Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Pyanopsia

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πυανόψια; Pyanópsia). Attic festival in honour of Apollo, held on the 7th of the month Pyanopsiṓn (end of October). A thick pulse soup (Greek pýanos, ‘bean’ and hépsein, ‘to cook’, from which the festival's name is also derived) was cooked on the occasion, which was etiologically linked with Theseus' homecoming (Plut. Theseus 10; [2. 150-153]). A procession of boys hung the E iresiṓnē, olive branches bound with wool decoration and laden with first-fruit offerings, on the doors of houses and on the temple of Apollo (Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 72…

Pydna

(422 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Diadochi and Epigoni | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Punic Wars (Πύδνα; Pýdna). Greek seaport on the coast of Pieria in Macedonia to the north of Cape Atherida (Macedonia, with maps). As early as the 5th cent. BC, P. was considered to belong to Macedonia (Thuc. 1,137,2: “ἐς Πύδναν τὴν Ἀλεξάνδρου”, referring to king Alexander [II 2] of Macedonia). In 432 BC, P. was besieged by the Athenians (Thuc. 1,61,2 f.); in 410, it was final…

Pygmalion

(368 words)

Author(s): Gauly, Bardo Maria (Kiel)
(Πυγμαλίων; Pygmalíōn). Greek name, derived from πυγμή/ pygmḗ, ('fist') [1]. [German version] [1] King of Tyre, brother of Dido King of Tyre, killed the husband of his sister Elissa or Dido out of greed (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 82; Verg. Aen. 1,343-364). Gauly, Bardo Maria (Kiel) [German version] [2] Grandfather of Adonis For the Cypriot king P. too, Phoenician descent is attested (Porph. De abstinentia 4,15); through his daughter who married Cinyras, the progenitor of the Paphian priest-kings, he became the grandfather of Adonis (Apollod. 3,182). Phi…

Pygmies

(323 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Πυγμαῖοι/ Pygmaîoi; from πυγμή/ pygmḗ, 'fist'; hence 'mittens' [1]; Lat. Pygmaei). A dwarf people, generally located by ancient ethnography at the edge of the known world, i.e. in Africa (Aristot. Hist. an. 8,12,597a), India (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 45) and Thrace (Plin. HN 4,44). Pygmy is, however, also a general term for people of unusually short stature (Aristot. Gen. an. 2,8,749a 4-6). Mythology has pygmies originating from Gaea and Poseidon  (Hes. fr. 150,17-18 Merkelbach/West). Herodotus'…

Pylades

(340 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πυλάδης/ Pyládēs, Doric form Πυλάδας/ Pyládas, Pind. Pyth. 11,23). [German version] [1] Friend of Orestes Phocian hero, son of Strophius and Anaxabia (e.g. Eur. Or. 764 f.; other mothers: schol. Eur. Or. 33, Hyg. Fab. 117). P. and Electra [4] (Eur. Or. 1092; 1207 ff.; Eur. IT 716 among others) were the parents of Strophius and Medon [4] (Paus. 2,16,7; Hyg. Fab. 119 f.) or Medeon (Steph. Byz. s. v. Μεδεών). P. grew up together with Orestes [1] and partakes in the latter's revenge on his mother and Aegisthus. F…

Pylae

(411 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Pylae Gadeirides The Straits of Gibralter (Πύλαι Γαδειρίδες; Pýlai Gadeirídes). The Straits of Gibraltar; the sound (saddle depth 286 m), which is about 60 km long and at its narrowest point 13 km wide, lies between the southern tip of the Spanish Peninsula and the continent of Africa, and between the Mediterranean (Mare nostrum) in the east and Oceanus in the west. The ancient names for the straits are based on Gades (Plin. HN 3,3; 5; 74; 4,93: Gaditanum fretum; Plut. Sertorius 8,1: Γαδειραῖος πορθμός/ Gadeiraîos porthmós), on the temple of Heracles in Gades ('…

Pylaea

(81 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Epithet of Demeter (Πυλαία/ Pylaía, Πυλαίη/ Pylaíē). Epithet of Demeter in her sanctuary at Thermopylae, where she was worshipped together with her daughter Persephone  (Callim. Epigr. 39; schol. Hom. Il. 16,174; cf. Erotianus, Vocum Hippocraticarum Collectio, s. v. Πύλας, p. 74 Nachmanson). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Assembly of the Delphic Amphictyonia (Πύλαια/ Pýlaia). Assembly of the Delphic Amphictyonia in the sanctuary of Demeter Amphiktyonis at Thermopylae [1. 175]. Gate, deities associated with Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibliogra…

Pylaemenes

(164 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel)
[German version] (Πυλαιμένης; Pylaiménēs). Son of Bisaltes (Apollod. Epit. 3,35) or of Melius (Dictys 2,35), leader of the Eneti of Paphlygonia, allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,851; Str. 12,3,8; Apollod. Epit. 3,35), killed in Troy by Menelaus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,576-589), Patroclus [1] (Nep. Datames 2,2) or Achilles [1] (Dictys 3,5; Hyg. Fab. 113). An epigram on those who fell in Troy can be found in  Aristot. Peplos 54 Rose. Ancient Homeric philology  tried to explain the fact that P., despite his …

Pylagoras

(153 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (πυλαγόρας/ pylagóras; also πυλαγόρος/ pylagóros, Hdt. 7,213 f,. or πυλάγορος/ pylágoras). literally a participant in the Pýlaia [2] meetings, i.e. the meetings of the  amphiktyonía of Anthela (near Thermopylae) and Delphi. Each of the 12 éthnē of the amphiktyonía was represented in the Council by two hieromnḗmones , who could both speak and vote, and they could send further representatives who could speak but not vote. The latter were called pylágoroi in literary texts and a few inscriptions of the Roman period, but agoratroí in Hellenistic inscriptions. It has…

Pylaios

(6 words)

seeGates, deities associated with

Pylene

(67 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Πυλήνη/ Pylḗnē). Aetolian city, mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,639; Stat. Theb. 4,102;  Hsch. s. v. Π.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). In the pre-Hellenistic period, P. was relocated to a higher site and renamed Proschium. Aetolians, Aetolia (with map) Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 278-280.

Pylos

(1,818 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg)
(Πύλος/ Pýlos). [German version] [1] Homeric P. Kingdom of Nestor In Homer, P. can designate both the domain and residence of Nestor [1] [3. 119-126]. The geographic information on the location of the palace - however concretely verifiable in the actual topography - given in Homer in the Iliad and the Odyssey each lead to different locations. In the tale of Nestor, the so-called Nestorís in the 11th book of the Iliad (cf. [2. 296-298] on Hom. Il. 11,670-762), the information clearly points to a place south of the Alpheius [1]. In the Odyssey, on the other h…

Pyraechmes

(137 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Πυραίχμης/ Pyraíchmēs). Commander of the Paeonians (Paeones) in the Trojan War; he leads them from Amydon to the aid of his allies the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,848-850, Apollod. Epit. 3,34). He kills Eudorus [1] (Timolaus FHG 4,521) and is then killed by Patroclus [1]. P. was buried in Troy (tomb epigraph Aristot. Peplos 47). The fact that Asteropaeus, the grandson of the river god Axius, is also named as the leader of the Paeonians (Hom. Il. 21,140 f.; 21,154-160), but is not mentioned in the catalogue of Trojans - although he plays a disproportionately larger role in the Iliad -…

Pyramid

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin)
(Egyptian mr, Greek πυραμίς/ pyramís, Lat. pyramis). Monumental funerary structure, originally of the Egyptian kings, on a square layout, with, in the ideal case, planar triangular sides. The term in archaeology for the apex of the pyramid, formed from a single block of stone and often especially decorated, is pyramidion (Egyptian bnbn.t). [German version] I. Origin and interpretation The two oldest phases of the first pyramid, the step-pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara ( c. 2700 BC), still display the simple mastaba form on a confined rectangular plan, whi…

Pyramid texts

(6 words)

see Funerary literature

Pyramid tomb

(101 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Particular form of funerary architecture in Classical Antiquity, following the Pharaonic pyramid of Egypt in form and purpose. Rare in Classical Antiquity, but always used with high aspirations to grandeur; the best-known example is the pyramid of Cestius in Rome near the Porta San Paolo (built as a monument to the tribune and praetor C. Cestius [I 4] Epulo, d. 12 BC). Further examples, primarily in the area from Asia Minor to Egypt. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography F. Coarelli, Rom. Ein archäologischer Führer, 1975, 307 f.  C. Ratté, The Pyramid Tomb at Sa…

Pyramus

(434 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Gauly, Bardo Maria (Kiel)
(Πύραμος/ Pýramos). [German version] [1] Easternmost of the three rivers in Cilicia Pedias Easternmost of the three rivers in Cilicia Pedias (Cydnus, Sarus [1]; Cilices, Cilicia), mentioned as early as Scyl. 102, modern Ceyhan. Rising in Cataonia in Cappadocia, in Antiquity its mouth, on a now defunct branch, lay to the west of Magarsa near the ancient mouth of the Sarus. Because of this the two rivers were occasionally conflated. Today the mouth has shifted far to the east because of alluvial deposits (this…

Pyrasus

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πύρασος; Pýrasos). City in Achaea Phthiotis (Hom. Il. 2,695) on the northeastern edge of the Halmyrus plain, today's Nea Anchialos. Settled from prehistoric times until the present; in the historical era it belonged to Thebes (Str. 9,5,14). Archaeology: large Christian basilica and other buildings. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Hild, E. Hanschmann, s. v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 578 f.  P. Lazaridis, Βυζαντινὰ καὶ μεσαιωνικὰ μνημεῖα Θεσσαλίας: Νέα Ἀγχίαλος Φθιώτιδες Θῆβαι, in: AD 25, 1970, 286 f.  TIB 1, 271  E. Viss…

Pyrenaei Portus

(65 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Port on the northeast coast of Spain, to the north of Rhode (modern Ciutadella de Roses), where Cato [1] broke his voyage to his province of Hispania Citerior in 195 BC (Liv. 34,8,5). PP probably corresponds to Portus Veneris (modern Port-Vendres on Cape Béar). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography J. Jannoray, s. v. Portus Veneris (1), RE 22, 411-418, bes. 415 f.

Pyrene

(485 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in the easternmost Pyrenees near Rhode (Πυρήνη; Pyrḗnē). City of Iberian or Phocaean origin in the region between the Sordi and the Ceretes peoples (Avien. 559), therefore in the easternmost Pyrenees (P. [2]) near Rhode. Here, according to Hdt. 2,33, was the source of the Istrus [2] (Danube); P. was a rich city, seven days' journey from Pylae [1] Gadeirides (Avien. 562-565) and often visited by merchants from Massalia. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 460. [German version] [2] Mountains, modern Pyrenees (Πυρήνη/ Pyrḗnē, Πυρηναῖα/ Pyrēnaîa, Πυρ…
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