Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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 Al-kāfī fī l-maʿnā l-shāfī

(1,323 words)

Author(s): Bakhou and John Lamoreaux, Abgar
'The sufficient, on the clear meaning' Gerasimos Date: Unknown; 13th century Original Language: Arabic Description Gerasimos’ work is divided into six parts. The first five seek to discover the marks by which one can recognize the true religion. They include an extensive collection of testimonies, some from the Old and New Testaments, but most from non-Christian literature. The last part is disproportionately long, and offers a series of detailed responses to possible objections. Parts 1 and 2 apply reason to the problem of discerning the true religion. Gerasimos ope…

 Kalām fī l-ʿaql wa al-ʿāqil wa al-maʿqūl

(238 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Discourse on the Intellect, the Intelligent, and the Intelligible Muḥyī l-Dīn al-Iṣfahānī Date: Possibly 12th century Original Language: Arabic Description This is a short treatise that attempts to demonstrate, following two ways of argumentation, that the Creator and ‘God of the world’ is ‘intellect, intelligent, and intelligible’. The author uses a terminology that he probably borrowed from Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī, who employed it in a philosophical demonstration of the Trinity. Although the recipient of this treatise is not mentioned, it seems that the author had a Muslim reader in mind. S…

 Al-kalām fī l-ittiḥād

(637 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Discourse on the Union Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown; before October 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description The original text consisted of at least four sections, but only two and a half have been preserved, making up three pages in the printed edition. In the introductory section, Ibn al-Tayyib discusses the various types of ‘one’ – he distinguishes 12 sorts (cf. Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī, who notes six in Maqāla fī l-tawḥīd ʿalā madhhab al-Naṣārā; see Samir, ‘Bibliographie’, p. 207). In chapter 16, §§ 25-27 of Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn (ed. Wadi), al-Muʾtaman quotes the passage in whic…

 Kalām fī mabādiʾ al-mawjūdāt

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Discourse on the principles of existents Abū Sulaymān al-Sijistānī Date: Unknown; before about 985 Original Language: Arabic Description This brief treatise is presumably the work to which M. Allard has given the name Kitāb al-tawḥīd wa-l-kathra wa-l-jawhariyya wa-l-uqnūmiyya, ‘[Divine] unity, plurality, substantiality and hypostaticity’, which is a full description of its contents (‘Les Chrétiens à Baġdād’, Arabica 9 (1962) 375-88, p. 385). As G. Troupeau explains in his edition, its author’s name is given in the unique MS as Abū Sulaymān Ṭāhir, and…

 Kalām fī mabādiʾ al-mawjūdāt wa-marātib quwāhā, wa-l-awṣāf allatī tūṣaf al-dhāt al-ūlā bihā, wa-ʿalā ayy wajh waṣafathā l-Naṣārā bi-l-tawḥīd wa-l-kathra wa-l-jawhariyya wa-l-uqnūmiyya (followed by:) Ḥawāshī arbaʿa fī waḥdāniyyat Allāh wa-ʿilmihi bi-mā yakūn qabla mā yakūn

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Platti, Emilio
Īḍāḥ fī l-tawḥīdOn the principles of beings and the orders of their potencies, and the qualities with which the First Essence may be qualified, and how Christians qualify [the First Essence] by unity and multiplicity, substantiality and hypostaticity (followed by:) Four marginal notes on the Unity of God and his foreknowledge of what is before it comes into being, Clarification concerning the Unity [of God] Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description This brief ‘Clarification’ has come to us through three channels of transmission, with the following ‘titles’: 1…

 Kalām fī l-thālūth al-muqaddas

(772 words)

Author(s): Treiger, Alexander
Kalām fī l-lāhūtDiscourse on the Holy Trinity, Theological discourseThe little book of benefit ʿAbdallāh ibn al-Faḍl al-Anṭākī Date: After 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description The Discourse on the Holy Trinity (often called Theological discourse or, erroneously, the Little book of benefit) is ʿAbdallāh ibn al-Faḍl’s concise treatise on Trinitarian theology and Christology in 14 chapters. It spans five folios in MS Beirut, Bibliothèque Orientale – 541. The date of the treatise is determined by the fact that it cites Benefit, written after 1043. The Discourse on the Holy Tr…

 Al-kalimāt al-muhimma fī mubāsharat ahl al-dhimma

(648 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
‘Important words about the treatment of the People of protection’ Jamāl al-Dīn al-Asnawī Date: After 1349; possibly between 1354 and 1359 Original Language: Arabic Description This tract is one of a large number of anti-Christian polemics written in Mamluk Egypt during the 13th and 14th centuries. It has a number of titles in the different manuscripts. The British Library version is entitled Al-kalimāt al-muhimma fī mubāsharat ahl al-dhimma, while the Tunis version has Risāla fī ʿadam istikhdām ahl al-dhimma wa-ʿadam tawliyatihim al-Muslimīn (‘Treatise on not employing the p…

 Kanōn paraklētikos eis tēn hyperagian hēmōn Despoinan Theotokon hyper tōn nun peristaseōn

(350 words)

Author(s): Todt, Klaus-Peter
‘Canon to our most holy Lady, the Mother of God, for aid in the present circumstances’ Manuel II Palaeologus Date: 1411-12 Original Language: Greek Description In this hymn, Manuel prays to the Mother of God to free the people of God from misfortune, and to accord her city victory over the enemy. He asks her to cause the hostile khan ( chaganos), who is attacking the city so brutally, to disappear just as his father did (the khan is evidently the Ottoman Musa, his father Bayazid I). If the Mother of God frees her own people from the enemy, she will not be doing anything …

 Kashf al-dasāʾis fī tarmīm al-kanāʾis

(829 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
‘The exposure of intrigues regarding the repair of churches’ Al-Subkī Date: 1353 Original Language: Arabic Description This work was written in response to a particular event in Lebanon. In the summer of 1353, the dome of a church collapsed, and a commission of Muslim scholars was convened to decide whether it could be rebuilt. In September of that year, they granted permission, and at this point al-Subkī wrote his response to their judgement. He completed it in just four days, but continued to work on it until…

 Kashf al-ghimma fī aḥkām ahl al-dhimma

(165 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
‘Removing obscurity, on the regulation of the people of protection’ Ibn Jamāʿa Date: Unknown; before 1333 Original Language: Arabic Description The work has not survived, and is known only from a listing in I. Bāshā, Īḍāḥ al-maknūn fī l-dhayl ʿalā kashf al-ẓunūn, 2 vols, Istanbul, 1947, ii, p. 362. It presumably discussed the regulations governing the conduct of dhimmīs in Islamic society, and may have advocated a systematic implementation against individuals and groups who were thought to be advancing beyond their legal status. Significance The Kashf is one example among a numb…

 Kata dynamin monōdia epi tē halōsei tēs Thessalonikēs

(328 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
'A lament on the capture of Thessaloniki according to my abilities' John Anagnostes Date: After 29 March 1430 Original Language: Greek Description Tsaras ( Hē teleutaia halosē , xiii-xviii) argues that the Monody (pp. 70-76 in his edition) is not by John Anagnostes but a later redactor. It is a lament on the fate of Thessaloniki and the loss of its churches and monasteries. The author shows his distress at the image of the destroyed city. Significance The work registers the sentiments of the Christian population of Thessaloniki after its capture by the Ottomans. Manuscripts MS Vat – Gr. 1…

 Kata Mōamed

(617 words)

Author(s): Niehoff-Panagiotidis, Johannes
Against Muḥammad Against Muḥammad Date: Uncertain; probably 10th or 11th century Original Language: Greek Description Despite its title, this work is not so much a polemic against the person of the Prophet of Islam as an attempt to give a minimum of knowledge about his life and teachings. In Khoury's view, its core goes back to the 10th or 11th century; this seems probable from the sources the author uses and from the fact that the work of Ethymius Zigabenus (11th-12th century) was unknown to him. Modifying Khoury’s analysis, the treatise consists of five parts and one late…

 Kayfiyyat idrāk ḥaqīqat al-diyāna

(1,608 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Kitāb ilā ʿAlī ibn Yaḥyā jawāb kitābihi fīmā daʿāhu ilayhi min dīn al-islāmHow to discern the truth of a religion (with variations)A work written to ʿAlī ibn Yaḥyā [ibn al-Munajjim] in response to the work in which he invited him to the religion of Islam Abū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-ʿIbādī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description This text is another of the few works by Ḥunayn that deal exclusively with religion, constituting a defense of Christianity in response to pressure to convert to Islam. The work is known in two different recensions…