Brill’s Digital Library of World War I

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Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is an online resource that contains over 700 encyclopedia entries plus 250 peer-reviewed articles of transnational and global historical perspectives on significant topics of World War I. This collection includes Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, an unrivalled reference work that showcases the knowledge of experts from 15 countries and offers 26 additional essays on the major belligerents, wartime society and culture, diplomatic and military events, and the historiography of the Great War.

The 250 articles address not only the key issues from political, historical and cultural perspectives, but also engages with aspects of the war which have remained underexplored such as the neutrals, the role of women before, during and after the war, and memory. The chapters have been drawn from a select number of Brill publications that have been published in the last 15 years. Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is a unique digital library that will allow researchers to discover new perspectives and connections with the enhanced navigational tools provided.

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Colonial War

(1,529 words)

Author(s): Zimmerer, Jürgen
Colonial War The war against the German colonies of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific, led by the forces of Japan, Great Britain, France, Belgium, and their respective colonies. The spread of the war to the colonies was undertaken by Great Britain and France, primarily for strategic reasons. By occupying the German colonies, their respective ports would be closed to the German navy. Also, the German worldwide communications network, which depended upon the wireless stations erected there, would be dis…

Colored Troops

(587 words)

Author(s): Koller, Christian
Colored Troops German war propaganda described the nonwhite colonial troops employed by the Entente Powers in the First World War in general terms as “colored auxiliaries.” The very use of such units in Europe caused a considerable sensation. All in all, some 485,000 nonwhite soldiers from the French colonies and 160,000 from the British colonies fought in the ranks of the Entente Powers in the European theater. Important contingents came from Algeria (173,000), India (153,000), French West Africa…

Combat Engineers

(819 words)

Author(s): Gross, Gerhard P.
Combat Engineers A branch of the army providing technical assistance to the armed forces in combat. European armies had been equipped with combat engineer units – often called “Pioneers” – since the mid-19th century. Their primary mission was the construction of entrenchments, roads, and bridges. Like the other branches of the army, the combat engineers of the German Reich were trained for mobile warfare. The goal was to create a modern, technological, battle support force to provide direct reinforcement in combat. Following the lessons of…

Combating Desertion and Voluntary Surrender in the Russian Army During the First World War

(9,725 words)

Author(s): Simmons, Paul
Simmons, Paul - Combating Desertion and Voluntary Surrender in the Russian Army During the First World War ISFWWS-Keywords: Russia | Russian Front | Soldiers and Combat | Prisoners of War | Military organisation of combat Other Fronts, Other Wars? Joachim Bürgschwentner, Matthias Egger and Gunda Barth-Scalmani , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004279513 DOI: 10.1163/9789004279513_004 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Simmons, Paul

Command in the Indian Expeditionary Force D: Mesopotamia, 1915–16

(16,682 words)

Author(s): Syk, Andrew
Syk, Andrew - Command in the Indian Expeditionary Force D: Mesopotamia, 1915–16 Keywords: Baghdad | First World War | Indian Army commanders | Indian Expeditionary Force | Mesopotamia ISFWWS-Keywords: India | Middle East | Military organisation of combat | The Ottoman Empire and the Middle East | The French and British Empires | Experience of combat Abstract: The growth of German influence within the Ottoman Empire, after the turn of the century and manifested in construction of the Baghdad Railway, threatened British influence and trade in…

Command, Strategy and the Battle for Palestine, 1917

(7,696 words)

Author(s): Hughes, Matthew
Hughes, Matthew - Command, Strategy and the Battle for Palestine, 1917 Keywords: British command | Chief of the Imperial General Staff | David Lloyd George | grand strategy | Palestine campaign ISFWWS-Keywords: Middle East | Britain | Politics | The Ottoman Empire and the Middle East Abstract: This chapter examines the interchange between and within British command and grand strategy during the Palestine campaign of 1917, a significant military operation that drew off hundreds of thousands of Entente and Central alliance sold…

Committee of Inquiry of the German Parliament

(787 words)

Author(s): Pöhlmann, Markus
Committee of Inquiry of the German Parliament On August 21, 1919, the newly formed 15th Committee of the German Constitutional Assembly met as a fact-finding parliamentary committee to consider the central political and military issues stemming from the World War. The legal basis for the committee was Article 34 of the Weimar Constitution. Under Article 34, officeholders and officials were obligated to work together with a fact-finding commission. Furthermore, the committee would have the right to secure expert tes…

Communications Technology

(1,973 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Stefan
Communications Technology The purpose of communications technology is to convey information over distance. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904/1905 was to foreshadow developments during the First World War in communications technology, as in many other areas. In his conduct of the Battle of Mukden, the Japanese Marshal Oyama acquired the reputation of being the first modern commander in his use of communications technology as he directed his units from 20 km behind the front line with the aid of telephone lines installed across the entire battlefield, up to the most forward positions. …

Compiègne

(335 words)

Author(s): Werth, German
Compiègne French town and railway junction on the River Oise, some 60 km northeast of Paris; in 1917 it became the seat of the French Headquarters (GQG) and later the site of the 1918 Armistice. On November 11, 1918, at around 5:20 am, the Armistice between the Entente represented by chief negotiator Marshal Ferdinand Foch, and the German Empire was signed in a wooded area near Compiègne. The act itself took place in a railway carriage parked in a siding that belonged to a disused railway gun emp…

Comradeship

(566 words)

Author(s): Kühne, Thomas
Comradeship A term with widely varying categories of meaning, defined by soldiers’ experiences in the First World War and by public memory of the war. The term is attested from the 17th century as one of the military virtues and was used as an expression of the social coherence of soldiers both in and out of the fighting. The word’s etymology indicates the fellowship of the barrack room. With the start of national wars, the introduction of general conscription in the 19th century, and especially as a result of total war…

Conclusion

(1,956 words)

Author(s): Bobič, Pavlina
Bobič, Pavlina - Conclusion Keywords: Christian belief | Eastern menace | Habsburg monarchy | Slovenian | Western civilization Abstract: The assassination of the heir to the throne on 28 June 1914 and the state of siege that followed it deeply disturbed the apparent tranquillity in the Slovenian lands of the Habsburg monarchy. The Slovenian clergy did not fail to emphasise the cultural side of the European conflict by adopting the view that the war was a great struggle for Western civiliz…

Conclusion

(2,115 words)

Author(s): ,
Beşikçi - Conclusion The Ottoman Mobilization of Manpower in the First World War Mehmet Beşikçi, (2012) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2012 e-ISBN: 9789004235298 DOI: 10.1163/9789004235298_008 © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands ,

Conclusion

(80 words)

Author(s): van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Hubert P.
van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Hubert P. - Conclusion ‛The Netherlands and World War I’ Hubert P. van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2001 e-ISBN: 9789047405187 DOI: 10.1163/9789047405187.009 © 2001 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Hubert P.

Conclusion

(3,655 words)

Author(s): Klinkert, Wim
Klinkert, Wim - Conclusion Defending Neutrality Wim Klinkert , (2013) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2013 e-ISBN: 9789004252509 DOI: 10.1163/9789004252509_008 © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Klinkert, Wim

Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz

(940 words)

Author(s): Jerabék, Rudolf
Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz (November 11, 1852, Penzing near Vienna – August 25, 1925, Bad Mergentheim), Austro-Hungarian Field Marshal. Conrad, who was made a baron in 1910 and a count in 1918, not only had a typical career in the General Staff which predestined him for a higher office in the future, his participation in the 1878–1879 campaigns in Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1882 in Dalmatia also provided him with direct battlefield experience. Service with various bureaus of the General Staff enha…

Conscientious Objection

(630 words)

Author(s): Jahr, Christoph
Conscientious Objection The rejection of the legal obligation to fulfill one’s military duty in times of war. A distinction must be drawn between conscientious objection in the narrow sense and other ways of evading wartime military service. Conscientious objection, which was also an important motive for emigrating from Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, was traditionally practiced by a number of religious communities, for instance by the Quakers and Mennonites. In 1914, however, no country with a conscript army had made provis…

Conscription

(596 words)

Author(s): Storz, Dieter
Conscription A state’s compulsory enlistment of its citizens for military service. Conscription in the modern sense arose during the French Revolution. The new state, founded on the will of the people, demanded military service from its citizens. This enabled the state to expand its armed forces enormously, and to intensify its military activities accordingly. European monarchies too had to resort to this means of raising an army, if they wished to assert themselves militarily against France. Once Napoleon…

Conscription under Total War Conditions

(27,862 words)

Author(s): ,
Beşikçi - Conscription under Total War Conditions The Ottoman Mobilization of Manpower in the First World War Mehmet Beşikçi, (2012) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2012 e-ISBN: 9789004235298 DOI: 10.1163/9789004235298_004 © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands ,

Constantine I, King of Greece

(389 words)

Author(s): Loulos, Konstantin
Constantine I, King of Greece (August 2, 1868, Athens – February 11, 1923, Palermo). The first-born son of George I and of Russian Grand-Duchess Olga, Constantine married Princess Sophia of Prussia in 1889 and thereby became a brother-in-law of Kaiser Wilhelm II, whom he personally admired along with his authoritarian rule. As the commander in chief of the Greek army, he had subsequently been partly responsible for a serious defeat during the Greco-Turkish War of 1896/1897. Suspected of nepotism, Con…

Contributors

(720 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Contributors Afflerbach, Holger, Prof. (Leeds) Albes, Jens, Dr. (Koblenz) Allain, Jean-Claude, Prof. † Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane, Prof. (Paris) Baumeister, Martin, Prof. (Munich) Bavendamm, Gundula, Dr. (Taunusstein) Beaupré, Nicolas, Dr. (Clermont-Ferrand) Becker, Annette, Prof. (Paris) Becker, Jean-Jacques, Prof. (Paris) Beckers, Thomas, MA (Düsseldorf ) Behrenbeck, Sabine, Dr. (Cologne) Bendick, Rainer, Dr. (Osnabrück) Berghoff, Hartmut, Prof. (Washington DC/ Göttingen) Bessel, Richard, Prof. (York) Blom, J.C.H., Prof. (Leiden) Bohn, Robert, Prof. Dr. (Fle…
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