Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Pharisaei, Pharisees

(1,622 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland (Herrenberg)
(Φαρισαῖοι/ Pharisaîoi, usually plural). [German version] I. Definition, name A Jewish religious party from at least the middle of the 2nd cent. BC, mentioned as Pharisaei only in Iosephus [4] Flavius, in parts of the NT (Gospels; Acts; once in Paulus [2]: Phil 3,5,) and, based on that, in the patristic literature. In the Jewish traditional literature from the 2nd cent. AD on (Rabbinical Literature) the corresponding Hebrew collective term perūšīm occurs relatively infrequently, often in contrast to the Sadducees. It is controversial to what extent the Pharisees t…

Pharmacology

(2,168 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid)
[German version] I. Etymology The Greek term for pharmacology (ὁ περὶ φαρμάκων λόγος/ ho perì pharmákōn lógos, Pedanius Dioscorides, De materia medica praef. 5) means 'science of remedies'. Originally, the term φάρμακον/ phármakon, whose etymology is not known, did not specifically refer to a medical drug, but to any substance introduced into the body with the ability of changing the body's structure or function. The Latin term medicamentum points to the aspect of assistance and support, as does βοήθημα/ boḗthēma. Specific medications were named after their principal proper…

Pharmacology

(4,223 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) I. Europe (CT) [German version] A. Early Middle Ages (CT) The practice of post-Classical curative art is characterised by six tendencies that complement or follow upon one another: 1. The fundamental texts survived in their original Greek version at least until the 5th-6th cent. (Dioscurides). Some were presumably translated into Latin during the same period at Rome or Ravenna (Hippocrates, Peri diaites, Oribasius, Synopsis and Euporista) or else in North Africa (Dioscurides). There were also new Greek texts from Constantinople (Dioscu…

Pharmacussae

(67 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Φαρμακοῦσσαι; Pharmakoûssai). Two small islands in the sound of Salamis off the coast of Attica (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.); the grave of Circe could be seen on the larger island (Str. 9,1,13), present-day Hagios Georgios in the Bay of Paloukia; the smaller island is the rocky reef Tes Panagias, near Perama [1. 566f.]. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. Psyttaleia, RE Suppl. 14, 566-571.

Pharmacy

(5 words)

see Pharmacology

Pharmakeia

(166 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (φαρμακεία; pharmakeía). The giving of a medical drug, magic potion or poison ( phármakon). In Athens, if someone personally administrated it and this resulted in a citizen's death, a δίκη φόνου ( díkē phónou, 'murder charge'; phónos ) could be brought , which was decided by the Áreios págos (Dem. Or. 23; or. 24; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 57,3). In the case of premeditated killing, the punishment was death, otherwise exile. Plato differentiates between the pharmakeia of doctors and sorcerers on the one hand and that of laymen on the other (Pl. Leg. 932e-933e).…

Pharmakides

(103 words)

Author(s): Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg)
[German version] (Φαρμακίδες; Pharmakídes). According to Paus. 9,11,2, old images of women called Pharmakides ('enchantresses')were displayed at Thebes. According to the Thebans; they had prevented the birth of Hercules [1]  at the behest of Hera. The Pharmakides of Theban local myth are evidently to be identified with Eileithyia and with the Moirae (Moira), who were probably also depicted as Pharmakides on the Cypselus chest (Paus. 5,18,2) [1]. This is supported by the fact that the latter were honoured at Thebes with their own temple (Paus. 9,25,4). Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg) Bibli…

Pharmakos

(419 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen)
[German version] [1] Magician, v. Magic (φάρμακος; phármakos). Magician, v. Magic. Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) [German version] [2] Human 'scapegoat' (φαρμακός/ pharmakós from φάρμακον/ phármakon, 'remedy, medicine'). The pharmakos was a human 'scapegoat' (Scapegoat rituals), who at Athens and in the Ionian poleis was driven out of a city to 'purify' it during the Thargelia as well as in times of crisis such as epidemic and famine. The scapegoat was chosen from among the poor and deformed; pharmakos and associated terms were thus regarded as insults [7; 8]. The pharmakoí received pr…

Pharnabazus

(391 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Φαρνάβαζος; Pharnábazos). [German version] [1] Persian, Satrap of Dascylium [2]/Phrygia Persian, from 468 or 455 BC satrap of Dascylium [2] in Phrygia (Thuc. 2,67,1). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] Grandson of Ph. [1], satrap of Dascylium [2] Grandson of P. [1], satrap of Dascylium [2], died after 373 BC; in 413/12 BC he was an ally of Sparta and in 409 BC of Athens (he sheltered Alcibiades [3] in 404 und had him murdered at the request of Lysander [1]; Xen. Hell. 1,1,6; 14; 2,16; 3,8ff.; Diod.Sic. 14,11,2; Ne…

Pharnaceia

(180 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φαρνάκεια/ Pharnákeia, Φαρνακία/ Pharnakía, Latin Pharnacea). Port on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), founded by Pharnaces [1] I, probably after the occupation of Sinope in 183 BC while incorporating the population of Cotyora (Str. 2,5,25; 7,6,2; 11,2,18; 12,3,13-19; 28-30; 14,5,22; Ptol. 5,6,5; Plut. Lucullus 18,2; Plin. HN 6,11; 32). According to the information on distances in Xen. An. 5,3,2 (cf. also Peripl. m. Eux. 34), however, P. was not on the soil of Ce…

Pharnaces

(490 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Φαρνάκης; Pharnákēs). [German version] [1] Ph. I. King of Pontus, 2nd cent. BC King of Pontus (185-160/154 BC), son of Mithridates [3] III. After the conquest of Sinope in 183 BC, Ph. fought in 182-179 BC (Pontian War Pol. 25,2; Diod. Sic. 29,24) together with the dynast Mithridates of Armenia Minor against a gradually emerging coalition of the kings Eumenes [3] II, Ariarathes IV (Cappadocia), Prusias II and Artaxias [1] I, the dynasts Acusilaus (territory unknown), Gatalos (Sarmate) and Morzius (Paphlagone…

Pharnuches

(127 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Φαρνούχης; Pharnoúchēs), a Lycian interpreter (though, as his name shows, from a Persian colonist family), was assigned in 329 BC by Alexander [4]  the Great to a task force under the leadership of three hetaíroi that was to relieve the fortress of Marakanda from siege by Spitamenes. By means of the incompetence of the officers the troops were almost completely annihilated. It is impossible that a P. had three hetaíroi under his command (as Arr. Anab. 4,3,7 reports on the authority of Ptolemaeus and Aristobulus [7]): it is certain that he was, as …

Pharos

(177 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Lighthouse Lighthouses Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island in the Adriatic ( Pharia, Plin. HN 3,152). 68 km long island in the Adriatic Sea off the Dalmatian coast (Scyl. 23; Str. 2,5,20), modern Hvar (Croatia). According to Pol. 5,108,7, the island was called ὁ Φάρος/ ho Pháros, while the city was called ἡ Φ./ hē Ph. (ruins near Stari Grad, cf. [1]). Since 385/4 BC (Diod. Sic. 15,13,4), Ph. was a colony of Paros (Ephor. FGrH 70 F 89), since 229 BC, it was part of the Illyrian kingdom of Agron [3] and Teuta, then i…

Pharsalus

(631 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (ἡ Φάρσαλος/ hē Phársalos). Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, father of Achilles, rules in the city of Phthia,which in Antiquity had been identified with the city of P. located on the southwestern edge of the Thessalian plain. Hom. Il. 1,155 knows only Phthia. The Thessali founded P. when they took over the land at the source of the Apidanus. They called this part of the plain Phthiôtis, while the subjected territory of the indigenous population that had been pushed ba…

Pharsanzes

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Pharzanes). King of the Regnum Bosporanum in AD 253-254; he interrupted the reign of Rhecusporis V probably as a usurper who was hostile to the Romans. He is known on account of the coins he issued PIR2 P 343. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 470  A.N. Zograph, Ancient Coinage. Ph. II: The Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Littoral, 1977, 334-335.

Pharusii

(90 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαρούσιοι; Pharoúsioi). A nomadic North African people whom Strabo (2,5,33; 17,3,3; 7) always mentions together with the Nigritae (cf. Sall. Iug. 18: Persae; Mela 1,22; 3,103; Plin. HN 5,43: Gymnetes Pharusi; 46: Pharusi, quondam Persae; 6,194: Perusii; Ptol. 4,6,17; Geogr. Rav. 43,10: Paurisi). The P. appear to have partly lived to the west and partly to the south-east of the High Atlas. With their caravans they occasionally reached as far as Cirta (Str. 17,3,7). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Cat. des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 230-232.

Phasael

(532 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Φασάηλος; Phasáēlos). [German version] [1] Eldest son of Antipater [4] and Cyprus Eldest son of Antipater [4] and Cyprus, born in c. 77 BC probably in Marissa (Idumaea; Jos. Bl.  1,8,9; Jos. Ant. lud. 14,7,3). In 47 BC, P. was appointed governor  (στρατηγός/stratēgós) of Jerusalem and the surrounding area by Antipater (ἐπίτροπος/ epítropos of Judaea under the high priest and ethnarchos Hyrcanus [3] II), while his brother Herod [1] took on the same office in Galilee (Jos. Ant. lud. 14,9,2; Jos. Bl 1,10,4). Josephus credits P…

Phasaelis

(207 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φασαηλίς/ Phasaēlís, Φασηλός/ Phasēlós, modern Ḫirbat Faṣāil). City founded by Herodes [1] I in memory of his elder brother Phasael [1] to the north of Jericho in the fertile Jordan rift valley, probably after 30 BC (Ios. Ant. Iud. 16,5,2; Ios. BI 1,21,9). Inherited after Herod's death by his sister Salome (Ios. Ant. Iud. 17,8,1; Ios. BI 2,6,3), after her death P. became the property of Livia [2], wife of the emperor Augustus (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,2,2; Ios. BI 2,9,1). P. was known for it…

Phaselis

(508 words)

Author(s): Thomsen, Andreas (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Xenophon | Zenobia | Commerce | Colonization | Lycii, Lycia | Pergamum | Delian League | Education / Culture (Φασηλίς; Phasēlís). Port city on the eastern Lycian coast near what is today Tekirova. It was established as a Greek colony (Cic. Verr. 2,4,21; Plut. Cimon 12,3) by Lindus in about 690 BC, possibly at the site of an earlier Phoenician settlement. By the 6th cent., P. had developed into an important trade centre, owing to its favourable location. In…

Phasiani

(120 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Φασιανοί; Phasianoí, Xen. An. 4,6,5), a tribe mentioned together with the Chalybes and Taochi that lived on the Phasis, a river that should not be identified with the Phasis in Colchis (modern Rioni/ Georgia) but with the modern Pasinsu (Armenian Basean) that flows into the Araxes [1]/ Aras at Pasinler. The region known as Pasean in Armenian and Basiani in Georgian corresponds approximately to the modern region of Basen/Pasen with the city of Pasinler, c. 60 km east of Erzurum in north-eastern Turkey. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography W.E.D. Allen, A His…
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