonsi

(765 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Pedro Alfonso, Pierre Alphonse Date of Birth: Second half of 11th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; after 1116 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Petrus Alfonsi is one of the key actors in the transmission and assimilation of Arabic scientific, literary and religious texts and ideas to Latin Europe in the early 12th century. His impact is attested in the survival of roughly 160 manuscripts of his works, in the frequent use made of them by key authors from the 12th century to the 16th, and in their wide diffusion through early printed editions. Petrus Alfonsi was born Mo…

Petrus de Pennis

(169 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Biography Little is known about Petrus de Pennis. He identifies himself as a Dominican friar, and the name ‘Pennis’ perhaps refers to the town of Penna in Calabria; his Latin vocabulary certainly suggests an Italian origin. He is the author of a tract against the Talmud ( Liber contra Judaeos, nomine Talamoth), a treatise on the incarnate Word ( Tractatus de notitia Verbi incarnate), and a Libellus de locis ultramarinis, a largely derivative description of the history and geography of the Holy Land based in good part on Jacques de Vitry (q.v.). Primary Sources of Information Petrus de Penn…

Petrus Marsilius

(437 words)

Author(s): Biosca, Antoni
Pere Marsili Date of Birth: End of 13th century Place of Birth: Unknown; probably Majorca Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography The Dominican friar Pere Marsili is known primarily for his work Cronice illustrissimi regis Aragonum domini Iacobi uictoriossimi principis, a Latin version of the Llibre dels fets of King James I of Aragon (q.v.), written in Catalan. This translation into Latin was commissioned by King James II of Aragon, grandson of James I. It is also known by the short title Liber gestorum regis Iacobi, a title that coincides with the Catalan origina…

Pfaffe Konrad

(1,034 words)

Author(s): Cammarota, Maria Grazia
Biography All that is known about this German author must be gathered from his work. In the epilogue (vv. 9017-94), which is preserved only in the Heidelberg manuscript, he says of himself Ich haize der phaffe Chunrât (v. 9079). The term ‘pfaffe’ is equivalent to clericus, which does not necessarily indicate a parish priest or a monk: in fact it is assumed that Konrad was a member of the clergy employed in a ducal chancellery. His clerical education – and therefore his knowledge of Latin – is confirmed both by the numerous biblical quotati…
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