Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Phacusa

(93 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Φάκουσ(σ)α/ Phákous(s)a and similar). Town in the north-east of the Nile delta, modern Fāqūs. Its ancient Egyptian name is unknown. P. is not attested until the Ptolemaic period. Str. 17,1,26 describes it - probably incorrectly - as the departure point of a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea (Ptolemaïs [4]). According to Ptol. Geog. 4,5,24, P. was the metropolis of the nome of Arabia. In the Christian period, P. was a diocesan town. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography St. Timm, Das christlich-koptische Ägypten in arabischer Zeit, vol. 2, 1984, 923-926.

Phaea

(113 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαιά/ Phaiá, 'the grey one', Φαῖα/ Phaîa according to Steph. Byz.). Theseus kills a sow of supernatural strength near Krommyon (first mentioned in Bacchyl. 18(17), 23-25, then Diod. Sic. 4,59,4). Her name P. is only stated later (Plut. Theseus 9; Apollod. Epit. 1,1; Paus. 2,1,3). According to Plutarch, Ph. may originally have been a female robber vanquished by Theseus. According to Apollodorus, the sow is descended from Echidna and Typhon (Typhoeus) and is named after her wet nurse wit…

Phaeaces

(445 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαίακες/ Phaíakes, Latin Phaeaces, the Phaeacians). Mythical seafaring people, ruled by King Alcinous [1] (together with 12 other 'kings') and his wife Arete [1]. The P. live on the island of Scheria, to which they were led by Nausithous [1] from Hyperea (Hom. Od. 6,5; 7,58). There are comprehensive accounts of the P. in Hom. Od. books 6-8 and 13. The P. receive Odysseus as their guest after the king's daughter Nausicaa discovers him shipwrecked on the beach. They entertain him lavi…

Phaeax

(301 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
(Φαίαξ; Phaíax). [German version] [1] Ancestor of the Phaeaces Mythical ancestor of the Phaeaces, father of Alcinous [1] and Locrus [3] (Diod. Sic. 4,72,2; differenly: Hom. Od. 7,54ff.; Nausithous [1]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical naval officer of Theseus Mythical naval officer of Theseus, together with Nausithous [3] (Plut. Theseus 17). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Deubner, 225. [German version] [3] Athenian politician, 5th cent. BC Athenian, son of Eresistratus, Acharnian (Aeschin. 3,138; ostraka [3. 78 no. 152]); from a prominent fa…

Phaedimus

(423 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Φαίδιμος/ Phaídimos, 'Radiant One'). [German version] [1] Son of Amphion and Niobe One of the sons of Amphion [1] and Niobe shot by Apollo (Apollod. 3,45; Ov. Met. 6,239; Hyg. Fab. 11; Lact. ad Stat. Theb. 3,191-193; Mythographi Vaticani 1,156). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] King of the Sidonians King of the Sidonians who hospitably received Menelaus [1] on his wanderings during his return from Troy; P. presented him with a cup made by Hephaestus (Hom. Od. 4,617-619; 15,117-119). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] One of the 50 Thebans who enticed Tydeus …

Phaedo

(287 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαίδων; Phaídon) from Elis, b. 418/416 BC, date of death unknown. Title character of the Platonic dialogue Phaídōn. P. is believed to have been taken prisoner when the city of Elis was conquered, sold as a slave to Athens and forced to work in a brothel. After meeting Socrates, the philosopher apparently had one of his pupils buy P.'s freedom, and from then on P. devoted himself to philosophy (Diog. Laert. 2,31; 2,105 et passim). P. wrote two dialogues, titled Zṓpyros and Símōn. It is probably true that the story of Socrates' meeting with the magician Zopyrus,…

Phaedra

(678 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φαίδρα/ Phaídra, Latin Phaedra). Daughter of Minos and Pasiphae, second spouse of Theseus, mother of Demophon [2] and Acamas. P. loves her stepson Hippolytus [1]. She tries in vain to seduce him and accuses him of having raped her. Theseus asks Poseidon to destroy Hippolytus. The god sends a bull from the sea, which gives such a fright to Hippolytus' horse-team, that he is killed in the accident. P. commits suicide when her love for Hippolytus becomes public (Ps.-Apollod. epit. 1,17…

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] [I 1] 5th cent. BC Son of Pythocles, from the Attic deme of Myrrhinus, born probably c. 450 BC. Accused of participation in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteria and the mutilatation of the herms, P. went into exile in 415 BC. His property was confiscated (And. 1,15; ML 79,112-115). By 404 BC at the latest, he had returned to Athens; he subsequently married a cousin (Lys. 19,15). Died before 393. Participant in the meeting in Plato's Protagoras (315c), interlocutor of Socrates in Plato's Phaedrus and first speaker in his Sy…

Phaenarete

(88 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαιναρέτη; Phainarétē). Mother of Patrocles from her first marriage, to Chaeredemus (Pl. Euthyd. 297e) and of Socrates from her second marriage, to Sophroniscus. In Pl. Tht. 148e-151d, Socrates explains that his mother was a midwife, and he equates his deeds with hers. It is not impossible that Plato invented the profession of P. for the sake of this metaphor, after which it became included as a 'fact' into the Socrates legend. Maieutic method Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 1562f.

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…

Phaenias

(394 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[German version] (Φαινίας; Phainías) of Eresus (on Lesbos), Peripatetic philosopher (Peripatos). The spelling of the name is documented in inscriptions on Lesbos and is to be preferred to the common Greek Phanias (Φανίας; Phanías). P. was a pupil of Aristotle [6] and a friend of Theophrastus. He is generally believed to have lived approx. 375-300 BC; tradition indicates only that he was alive during the 111th Olympiad (= 336/333 BC), at the time of Alexander the Great and thereafter. He corresponded with Theophrastus, and the o…

Phaenippus

(346 words)

Author(s): Rathbone, Dominic (London) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Φαίνιππος; Phaínippos). [German version] [1] Attic landowner, around 320 BC The country estate of P., son of Callippus, is described in an Attic court speech around 320 BC (Ps.-Dem. Or. 42). In the antídosis proceedings the plaintiff demands that P. should be placed on the list of the three hundred richest Athenian citizens, who bore the heaviest burden of the financial cost of liturgies ( ibidem 42,3f.), instead of himself. P.’ property was unusual for two reasons: on the one hand, P. was the only heir of his father and, at the same time, of his grandfather on h…

Phaennus

(109 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Φάεννος; Pháennos). Epigrammatic poet of the 'Garland' of Meleager [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,29f.), probably 3rd cent. BC. Preserved are one funerary epigram for the Spartan Leonidas [1] who fell at Thermopylae (Anth. Pal. 7,437; belongs to the Laconophile school of Hellenistic epigrammatic poetry, cf. Epigram I E ), and another for a cricket buried by its owner (7,197); although the subject is a topos (cf. 7,189; 190; 192; 198; 364), this poem seems to depend on Mnasalces (Anth. Pal. 7,194). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA I 1, 159; 2, 457f.  G. Herrlinger, T…

Phaenops

(97 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle)
(Φαῖνοψ; Phaînops). [German version] [1] Hector's friend from Abydus Hector’s friend and guest from Abydus [1]. Apollo appears before Hector in the guise of P. (Hom. Il. 17,583). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of the Trojan warriors, Xanthus and Thoon Father of Xanthus and Thoon who are killed outside Troy (Hom. Il. 5,152ff.). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [3] Father of the Phrygian leader Phorcys Father of the Phrygian leader Phorcys [2] who is killed outside Troy (Hom. Il. 17,312ff.). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliography P. W…

Phaesana

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαισάνα; Phaisána). Town on the river Alpheus (Pind. Ol. 6,34f.) in the district of Pisatis (Istrus FGrH 334 F 41; Didymus, schol. Pind. Ol. 6, 55a); Phaesana is possibly identifiable as Phrixa. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide, EAA 2. Suppl. 2, 1994, 450.

Phaestus

(984 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg)
(Φαῖστος; Phaȋstos). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sicyon Mythical king of Sicyon, son Rhopalus the son of Heracles [1]; establishes divine worship of Heracles; because of an oracle emigrates to Crete, where the city of P. [4] is named after him (Paus. 2,6,6f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War, son of Borus from Tarne in Lydia, killed by  Idomeneus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,43). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Epicist, Hellenistic period Hellenistic epic poet, mentioned twice in the scholia o…

Phaethon

(435 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Φαέθων/ Phaéthōn, 'the shining one', participle of the Greek phaínein). [German version] [1] Epithet of the sun god Helius Epithet of the sun god Helis (first in Hom. Od. 11,16, aside from the descriptive epithet already in Hom. Il. 11,735), which can also be used on its own to describe him in Roman (since Verg. Aen. 5,105) and Greek poetry of the Imperial period (Anth. Pal. 9,137,3; Nonnus, Dion., esp. 38,151f.). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Son of Eos and Kephalos Son of Eos and Cephalus [1], who is kidnapped by Aphrodite and turned into a temple servant (…

Phaethusa

(4 words)

see Lampetia

Phalaecus

(335 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φάλαικος; Phálaikos). [German version] [1] Phocian army officer Son of Onomarchus. P., while a minor, was deployed in 352 BC by his uncle Phayllus [1] as fourth stratēgòs autokrátōr ('general or executive with special powers of authority') of the Phocians in the 3rd Sacred War. Mnaseas [1] was appointed as his guardian but died as early as 351 (Diod. Sic. 16,38,6f.). After an inconclusive series of battles against Thebes, P. was deposed in 347, apparently because of his opposition to the Phocians' attempts to make peace (…

Phalanna

(105 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (ἡ Φάλαννα; hē Phálanna). City in Perrhaebia in Thessaly (Perrhaebi) in a fertile area, scanty remains on the flat Magula Kastri, 3 km to the east of Tirnavos. Own coin minting in the 4th century BC (HN 305). P. provided Delphi with hieromnḗmones and treasurers several times. In 171 BC P. was a site of battles between Romans and Macedonians (Liv. 42,54,6; 65,1). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography R. Scheer, s.v. Ph., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 532  B. Lenk, s.v. Ph., RE 19, 1617-1620  F. Stählin, Da…

Phalantus

(123 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάλανθος/ Phálanthos; Lat. Phalant[h]us). Mythological founder of Taranto (Taras; Antiochus of Syracuse FGrH 555 F 13; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 216; Paus. 10,10,6-8 and elsewhere). According to Antiochus l.c., P. founded Taranto as a result of the instruction by the oracle of Delphi after an uprising by the Parthenians, led by him, against Sparta during the first Messenian War had failed; according to Ephorus l.c., the Spartans persuaded the Parthenians to emigrate. However, according to Paus. l.c., Taranto already existed. Apart from that, Paus. 10,13,3 report…

Phalanx

(745 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle)
(φάλαγξ; phálanx). [German version] I. The phalanx of hoplites As early as in Homer the word phalanx is used to describe a battle-line or a lined-up army section (cf. e.g. Hom. Il. 11,214f.; 13,126f., cf. 16,215-217). Phalanx is used, like στίξ ( stíx, '(battle-)rank'), almost always in the plural, phálanges; after Homer the expression is not used again until Xenophon (Xen. An. 1,8,17; 6,5,27; Xen. Cyr. 1,6,43; Xen. Hell. 4,3,18; 6,5,18). Today it is recognised that by the Homeric period (8th cent. BC) mass fighting was already decisive; the phalanx as a uniformly equipped and centr…

Phalara

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (τὰ Φάλαρα; tà Phálara). Town of the Malieis, port serving Lamia [2] on the Malian Gulf, probably present-day Stilida. Destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20); after its reconstruction, it was again an important harbour town (cf. Str. 9,5,13). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 19, 1647  F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 217f.  K. Braun, R. Scheer, s.v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 533.

Phalaris

(299 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φάλαρις; Phálaris). Tyrant of Acragas, son of Leodamas of Rhodes; ruled the city, which was founded c. 580 BC, from c. 570-555 BC. Aristotle (Pol. 5,10, 1310b 28) counts him among those tyrants who achieved power by virtue of their high official status ( ek tōn timôn). Elsewhere (Aristot. Rh. 2,20,1393b 5-8), Aristotle cites a fable of Stesichorus, according to which P. first held the office of a strategos with dictatorial powers ( stratēgós autokrátōr). According to Polyaenus, Strat. 5,1,1, on the other hand, P. seized power while treasurer during the…

Phalarium

(56 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φαλάριον; Phalárion). Fortress (φρούριον; phroúrion) near Gela in Sicily, probably the fortification complex discovered on Monte Desusino (429 m high), founded in the 6th cent. BC by Phalaris. Here Agathocles [2] was encamped in 311 BC in the battle against the Carthagians (Diod. Sic. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Phalasarna

(307 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (τὰ Φαλάσαρνα; tà Phalásarna). Port city in the NW of Crete (Str. 10,4,2; Plin. HN 4,59) with topographically striking, steep acropolis, present-day Koutri. Historical reports start with an alliance treaty concluded with the neighbouring polis Polyrrhenia as a result of mediation by Sparta at the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC [1. no. 1, pp. 179-181]. At the behest of the Romans, P. regained its previously lost autonomy from Cydonia (Pol. 22,1…

Phalces

(158 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάλκης; Phálkēs). Heraclid (Heraclidae), son of Temenus, brother of Cissus (Ceisus: Paus. 2,19,1), Cerynes, Agaeus (other sons of Temenus are mentioned in Apollod. 2,179) and Hyrnetho, father of Rhegnidas (Paus. 2,13,1). Out of envy of Hyrnetho and her husband Deïphontes, whom Temenus prefers to his sons, P. and his brothers (with the exception of the youngest: Agaeus) have their father attacked and killed while bathing (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 30; Diod.Sic. 7,13,1; Apollod…

Phaleas

(215 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (Φαλέας; Phaléas) of Chalcedon. Greek thinker (5th cent. or 1st half of the 4th cent. BC) who concerned himself with polis structures but should probably not be regarded as one of the Sophists. On the basis of the little information that Aristotle [6] (Pol. 2,7,1266a 39-1267b 21; 1274b 9; cf. Diels/Kranz 39,1) provides in a polemical and perhaps distorted form, P. (neglecting warfare) developed a highly differentiated concept of the polis based on the idea - allegedly formulated by…

Phalerae

(5 words)

see Dona militaria

Phalerum

(319 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Φάληρον; Phálēron). Shallow bay to the east of Piraeus before the latter's expansion as the chief port of Athens (Hdt. 5,63; 5,85; 6,116; 8,66f.; 8,91ff.; 9,32; Paus. 1,1,2), modern Kallithea/Moschato/Palaia Phaliro. Also a large Attic asty-deme of the Aeantis phyle with 9 (13) bouleutaí. The location of the ancient centre of the deme is disputed [1; 2. 25ff.; 3; 5], the question of the ancient coastline [5; 8. 340] can be clarified only with geoscientific methods. In the 5th cent. BC the 'Phaleric Wall' connected Athens …

Phalerus

(115 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάληρος; Phálēros). A Greek hero by the name of P. appears in many and varied contexts and it is uncertain whether the reference is always to the same person: a P. becomes an Argonaut (Argonauts) (Apoll. Rhod. 1,96f.; Val. Fl. 4,654) at the wish of his father Alcon; he is the eponym of the Attic Phalerum, where an altar was dedicated to him (Paus. 1,1,4), and of Lower Italian Neapolis [2] (= Phaleron). Perhaps this Attic P. is identical with the supposed founder of Soli (Str. 14,6…

Phales

(4 words)

see Phallos

Phallus

(672 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (φαλλός/ phallós, Latin phallus; from a Proto-Indo-European root * bhel-, 'blow up', 'swell up'). As bearer of the beneficent power of procreation, the male member played an important role in religion and cult. Its connection with Dionysus is particularly close: Phallus processions can be found in the rural Dionysia (Aristoph. Ach. 241-276), where the phallus is personified as Phales, to whom the cultic song is addressed (Aristoph. Ach. 263; 276), and at the great Dionysia, where the membe…

Phanae

(168 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Φάναι; Phánai). [German version] [1] Southern tip of the island of Chios The c. 300 m high southern tip of the island of Chios (Thuc. 8,24,3; Str. 14,1,35; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; Liv. 44,28,7; Ptol. 5,2,19), modern Akron Masticho. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) [German version] [2] Port on the southwestern coast of Chios Port on the southwestern coast of Chios about 10 km from P. [1] (Str. 14,1,35), modern Káto Phana. Area famous for viticulture (Verg. G. 2,98 and Serv. Georg. z.St.); palm grove (Str. l.c.). In the bay of P. great fleets were harboured…

Phanagoria

(311 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Φαναγόρεια; Phanagóreia). Port founded by Teos (Ps.-Scymn. 886f.) in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC in the area of the Sindi (Ps.-Scyl. 72) (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 212; Colonisation IV.) on the Korokondamitis limne (Gulf of Taman) on the Asiatic coast of the Bosphorus [2], on the peninsula of Taman about 3 km south-west of modern Sennaja. As the Hypanis [2] in ancient times flowed with …

Phanes

(600 words)

Author(s): Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Φάνης; Phánēs). [German version] [1] Primordial god of the Orphic cosmogony In Greek, 'the one who illuminates, enlightens, appears; the one who is (makes something) obvious' (OF frr. 56; 61; 109); the light-like (Nonnus, Dion. 9,141) and golden-winged (OF frr. 54; 78; 87,2) primordial god of the Orphic cosmogony (OF fr. 78; 86; World, creation of the). This cosmogony, recorded by a certain Hieronymus and Hellanicus (OF fr. 54), must be distinguished from that in the Hieroì Lógoi, an Orphic poem in 14 rhapsodies (OF testimonia 174; 196). P. was not the original name of …

Phanes stater

(251 words)

Author(s): Stumpf, Gerd (Munich)
[German version] Stater of natural elektron [3] c. 14.2 g in weight, minted after 630 BC presumably in Ephesus in Ionia, with a deer gazing rightwards on the obverse, above it a retrograde inscription in Milesian letters ΦΑΝΟΣ ΕΜΙ ΣΗΜΑ ('I am the sign/arms of Phanes') and on the reverse two textured engraved squares with a rectangular field between them. Of this stater as yet two examples are known (London, BM; Frankfurt am Main, Bundesbank; [1. 1f.]). Besides these two there are hitherto two triple st…

Phanias

(104 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Φανίας; Phanías). Epigrammatist, perhaps among the last (2nd-1st cent. BC?) of the Garland of Meleager (Anth. Pal. 4,1,54); also a grammatikós (lemma on 7,537). Among the eight poems of his to survive (including one erotic one: 12,31), minute accounts of work tools and everyday objects predominate; with these, P. emulated Leonidas [3] of Tarentum. The extremely rare Latinism δρύππα, 'ripe olive' (cf. Anth. Pal. 6,299,4), may reflect direct knowledge of the terminology of Italian agriculture. The form Phainías for the name (cf. lemma on 6,299 and 12,31) se…

Phano

(60 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Φανώ; Phanṓ). Daughter of the hetaera Neaera [6] and Stephanus, first married to the Athenian Phrastor, then divorced. Then her father married her to the árchōn basileús Theogenes ([Dem.] Or. 59,79ff.). After a scandal because of her doubtful citizenship she was divorced from him as well. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Carey, Apollodoros Against Neaira [Demosthenes 59], 1992.

Phanocles

(325 words)

Author(s): Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
[German version] (Φανοκλῆς; Phanoklȇs). Early Hellenistic elegist, author of a poem entitled Ἔρωτες ἢ καλοί ( Érōtes ḕ kaloí/'Amours, or the Fair Youths'; fr. 1-6 Powell) which recounted the homosexual liaisons of gods and mythical heroes. The poem resembled a register (Catalogue) similar to Hesiod’s Catalogue of Women (Hesiodus). P. is probably also influenced by the Leontion of Hermesianax, with whom he shares a penchant for placing adjectives and nouns forming a juncture before the caesura and at the end of the pentameter, respectively. The longest fragment (1 Powell) contai…

Phanodemus

(149 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανόδημος; Phanódēmos). Atthidographer, father of the historian Diyllus and follower of Lycurgus' [9] restoration policy (FGrH 325 T 2-5). As a member of the Council he was honoured with a gold wreath in 343/2 BC (IG II2 223 = Syll.3 227). Several inscriptions from the years 332/1 to 329/8 (IG VII 4252-4254) testify to his espousing the cult of Amphiaraus of Ephesus. His Atthís, comprising at least 9 books, which appeared in about 330 and of which 27 fragments survive, also reveals a strong interest in issues of cult. The fragment datable as…

Phanomachus

(67 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
[German version] (Φανόμαχος; Phanómachos). Athenian stratēgós 430/ 429 BC: successful siege of Poteidaia in 430 BC; he was impeached on account of his alleged lenience towards the Poteidaians and acquitted. He was killed during the Athenians’ devastating defeat at Spartolus in the early summer of 329 BC (Thuc. 2,70; 79; Diod. Sic.12,47,3; Paus. 1,29,7: stele for the fallen at the Dipylon Gate). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)

Phanosthenes

(95 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Φανοσθένης; Phanosthénēs) of Andros. He was named próxenos ( proxenía ) and euergétēs of the Athenians, probably because of his services in introducing shipbuilding timber; he was later granted Athenian citizenship and was selected as stratēgós for 407/6 BC. After the defeat at Notion, Ph. succeeded Conon [1] at the siege of Andros, intercepting two ships from Thurii which were attempting to join the Spartan fleet (Plat. Ion 541d; Xen. Hell. 1,5,18f.; IG I3 182). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography H.A. Reiter, Athen und die Poleis des Delisch-Attisch…

Phanostrate

(79 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Φανοστράτη; Phanostrátē). Greek-Athenian midwife and doctor, depicted on Attic grave stelae from the end of the 4th cent. BC (IG II/III2 6873; Clairmont, 2. 890). The inclusion of the professional title midwife suggests a certain degree of specialisation in medicine and shows at the same time that women were able to work as doctors and earn a considerable income, as is suggested by the quality and individual designs of the stone mason’s craftsmanship. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Phanostratus

(27 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φανόστρατος; Phanóstratos) of Halicarnassus. Tragedian, probably successful at the Attic Lenaea in 306 BC. TrGF I 94 = DID B7. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Phanote

(67 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανότη; Phanótē). Fortified city in the north of Epirus, in the border region between Thesprotia and Molossia, mentioned only in the context of the third Macedonian War (172-168 BC)  (Pol. 27,16,4; Liv. 43,21,4; 45,26,2f.). P. was probably in the  Thyamis valley, near either modern Raveni or modern Doliani. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976, 296  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 186f., 628f., 676.

Phantasia

(593 words)

Author(s): Labarrière, Jean Louis (Paris)
[German version] A. Definition Greek φαντασία ( phantasía, 'imagination') in its basic meaning is connected with φαίνεσθαι ( phaínesthai, 'to come to light, to appear'). The concept therefore refers to what appears, what shows itself and becomes visible (φαντάζεσθαι/ phantázesthai) - independently of whether it is true or false; hence also its etymological derivation from 'light' (φῶς/ phôs; Aristot. An. 3,3,429a 2; Chrysippus in Aetius 4,12-15 Diels). The strictest and most neutral definition, however, is: “ Phantasia is that by means of which an image (φάντασμα/ phántasma) ari…

Phantasos

(4 words)

see Morpheus

Phantasy

(5 words)

see Imagination

Phaon

(312 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Ferryman from Lesbos (Φάων/ Pháōn, ‘ the radiant’). Ferryman from Lesbos who carries Aphrodite in the guise of an old woman, from Lesbos to the mainland without a charge. In reward, she gives him a rejuvenating and beautifying ointment. This story of the origin of P.'s radiant beauty only appears in later sources (Ael. VH 12,18; Serv. Aen. 3,279; Palaephatus 48; Lucian. Dialogi mortuorum 19(2),2 ). Initially, he is primarily encountered in comedy: Cratinus (PCG IV fr. 370) presents hi…
▲   Back to top   ▲