Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
 
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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Ḥabīb ibn Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī

(1,753 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī Date of Birth: Unknown, probably late 8th c. Place of Birth: Unknown, probably in or near Takrīt, Iraq Date of Death: Unknown, probably soon after 830 Place of Death: Unknown, possibly in or near Takrīt, Iraq Biography Almost nothing is known of Abū Rāʾiṭa himself apart from what can be deduced from his writings and from contemporary accounts of three events (discussed below) with which he is associated. It is fairly certain that he was a layman living in the ancient Christian city of Takrīt , north of Baghdad, an…

Al-Hādī ilā l-Ḥaqq

(667 words)

Author(s): Reynolds, Gabriel Said
Abū l-Ḥusayn Yaḥyā ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn al-Qāsim ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ḥasanī l-Hādī ilā l-Ḥaqq al-Rassī Date of Birth: 835 Place of Birth: Medina Date of Death: 911 Place of Death: Ṣaʿda, Yemen Biography Al-Hādī ilā l-Ḥaqq was born in Medina into a Zaydī Shīʿī family. His paternal grandfather was al-Qāsim ibn Ibrahīm (d. 860) (q.v.), leader of the Zaydī ʿAlids in the Ḥijāz, founder of the principal school of theology and jurisprudence among the Yemenī Zaydīs, and author of an important anti-Christian treatise. Al-Hādī was raised in the…

 Ḥadīth Wāṣil al-Dimashqī

(832 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
The Account of Wāṣil al-Dimashqī Unknown author Date: Possibly 9th c. Original Language: Arabic Description The story starts with a certain Bashīr, a Roman who had been captured as a youth by the Muslims ‘during the rule of the Umayyads’ and showed all signs of converting, but later fled back to Byzantine territory where he was given noble status and possessions. A band of captured Muslims are brought to him and he questions them. One of them, Wāṣil ‘from the people of Damascus’, an older man and a noble who is versed in kalām, at first refuses to answer his questions, but then the two …

Hadrian I

(635 words)

Author(s): Aillet, Cyrille
Pope Hadrian’s Epistles to Bishop Egila Date of Birth: Unknown (8th c.) Place of Birth: Rome Date of Death: 25 December 795 Place of Death: Rome Biography Born into the Roman nobility, Hadrian was pope from 772 to 795 and succeeded in strengthening pontifical authority thanks to his strategy of forming an alliance with Charlemagne. At the beginning of his papacy, the Byzantine Empire was weakened by the iconoclastic crisis and its rule over Italy was challenged by the Lombards. Deprived of its traditional protector, the papacy was now claiming to represent the imperium against the growi…

 Ḥall ḥujjat man rāma an yulzim inna ittiḥād al-Kalima bi-l-insān fī ḥāl mawtihi ghayr mumkin

(345 words)

Author(s): Platti, Emilio
Ḥall ḥujjat man arāda an yulzim ittiḥād al-ilāh al-Kalima bi-l-insān fī ḥāl mawtihi ghayr mumkinInvalidation of the argument of those trying to prove that the union of the Logos with man is impossible in the state of his deathInvalidation of the argument of those trying to prove that the union of God the Logos with a human is impossible in the state of his death Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description Yaḥyā ibn ‘Adī’s demonstration is based on the principle that something can remain united to a whole, even if some parts of that whole are dis…

 Halōsis Krētēs ponētheisa para Theodosiou diakonou tapeinou tō philanthrōpō kai krataiō basilei Rōmanō

(1,639 words)

Author(s): Zielke, Beate
Theodosius diaconus, De Creta captaThe Conquest of Crete, written by Theodosius the Deacon, the humble, for the benevolent and mighty Emperor Romanus, On the conquest of Crete Theodosius the Deacon Date: Composed between March 961 and autumn 962, dedicated between March and July 963 Original Language: Greek Description This panegyric poem consists of 1,039 iambic verses, arranged in five ‘hearings’ ( akroaseis), which in the most recent edition cover 38 pages in print. As the title informs us, Theodosius the Deacon wrote it for the Byzantine Emperor Roman…

Ḥanūn ibn Yūḥannā ibn al-Ṣalt

(762 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Biography Ḥanūn ibn Yūḥannā ibn al-Ṣalt was an East Syrian (‘Nestorian’) Christian who composed Thalāth rasāʾil (‘Three treatises’), a work of spiritual theology consisting of Arabic reformulations of material from the Syriac writings of the late 7th-century ascetical master of the Church of the East, Mār Isaac of Nineveh (d. c. 700). In his introduction to the first treatise (Sbath, Traités religieux, pp. 10-12), Ḥanūn shares something of his spiritual-intellectual autobiography. From an early age, he was drawn to the study of books and was seeking answe…

Al-Ḥasan ibn Ayyūb

(451 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Biography Al-Ḥasan ibn Ayyūb is known for one work alone, and apart from this few further details about him have survived. Ibn al-Nadīm mentions him in the Fihrist (p. 221) among ‘the Muʿtazila about whom nothing is known’ ( al-Muʿtazila mimman lā yuʿrafu min amrihi ghayra dhikrihi), and says that one of his works was a refutation addressed to his brother ʿAlī ibn Ayyūb, which was an exposition of the weakness of Christian teachings and a confirmation of the prophethood of Muḥammad. Ibn Taymiyya (q.v.), who quotes extensively from the work, restates some of this and adds tha…

 Hawak‘umn Patmut‘ean

(867 words)

Author(s): Thomson, Robert W.
‘Historical compilation’; ‘Chronicle’ Vardan Arewelc‘i Date: 1267 Original Language: Armenian Description A version of the work which ran to the year 1265 was stolen by bandits, later recovered in the market at Tiflis, and completed down to the year 1267. The standard edition contains 164 pages of text, not including Introduction and Index. The Chronicle surveys in summary fashion the history of the world from creation to 1267. While Vardan is not primarily interested in Christian-Muslim relations, he inserts a (comparatively) long section on Muḥam…

 Al-ḥāwī l-mustafād min badīhat al-ijtihād; Al-ḥāwī l-mustafād; Al-ḥāwī; Mukhtaṣar al-bayān fī taḥqīq al-īmān

(1,819 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
'The profitable compiler, from the faculty of independent reasoning'; 'The profitable compiler'; 'The compiler'; 'The brief exposition on the verification of faith' Al-Makīn Jirjis ibn al-ʿAmīd Date: 1390s Original Language: Arabic Description The massive yet understudied work often known simply as Al-ḥāwī poses a number of questions. It falls into two roughly equal parts (each occupying two volumes of close to 400 pages in the recent edition by an unnamed monk of Dayr al-Muḥarraq in Upper Egypt, on which the following description depe…

Hermann of Carinthia

(991 words)

Author(s): de la Cruz Palma and Cándida Ferrero Hernández, Óscar
Hermann Dalmata, Hermannus Sclavus, Hermannus Secundus Date of Birth: Uncertain; early 12th century Place of Birth: Possibly in Carinthia, near St Peter im Holz Date of Death: Uncertain; mid 12th century Place of Death: Uncertain Biography Nothing is known about Hermann of Carinthia (who is not to be confused with Herman the German [d. 1272], the translator of works by Aristotle in Toledo), apart from the scant information that can be gleaned from his own works.  He studied in Chartres or Paris, and between 1138 and 1143 he was in…

 Hetera erōtēsis

(153 words)

Author(s): Lamoreaux, John C.
Another question (opusculum 36) Theodore Abū Qurra Date: Unknown Original Language: Greek Description This short work is a dialogue between a Christian and a Muslim. It seeks to establish that God has a Word and that this Word is eternal. Significance See the comments on p. 488. Manuscripts MS Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana - Gr. 521 (316), between fols 168r and 170v (13th c.) MS Wolfenbüttel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek - Gud. Gr. 102, fol. 33r-v (14th c.) MS Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek - Gr. 66, fol. 61r-v (16th c.) MS Vat - Ottob. Gr. 382, fols 89v-90r (17th c.) Editions & T…

 Hetera erōtēsis

(160 words)

Author(s): Lamoreaux, John C.
Another question (opusculum 37) Theodore Abū Qurra Date: Unknown Original Language: Greek Description Again, a short dialogue between a Christian and a Muslim. Two questions are treated: that Mary did not die, and that God did not create anything after the first seven days of creation. Significance See the comments on p. 488. Manuscripts MS Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana - Gr. 521 (316), between fols 168r and 170v (13th c.) MS Wolfenbüttel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek - Gud. Gr. 102, fols 33v-34r (14th c.) MS Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek - Gr. 66, fols 61v-62r (16th c.) MS V…

 Hetera erōtēsis

(164 words)

Author(s): Lamoreaux, John C.
Another question (opusculum 38) Theodore Abū Qurra Date: Unknown Original Language: Greek Description Again, a short dialogue between a Christian and a Muslim. The author argues that the fact that John the Baptist baptized Christ does not mean that John is greater than Christ. Significance See the comments on p. 488. Manuscripts MS Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Gr. 521 (316), between fols 168r and 170v (13th c.) MS Wolfenbüttel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek - Gud. Gr. 102, fol. 34r (14th c.) MS Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek - Gr. 66, fol. 62r (16th c.) MS Vat - Ottob. Gr.…

 Hetera erōtēsis tou autou

(293 words)

Author(s): Lamoreaux, John C.
Another question, by the same (opusculum 35) Theodore Abū Qurra Date: Unknown Original Language: Greek Description This work, a dialogue between a Christian and a Muslim, is concerned first with the origins of evil and the defense of human free will. The author seeks to show the error of the Muslims when they claim that God is the source of both good and evil. The author then turns to the Muslim claim that Jesus is the Word and Spirit of God, and seeks to show that as such the Son is eternal. Significance This work has traditionally been assigned to Abū Qurra, though none of the known M…