Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Phanodemus

(149 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανόδημος; Phanódēmos). Atthidographer, father of the historian Diyllus and follower of Lycurgus' [9] restoration policy (FGrH 325 T 2-5). As a member of the Council he was honoured with a gold wreath in 343/2 BC (IG II2 223 = Syll.3 227). Several inscriptions from the years 332/1 to 329/8 (IG VII 4252-4254) testify to his espousing the cult of Amphiaraus of Ephesus. His Atthís, comprising at least 9 books, which appeared in about 330 and of which 27 fragments survive, also reveals a strong interest in issues of cult. The fragment datable as…

Phanomachus

(67 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
[German version] (Φανόμαχος; Phanómachos). Athenian stratēgós 430/ 429 BC: successful siege of Poteidaia in 430 BC; he was impeached on account of his alleged lenience towards the Poteidaians and acquitted. He was killed during the Athenians’ devastating defeat at Spartolus in the early summer of 329 BC (Thuc. 2,70; 79; Diod. Sic.12,47,3; Paus. 1,29,7: stele for the fallen at the Dipylon Gate). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)

Phanosthenes

(95 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Φανοσθένης; Phanosthénēs) of Andros. He was named próxenos ( proxenía ) and euergétēs of the Athenians, probably because of his services in introducing shipbuilding timber; he was later granted Athenian citizenship and was selected as stratēgós for 407/6 BC. After the defeat at Notion, Ph. succeeded Conon [1] at the siege of Andros, intercepting two ships from Thurii which were attempting to join the Spartan fleet (Plat. Ion 541d; Xen. Hell. 1,5,18f.; IG I3 182). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography H.A. Reiter, Athen und die Poleis des Delisch-Attisch…

Phanostrate

(79 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Φανοστράτη; Phanostrátē). Greek-Athenian midwife and doctor, depicted on Attic grave stelae from the end of the 4th cent. BC (IG II/III2 6873; Clairmont, 2. 890). The inclusion of the professional title midwife suggests a certain degree of specialisation in medicine and shows at the same time that women were able to work as doctors and earn a considerable income, as is suggested by the quality and individual designs of the stone mason’s craftsmanship. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Phanostratus

(27 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φανόστρατος; Phanóstratos) of Halicarnassus. Tragedian, probably successful at the Attic Lenaea in 306 BC. TrGF I 94 = DID B7. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Phanote

(67 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανότη; Phanótē). Fortified city in the north of Epirus, in the border region between Thesprotia and Molossia, mentioned only in the context of the third Macedonian War (172-168 BC)  (Pol. 27,16,4; Liv. 43,21,4; 45,26,2f.). P. was probably in the  Thyamis valley, near either modern Raveni or modern Doliani. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976, 296  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 186f., 628f., 676.

Phantasia

(593 words)

Author(s): Labarrière, Jean Louis (Paris)
[German version] A. Definition Greek φαντασία ( phantasía, 'imagination') in its basic meaning is connected with φαίνεσθαι ( phaínesthai, 'to come to light, to appear'). The concept therefore refers to what appears, what shows itself and becomes visible (φαντάζεσθαι/ phantázesthai) - independently of whether it is true or false; hence also its etymological derivation from 'light' (φῶς/ phôs; Aristot. An. 3,3,429a 2; Chrysippus in Aetius 4,12-15 Diels). The strictest and most neutral definition, however, is: “ Phantasia is that by means of which an image (φάντασμα/ phántasma) ari…

Phantasos

(4 words)

see Morpheus

Phantasy

(5 words)

see Imagination

Phaon

(312 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Ferryman from Lesbos (Φάων/ Pháōn, ‘ the radiant’). Ferryman from Lesbos who carries Aphrodite in the guise of an old woman, from Lesbos to the mainland without a charge. In reward, she gives him a rejuvenating and beautifying ointment. This story of the origin of P.'s radiant beauty only appears in later sources (Ael. VH 12,18; Serv. Aen. 3,279; Palaephatus 48; Lucian. Dialogi mortuorum 19(2),2 ). Initially, he is primarily encountered in comedy: Cratinus (PCG IV fr. 370) presents hi…

Phara

(180 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαρά/ Phará, Φαραί/ Pharaí, ethnicon Φαραιεύς/ Pharaieús). City in western Achaea on the left bank of the Peirus (Str. 8,7,4f.; Paus. 7,22,1-5 [2. 186-188]; Ptol. 3,16,15: Φέραι or Φάραι; Plin. HN 4,13: Pherae; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φαραί, also Φηραί) near the modern villages of Pharai and Prevedos. With a commanding position on the road between western Achaea (with Patrae) and Arcadia. Significant in the Mycenaean period [1. 230-232, 240f.]. P. was one of the 12 ancient cities of Achaea (Hdt. 1,145: Φαρέες; Pol. 2…

Pharadas

(29 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φαράδας; Pharádas) from Athens; was successful with a satyr play after 85 BC at the Museia in Thespiae (Boeotia) (TrGF I 173). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Pharae

(247 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] City in southern Messenia This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Φαραί/ Pharaí, Φηραί/ Phēraí). City in southern Messenia (Str. 8,4,4f.; 5,8; 7,5; Paus. 4,30,2-31,1; Ptol. 3,16,8 (Φεραί/ Pheraí); Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; [1. 181]), modern Kalamata. In Homer (Hom. Il. 5,543; 9,151; 293) one of the seven cities Agamemnon promised Achilles [2], Spartan perioikoi city. In 394 BC its territory was devastated by Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,7; Nep. Conon 1), made a part of the territory of Messana [2] by Philip [4] II at …

Pharaea

(74 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φαραία, Φηραία; Pharaía, Phēraía). Settlement in north western Arcadia (Pol. 4,77,5; Str. 8,3,32), no more precisely identifiable. Possibly at the modern Lambia, or rather the ancient site at present-day Nemuta on the eastern slopes of the Oros Pholoï. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 35-37  E. Meyer, Arkadisches. Pharai - Pherai - Pharaia in Arkadien, in: MH 14, 1957, 81-88  F. Bölte, s.v. Ph. (1), RE 19, 1809f.

Pharaoh

(83 words)

Author(s): Kahl, Jochem (Münster)
[German version] Greek rendering (φαραω/pharao) known from the Old Testament (Hebrew parō Gn 12:15 and passim) of the ancient Egyptian term for an Egyptian ruler. In Egypt, the term referred originally to the royal palace or court and literally means 'great house' (pr-). From Thutmosis III (1479-1426 BC) at the latest, this expression also designated the person of the Egyptian ruler. As a title before the name of the ruler, it is encountered from the 10th cent. BC onwards. Kahl, Jochem (Münster)

Pharasmanes

(486 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Φαρασμάνης; Pharasmánēs). [German version] [1] Ph. I. King in the Caucasus (1st cent. AD) Son of Mithridates [19] and king of Iberia [1] (Caucasus). From AD 35, as an ally of Rome, P. had been supporting the Armenian kingdom of his brother Mithridates [20] (Tac. Ann. 6,32-35; 11,8-9) and, after AD 51, that of his own son Radamistus (Tac. Ann. 12,44-47). His relatives’ failure as client kings to Rome (cf. Tac. Ann. 13,37) and the acceptance of the Arsacid Tiridates I. as king of Armenia must have affected him…

Pharcadon

(81 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φαρκαδών, Φαρκηδών; Pharkadṓn, Pharkēdṓn). Town in Histiaeotis, a region of Thessaly on the river Peneius, once again named P. (formerly Klokoto or Tsioti). Philippus [7] V. defeated the Aetolians in 199 BC at P. (Liv. 31,41f.). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography L. Darmezin, Sites archéologiques et territoires du massif des Chassia, in: Top. antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 139-155  E. Kirsten, s.v. Pharkadon, RE 19, 1835-1838  H. Kramolisch, s.v. Pharkadon, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 535  Koder/Hild, 238.

Phares

(225 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάραξ/ Phárax). [German version] [1] Spartan military officer (end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Spartan, in 405 BC second in command at Aigos potamos (Paus. 6,3,15). As a naúarchos (naval commander) he took part in operations with Dercylidas in Caria in the early summer of 397 (Xen. Hell. 3,2,12-14) and intercepted the Athenian legates to Persia who were executed in Sparta (Hell. Oxyrh. 10,1 Chambers). In 396 he besieged Conon [1] in Caunus with 120 ships (Diod. 14,79,4f.) [1]. In 390 as próxenos ( Proxenía ) of the Thebans he supported the Boeot…

Pharetra

(6 words)

see Bow and arrow

Pharis

(113 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Φᾶρις, Φαραί; Phâris, Pharaí). Town in Laconica (Hom. Il. 2,582; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 117; Str. 8,5,1; the form Φαραί is used in later literature such as Paus. 4,16,8; Hierocles, Synecdemus 647,10; Liv. 35,30,9), c. 10 km south of Sparta, 2 km east of Amyclae [1], probably Vaphio with the well known Mycenaean beehive tomb, abandoned in the time of Pausanias [1. 76f.; 2. 168f.]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Prehistoric Laconia I, in: ABSA 55, 1…
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