Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(250 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] To the north of S. (district of Razgrad Oblast in Bulgaria) a Thracian burial complex (first half of the 3rd cent. BC) was discovered in 1982. In the southeastern part of the Ginina Mogila burial mound is the grave of a Getic king ( dromos with relief frieze of bucrania, rosettes and garlands, three square chambers, i.e. ante-, burial and side chambers); 12 caryatids on the burial chamber, which can be linked to Thracian afterlife beliefs. In the chamber there are two stone catafalques, and above the larger one also wall pa…

Swaddling Clothes

(139 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σπάργανον/ spárganon; Latin incunabula). SC in their modern form were not known in Antiquity; instead, a baby would be wrapped entirely - apart from the head - with narrow strips of wool. Wrapping was supposed to ensure the striaght growth of the body and the limbs (Sen. Ben. 6,24,1,  cf. Plin. HN 7,3). In Thessaly only the lower half of the body was wrapped, in Sparta SC were dispensed with entirely (Plut. Lycurgus 16,3). Depictions of babies survive from the Bronze Age onwards (e.…


(607 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] In Greece and southern Italy today the following species occur: 1. Barn Swallow ( Hirundo rustica), 2. Crag Martin ( Ptyonoprogne rupestris), 3. Red-Rumped Swallow ( Cecropis daurica), 4. Sand Martin ( Riparia riparia) and 5. House Martin ( Delichon urbica). Whether ancient accounts of the χελιδών/ chelidṓn, Latin hirundo, refer to species other than 1 or 5 or the swift ( Apus apus L.) is almost always uncertain. For the most part broods are raised in skilfully constructed mud nests (Aristot. Hist. an. 8(9),7,612b 23; Varro Rust. 3,5,6; Ov. Fa…


(155 words)

Author(s): Traina, Giusto
[German version] In the ancient Mediterranean area, inland and coastal swamps were widespread. For the most part literary evidence permits their identification, although the terminology is not unambiguous. Even though the terms ἕλος ( hélos) and palus correspond to the modern 'swamp' in both geographical and metaphorical senses, nevertheless, it is more difficult to discern the meaning of λίμνη ( límnē), since the terms lake and swamp were less clearly distinguished than they are today. Furthermore, swamps were not so undervalued; the aversion to swamps …


(655 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (Κύκνος/ kýknos, Latin cygnus or olor) is the term not only for the mute swan., Cygnus olor, which breeds in Europe, but also for the Nordic whooper swan, C. cygnus (L.), which migrated as a winter visitor, probably occasionally as far as Greece and Italy. Hom. Il. 2,460-463 has them gather with geese and cranes in Lydia on the 'Asian meadow' (cf. Str. 14,1,45). Homer's Hymn 21 to Apollo locates them on the river Peneius in Thessaly, Aristoph. Av. 768 on the Hebrus in Thrace, Ov. Epist. 7,1 on the Maeander [2]…


(179 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] (Sanskrit, from Old Indic swasti, 'well-being'), crux gammata, 'gammadion'. Graphical symbol belonging to the language of ornamentation, occurring in Eurasia, northern Africa and central America. The earliest representations appear in Mesopotamia on pottery of the 4th millennium BC; there is later evidence in the Linear Pottery of the Danube area, in idols from Troy II and from Minoan Crete. In Attic-Geometric ornaments the - clockwise or anti-clockwise - swastika is part of the decorati…


(161 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Region (Σουαστηνή/ Souastēnḗ at Ptol. 7,1,42) around the homonymous tributary of the River Kabul (Greek Σό(υ)αστος/ Só(u)astos, Sanskrit Suvāstu) in modern northwestern Pakistan. After fierce fighting, the area was conquered by Alexander [4] the Great. Later it became part of the Indo-Greek kingdom and a centre of Buddhism. The exact location of the ancient capital Massaga is unknown, but excavations in Birkot Ghwandai (probably Bazira at Arr.  Anab. 4,27,5 ff.) have revealed remains of Hellenistic…

Swearwords; Terms of abuse

(564 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[German version] can be defined in terms of a speech act: the deliberate disparaging of a person (or thing) by means of a verbal attack on characteristic traits, personal circumstances, and so forth. For the constitution of an insult, it is not absolutely necessary to apply an abusive term in the narrow sense as a particular lexical device, i.e. nominally hostile forms of address (or hostile terminology) [7. 18; 9. 1190]. In ancient literature, abusive language is used in the most varied genres, e.g. in iambic poetry (Iambographers), invective, epigrams, in Fescennini versus


(137 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The words βουνιάς/ bouniás, νᾶπυ/ nâpy, Latin napus probably refer to the swede ( Brassica napus L. var. napobrassica). According to Ath. 9,369b Theophrastus was not familiar with it, while Nicander fr. 70 Schn. was. In Greece, according to Plin. HN 19,75 (five local varieties distinguished by Greek physicians) and 20,21 (two kinds: boúnion and boúnias), it is supposed to have been used only as a medicine; Ath. 1,4d knows swedes from Thebes. Diod. Sic. 3,24,1 describes it as similar to the food plants of the Hylophagi people on the Re…


(2,144 words)

Author(s): Lindberg, Bo
Lindberg, Bo [German version] A. Influence of Antiquity (CT) The history of Classical studies in Sweden (S.) by and large followed its general development in Europe -- but with variations in chronology and content which can be primarily ascribed to S.'s peripheral location within Europe. S. was penetrated by Christianity and the Church late, and an academic culture was not established until the 13th cent., i.e. after the upswing of Humanistic studies in the so-called Renaissance of the 12th cent. Renaiss…


(387 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
[German version] (Egyptian nbj; Greek κολυμβᾶν/ kolymbân; Latin natare). Swimming was a basic cultural skill as early as in ancient Egypt ([1]; likewise later in Greece, Pl. Leg. 689d; in Rome, Suet. Aug. 64,3: Augustus teaches his grandsons to swim) and was part of the education syllabus of high-ranking people, even of the king's children (biography of nomarch Cheti, end of 3rd millennium BC [2. document 3]). There are also sufficient sources for the Ancient Near East to assume that swimming was known …

Swing Painter

(139 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Attic black-figure vase painter, c. 540-520 BC, named after a swing scene on an amphora (Boston, MFA 98.918). Since his drawing style is quite easy to recognise, he has been attributed 167 vases to date, primarily amphorae. Of particular interest is the multiplicity and originality of his depictions, including unique scenes such as costumed men on stilts, a bodyguard of Peisistratus [4] armed with clubs, a Nekyia scene with Ajax [1] turned away grumbling (Hom. Od. 11,541-564) and Hera…


(14,175 words)

Author(s): Näf, Beat (Zürich RWG)
Näf, Beat (Zürich RWG) [German version] A. Antiquity and Swiss History (CT) [32] Long before the foundation of the modern federal state (1848), the history of the various ancient peoples and cultures on the territory of present-day Switzerland (S.) was understood as constituting a thematic unity. Such an understanding of history is found at the period of the 13-town Confederacy (1513-1798). Ancient Helvetia in particular was seen as fundamental to the understanding of the later history and the present. Afte…


(862 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] I. Classical Antiquity The sword used in Rome's early period is referred to as ensis or gladius in the transmission (Verg. Aen. 7,743; 9,431; 12,458; Liv. 1,43,2). According to Livy, the soldiers of the first three classes ('divisions') in the Servian order of centuriae were equipped with swords (Liv. 1,43,2). The Gallic sword was longer and had no pointed tip, the Hispanic sword was short, had a tip and was more suitable for thrusting than for slashing (Liv. 22,46,5). In the period of the 2nd Punic W…


(213 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Procos. Africae in 379 AD In AD 379 procos. Africae, in 380-382 praetorian prefect, in 381 cos. The assignment of offices is debatable, since S. [2] became prominent at the same time. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius, 4th cent. In AD 369 dishonourably dismissed as a notarius; in 379-381 (?) magister officiorum, in 381 city prefect in Rome, in 382 cos. Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography Clauss, 192 f.  A. Demandt, Die Konsuln der Jahre 381 und 382…


(605 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
(Σύβαρις; Sýbaris). [German version] [1] Monster on the mountain Cirphis near Crisa Monster on the mountain Cirphis near Crisa, also called Lamia (Lamia [1]). In order to keep the area free of S.' regular visitations, a youth called Alcyoneus was to be sacrificed. Out of love for him, however, Eurybatus spontaneously took his place. He managed to overcome S. and throw it from a rock. On the site of its fall the spring S. arises (Antoninus Liberalis 8, according to Nicander). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Name of a youth Name of a youth, possibly a river god, in a picture…


(136 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
(Σύβοτα/ Sýbota). [German version] [1] Island group Island group off the coast of Epirus opposite the southern tip of Corcyra [1]. In 433 BC a sea battle took place there between Corcyra and Corinth ([1]; Thuc. 1,47,1; 50,3; Str. 2,5,20; 7,7,5). In AD 551 the islands were plundered by the Ostrogoths (Procop. Goth. 4,22,30). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. S. Morrison et al., The Athenian Trireme, 22000, 62-69. [German version] [2] Harbour Harbour on the coast of Epirus opposite the S. [1] island group, modern Limani Murzo. In the 5th cent. BC, S. was …


(79 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Συβρίδαι; Sybrídai). Attic Paralia(?) deme of the Erechtheis phyle, before 307/6 BC with one bouleutḗs in alternation with Pambotadae, near which S. may have been. There is speculation on a connexion with the River Syverus (Siberus) in Plin. HN 37,114. The sculptor Cephisodotus [5] was from S. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. S., RE Suppl. 10, 925-927  Traill, Attica, 6, 14, 59, 62, 69, 112 No. 131, Table. 1  J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 126.


(62 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Συκεών/ Sykeṓn, Σικεών/ Sikeṓn). Place in Galatia (Proc. Aed. 5,4,1) where the road from Nicaea [5] to Ancyra crosses the Siberis, about 10 km to the south-southwest of modern Beypazarı, as a road station Fines Galatiae (Tab. Peut. 9,4, but incorrectly Fines Cilicie). Saint Theodorus lived and worked in S. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 228 f.  S. Mitchell, Anatolia, vol. 2, 1993, 122-150.


(4 words)

see Dido
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