Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Phacusa

(93 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Φάκουσ(σ)α/ Phákous(s)a and similar). Town in the north-east of the Nile delta, modern Fāqūs. Its ancient Egyptian name is unknown. P. is not attested until the Ptolemaic period. Str. 17,1,26 describes it - probably incorrectly - as the departure point of a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea (Ptolemaïs [4]). According to Ptol. Geog. 4,5,24, P. was the metropolis of the nome of Arabia. In the Christian period, P. was a diocesan town. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography St. Timm, Das christlich-koptische Ägypten in arabischer Zeit, vol. 2, 1984, 923-926.

Phaea

(113 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαιά/ Phaiá, 'the grey one', Φαῖα/ Phaîa according to Steph. Byz.). Theseus kills a sow of supernatural strength near Krommyon (first mentioned in Bacchyl. 18(17), 23-25, then Diod. Sic. 4,59,4). Her name P. is only stated later (Plut. Theseus 9; Apollod. Epit. 1,1; Paus. 2,1,3). According to Plutarch, Ph. may originally have been a female robber vanquished by Theseus. According to Apollodorus, the sow is descended from Echidna and Typhon (Typhoeus) and is named after her wet nurse wit…

Phaeaces

(445 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαίακες/ Phaíakes, Latin Phaeaces, the Phaeacians). Mythical seafaring people, ruled by King Alcinous [1] (together with 12 other 'kings') and his wife Arete [1]. The P. live on the island of Scheria, to which they were led by Nausithous [1] from Hyperea (Hom. Od. 6,5; 7,58). There are comprehensive accounts of the P. in Hom. Od. books 6-8 and 13. The P. receive Odysseus as their guest after the king's daughter Nausicaa discovers him shipwrecked on the beach. They entertain him lavi…

Phaeax

(301 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
(Φαίαξ; Phaíax). [German version] [1] Ancestor of the Phaeaces Mythical ancestor of the Phaeaces, father of Alcinous [1] and Locrus [3] (Diod. Sic. 4,72,2; differenly: Hom. Od. 7,54ff.; Nausithous [1]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical naval officer of Theseus Mythical naval officer of Theseus, together with Nausithous [3] (Plut. Theseus 17). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Deubner, 225. [German version] [3] Athenian politician, 5th cent. BC Athenian, son of Eresistratus, Acharnian (Aeschin. 3,138; ostraka [3. 78 no. 152]); from a prominent fa…

Phaedimus

(423 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Φαίδιμος/ Phaídimos, 'Radiant One'). [German version] [1] Son of Amphion and Niobe One of the sons of Amphion [1] and Niobe shot by Apollo (Apollod. 3,45; Ov. Met. 6,239; Hyg. Fab. 11; Lact. ad Stat. Theb. 3,191-193; Mythographi Vaticani 1,156). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] King of the Sidonians King of the Sidonians who hospitably received Menelaus [1] on his wanderings during his return from Troy; P. presented him with a cup made by Hephaestus (Hom. Od. 4,617-619; 15,117-119). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] One of the 50 Thebans who enticed Tydeus …

Phaedo

(287 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαίδων; Phaídon) from Elis, b. 418/416 BC, date of death unknown. Title character of the Platonic dialogue Phaídōn. P. is believed to have been taken prisoner when the city of Elis was conquered, sold as a slave to Athens and forced to work in a brothel. After meeting Socrates, the philosopher apparently had one of his pupils buy P.'s freedom, and from then on P. devoted himself to philosophy (Diog. Laert. 2,31; 2,105 et passim). P. wrote two dialogues, titled Zṓpyros and Símōn. It is probably true that the story of Socrates' meeting with the magician Zopyrus,…

Phaedra

(678 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φαίδρα/ Phaídra, Latin Phaedra). Daughter of Minos and Pasiphae, second spouse of Theseus, mother of Demophon [2] and Acamas. P. loves her stepson Hippolytus [1]. She tries in vain to seduce him and accuses him of having raped her. Theseus asks Poseidon to destroy Hippolytus. The god sends a bull from the sea, which gives such a fright to Hippolytus' horse-team, that he is killed in the accident. P. commits suicide when her love for Hippolytus becomes public (Ps.-Apollod. epit. 1,17…

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] [I 1] 5th cent. BC Son of Pythocles, from the Attic deme of Myrrhinus, born probably c. 450 BC. Accused of participation in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteria and the mutilatation of the herms, P. went into exile in 415 BC. His property was confiscated (And. 1,15; ML 79,112-115). By 404 BC at the latest, he had returned to Athens; he subsequently married a cousin (Lys. 19,15). Died before 393. Participant in the meeting in Plato's Protagoras (315c), interlocutor of Socrates in Plato's Phaedrus and first speaker in his Sy…

Phaenarete

(88 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαιναρέτη; Phainarétē). Mother of Patrocles from her first marriage, to Chaeredemus (Pl. Euthyd. 297e) and of Socrates from her second marriage, to Sophroniscus. In Pl. Tht. 148e-151d, Socrates explains that his mother was a midwife, and he equates his deeds with hers. It is not impossible that Plato invented the profession of P. for the sake of this metaphor, after which it became included as a 'fact' into the Socrates legend. Maieutic method Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 1562f.

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…

Phaenias

(394 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[German version] (Φαινίας; Phainías) of Eresus (on Lesbos), Peripatetic philosopher (Peripatos). The spelling of the name is documented in inscriptions on Lesbos and is to be preferred to the common Greek Phanias (Φανίας; Phanías). P. was a pupil of Aristotle [6] and a friend of Theophrastus. He is generally believed to have lived approx. 375-300 BC; tradition indicates only that he was alive during the 111th Olympiad (= 336/333 BC), at the time of Alexander the Great and thereafter. He corresponded with Theophrastus, and the o…

Phaenippus

(346 words)

Author(s): Rathbone, Dominic (London) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Φαίνιππος; Phaínippos). [German version] [1] Attic landowner, around 320 BC The country estate of P., son of Callippus, is described in an Attic court speech around 320 BC (Ps.-Dem. Or. 42). In the antídosis proceedings the plaintiff demands that P. should be placed on the list of the three hundred richest Athenian citizens, who bore the heaviest burden of the financial cost of liturgies ( ibidem 42,3f.), instead of himself. P.’ property was unusual for two reasons: on the one hand, P. was the only heir of his father and, at the same time, of his grandfather on h…

Phaennus

(109 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Φάεννος; Pháennos). Epigrammatic poet of the 'Garland' of Meleager [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,29f.), probably 3rd cent. BC. Preserved are one funerary epigram for the Spartan Leonidas [1] who fell at Thermopylae (Anth. Pal. 7,437; belongs to the Laconophile school of Hellenistic epigrammatic poetry, cf. Epigram I E ), and another for a cricket buried by its owner (7,197); although the subject is a topos (cf. 7,189; 190; 192; 198; 364), this poem seems to depend on Mnasalces (Anth. Pal. 7,194). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA I 1, 159; 2, 457f.  G. Herrlinger, T…

Phaenops

(97 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle)
(Φαῖνοψ; Phaînops). [German version] [1] Hector's friend from Abydus Hector’s friend and guest from Abydus [1]. Apollo appears before Hector in the guise of P. (Hom. Il. 17,583). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of the Trojan warriors, Xanthus and Thoon Father of Xanthus and Thoon who are killed outside Troy (Hom. Il. 5,152ff.). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [3] Father of the Phrygian leader Phorcys Father of the Phrygian leader Phorcys [2] who is killed outside Troy (Hom. Il. 17,312ff.). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliography P. W…

Phaesana

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαισάνα; Phaisána). Town on the river Alpheus (Pind. Ol. 6,34f.) in the district of Pisatis (Istrus FGrH 334 F 41; Didymus, schol. Pind. Ol. 6, 55a); Phaesana is possibly identifiable as Phrixa. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide, EAA 2. Suppl. 2, 1994, 450.

Phaestus

(984 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg)
(Φαῖστος; Phaȋstos). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sicyon Mythical king of Sicyon, son Rhopalus the son of Heracles [1]; establishes divine worship of Heracles; because of an oracle emigrates to Crete, where the city of P. [4] is named after him (Paus. 2,6,6f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War, son of Borus from Tarne in Lydia, killed by  Idomeneus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,43). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Epicist, Hellenistic period Hellenistic epic poet, mentioned twice in the scholia o…

Phaethon

(435 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Φαέθων/ Phaéthōn, 'the shining one', participle of the Greek phaínein). [German version] [1] Epithet of the sun god Helius Epithet of the sun god Helis (first in Hom. Od. 11,16, aside from the descriptive epithet already in Hom. Il. 11,735), which can also be used on its own to describe him in Roman (since Verg. Aen. 5,105) and Greek poetry of the Imperial period (Anth. Pal. 9,137,3; Nonnus, Dion., esp. 38,151f.). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Son of Eos and Kephalos Son of Eos and Cephalus [1], who is kidnapped by Aphrodite and turned into a temple servant (…

Phaethusa

(4 words)

see Lampetia

Phalaecus

(335 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φάλαικος; Phálaikos). [German version] [1] Phocian army officer Son of Onomarchus. P., while a minor, was deployed in 352 BC by his uncle Phayllus [1] as fourth stratēgòs autokrátōr ('general or executive with special powers of authority') of the Phocians in the 3rd Sacred War. Mnaseas [1] was appointed as his guardian but died as early as 351 (Diod. Sic. 16,38,6f.). After an inconclusive series of battles against Thebes, P. was deposed in 347, apparently because of his opposition to the Phocians' attempts to make peace (…

Phalanna

(105 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (ἡ Φάλαννα; hē Phálanna). City in Perrhaebia in Thessaly (Perrhaebi) in a fertile area, scanty remains on the flat Magula Kastri, 3 km to the east of Tirnavos. Own coin minting in the 4th century BC (HN 305). P. provided Delphi with hieromnḗmones and treasurers several times. In 171 BC P. was a site of battles between Romans and Macedonians (Liv. 42,54,6; 65,1). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography R. Scheer, s.v. Ph., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 532  B. Lenk, s.v. Ph., RE 19, 1617-1620  F. Stählin, Da…

Phalantus

(123 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάλανθος/ Phálanthos; Lat. Phalant[h]us). Mythological founder of Taranto (Taras; Antiochus of Syracuse FGrH 555 F 13; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 216; Paus. 10,10,6-8 and elsewhere). According to Antiochus l.c., P. founded Taranto as a result of the instruction by the oracle of Delphi after an uprising by the Parthenians, led by him, against Sparta during the first Messenian War had failed; according to Ephorus l.c., the Spartans persuaded the Parthenians to emigrate. However, according to Paus. l.c., Taranto already existed. Apart from that, Paus. 10,13,3 report…

Phalanx

(745 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle)
(φάλαγξ; phálanx). [German version] I. The phalanx of hoplites As early as in Homer the word phalanx is used to describe a battle-line or a lined-up army section (cf. e.g. Hom. Il. 11,214f.; 13,126f., cf. 16,215-217). Phalanx is used, like στίξ ( stíx, '(battle-)rank'), almost always in the plural, phálanges; after Homer the expression is not used again until Xenophon (Xen. An. 1,8,17; 6,5,27; Xen. Cyr. 1,6,43; Xen. Hell. 4,3,18; 6,5,18). Today it is recognised that by the Homeric period (8th cent. BC) mass fighting was already decisive; the phalanx as a uniformly equipped and centr…

Phalara

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (τὰ Φάλαρα; tà Phálara). Town of the Malieis, port serving Lamia [2] on the Malian Gulf, probably present-day Stilida. Destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20); after its reconstruction, it was again an important harbour town (cf. Str. 9,5,13). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 19, 1647  F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 217f.  K. Braun, R. Scheer, s.v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 533.

Phalaris

(299 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φάλαρις; Phálaris). Tyrant of Acragas, son of Leodamas of Rhodes; ruled the city, which was founded c. 580 BC, from c. 570-555 BC. Aristotle (Pol. 5,10, 1310b 28) counts him among those tyrants who achieved power by virtue of their high official status ( ek tōn timôn). Elsewhere (Aristot. Rh. 2,20,1393b 5-8), Aristotle cites a fable of Stesichorus, according to which P. first held the office of a strategos with dictatorial powers ( stratēgós autokrátōr). According to Polyaenus, Strat. 5,1,1, on the other hand, P. seized power while treasurer during the…

Phalarium

(56 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φαλάριον; Phalárion). Fortress (φρούριον; phroúrion) near Gela in Sicily, probably the fortification complex discovered on Monte Desusino (429 m high), founded in the 6th cent. BC by Phalaris. Here Agathocles [2] was encamped in 311 BC in the battle against the Carthagians (Diod. Sic. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Phalasarna

(307 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (τὰ Φαλάσαρνα; tà Phalásarna). Port city in the NW of Crete (Str. 10,4,2; Plin. HN 4,59) with topographically striking, steep acropolis, present-day Koutri. Historical reports start with an alliance treaty concluded with the neighbouring polis Polyrrhenia as a result of mediation by Sparta at the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC [1. no. 1, pp. 179-181]. At the behest of the Romans, P. regained its previously lost autonomy from Cydonia (Pol. 22,1…

Phalces

(158 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάλκης; Phálkēs). Heraclid (Heraclidae), son of Temenus, brother of Cissus (Ceisus: Paus. 2,19,1), Cerynes, Agaeus (other sons of Temenus are mentioned in Apollod. 2,179) and Hyrnetho, father of Rhegnidas (Paus. 2,13,1). Out of envy of Hyrnetho and her husband Deïphontes, whom Temenus prefers to his sons, P. and his brothers (with the exception of the youngest: Agaeus) have their father attacked and killed while bathing (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 30; Diod.Sic. 7,13,1; Apollod…

Phaleas

(215 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (Φαλέας; Phaléas) of Chalcedon. Greek thinker (5th cent. or 1st half of the 4th cent. BC) who concerned himself with polis structures but should probably not be regarded as one of the Sophists. On the basis of the little information that Aristotle [6] (Pol. 2,7,1266a 39-1267b 21; 1274b 9; cf. Diels/Kranz 39,1) provides in a polemical and perhaps distorted form, P. (neglecting warfare) developed a highly differentiated concept of the polis based on the idea - allegedly formulated by…

Phalerae

(5 words)

see Dona militaria

Phalerum

(319 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Φάληρον; Phálēron). Shallow bay to the east of Piraeus before the latter's expansion as the chief port of Athens (Hdt. 5,63; 5,85; 6,116; 8,66f.; 8,91ff.; 9,32; Paus. 1,1,2), modern Kallithea/Moschato/Palaia Phaliro. Also a large Attic asty-deme of the Aeantis phyle with 9 (13) bouleutaí. The location of the ancient centre of the deme is disputed [1; 2. 25ff.; 3; 5], the question of the ancient coastline [5; 8. 340] can be clarified only with geoscientific methods. In the 5th cent. BC the 'Phaleric Wall' connected Athens …

Phalerus

(115 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάληρος; Phálēros). A Greek hero by the name of P. appears in many and varied contexts and it is uncertain whether the reference is always to the same person: a P. becomes an Argonaut (Argonauts) (Apoll. Rhod. 1,96f.; Val. Fl. 4,654) at the wish of his father Alcon; he is the eponym of the Attic Phalerum, where an altar was dedicated to him (Paus. 1,1,4), and of Lower Italian Neapolis [2] (= Phaleron). Perhaps this Attic P. is identical with the supposed founder of Soli (Str. 14,6…

Phales

(4 words)

see Phallos

Phallus

(672 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (φαλλός/ phallós, Latin phallus; from a Proto-Indo-European root * bhel-, 'blow up', 'swell up'). As bearer of the beneficent power of procreation, the male member played an important role in religion and cult. Its connection with Dionysus is particularly close: Phallus processions can be found in the rural Dionysia (Aristoph. Ach. 241-276), where the phallus is personified as Phales, to whom the cultic song is addressed (Aristoph. Ach. 263; 276), and at the great Dionysia, where the membe…

Phanae

(168 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Φάναι; Phánai). [German version] [1] Southern tip of the island of Chios The c. 300 m high southern tip of the island of Chios (Thuc. 8,24,3; Str. 14,1,35; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; Liv. 44,28,7; Ptol. 5,2,19), modern Akron Masticho. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) [German version] [2] Port on the southwestern coast of Chios Port on the southwestern coast of Chios about 10 km from P. [1] (Str. 14,1,35), modern Káto Phana. Area famous for viticulture (Verg. G. 2,98 and Serv. Georg. z.St.); palm grove (Str. l.c.). In the bay of P. great fleets were harboured…

Phanagoria

(311 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Φαναγόρεια; Phanagóreia). Port founded by Teos (Ps.-Scymn. 886f.) in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC in the area of the Sindi (Ps.-Scyl. 72) (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 212; Colonisation IV.) on the Korokondamitis limne (Gulf of Taman) on the Asiatic coast of the Bosphorus [2], on the peninsula of Taman about 3 km south-west of modern Sennaja. As the Hypanis [2] in ancient times flowed with …

Phanes

(600 words)

Author(s): Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Φάνης; Phánēs). [German version] [1] Primordial god of the Orphic cosmogony In Greek, 'the one who illuminates, enlightens, appears; the one who is (makes something) obvious' (OF frr. 56; 61; 109); the light-like (Nonnus, Dion. 9,141) and golden-winged (OF frr. 54; 78; 87,2) primordial god of the Orphic cosmogony (OF fr. 78; 86; World, creation of the). This cosmogony, recorded by a certain Hieronymus and Hellanicus (OF fr. 54), must be distinguished from that in the Hieroì Lógoi, an Orphic poem in 14 rhapsodies (OF testimonia 174; 196). P. was not the original name of …

Phanes stater

(251 words)

Author(s): Stumpf, Gerd (Munich)
[German version] Stater of natural elektron [3] c. 14.2 g in weight, minted after 630 BC presumably in Ephesus in Ionia, with a deer gazing rightwards on the obverse, above it a retrograde inscription in Milesian letters ΦΑΝΟΣ ΕΜΙ ΣΗΜΑ ('I am the sign/arms of Phanes') and on the reverse two textured engraved squares with a rectangular field between them. Of this stater as yet two examples are known (London, BM; Frankfurt am Main, Bundesbank; [1. 1f.]). Besides these two there are hitherto two triple st…

Phanias

(104 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Φανίας; Phanías). Epigrammatist, perhaps among the last (2nd-1st cent. BC?) of the Garland of Meleager (Anth. Pal. 4,1,54); also a grammatikós (lemma on 7,537). Among the eight poems of his to survive (including one erotic one: 12,31), minute accounts of work tools and everyday objects predominate; with these, P. emulated Leonidas [3] of Tarentum. The extremely rare Latinism δρύππα, 'ripe olive' (cf. Anth. Pal. 6,299,4), may reflect direct knowledge of the terminology of Italian agriculture. The form Phainías for the name (cf. lemma on 6,299 and 12,31) se…

Phano

(60 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Φανώ; Phanṓ). Daughter of the hetaera Neaera [6] and Stephanus, first married to the Athenian Phrastor, then divorced. Then her father married her to the árchōn basileús Theogenes ([Dem.] Or. 59,79ff.). After a scandal because of her doubtful citizenship she was divorced from him as well. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Carey, Apollodoros Against Neaira [Demosthenes 59], 1992.

Phanocles

(325 words)

Author(s): Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
[German version] (Φανοκλῆς; Phanoklȇs). Early Hellenistic elegist, author of a poem entitled Ἔρωτες ἢ καλοί ( Érōtes ḕ kaloí/'Amours, or the Fair Youths'; fr. 1-6 Powell) which recounted the homosexual liaisons of gods and mythical heroes. The poem resembled a register (Catalogue) similar to Hesiod’s Catalogue of Women (Hesiodus). P. is probably also influenced by the Leontion of Hermesianax, with whom he shares a penchant for placing adjectives and nouns forming a juncture before the caesura and at the end of the pentameter, respectively. The longest fragment (1 Powell) contai…

Phanodemus

(149 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανόδημος; Phanódēmos). Atthidographer, father of the historian Diyllus and follower of Lycurgus' [9] restoration policy (FGrH 325 T 2-5). As a member of the Council he was honoured with a gold wreath in 343/2 BC (IG II2 223 = Syll.3 227). Several inscriptions from the years 332/1 to 329/8 (IG VII 4252-4254) testify to his espousing the cult of Amphiaraus of Ephesus. His Atthís, comprising at least 9 books, which appeared in about 330 and of which 27 fragments survive, also reveals a strong interest in issues of cult. The fragment datable as…

Phanomachus

(67 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
[German version] (Φανόμαχος; Phanómachos). Athenian stratēgós 430/ 429 BC: successful siege of Poteidaia in 430 BC; he was impeached on account of his alleged lenience towards the Poteidaians and acquitted. He was killed during the Athenians’ devastating defeat at Spartolus in the early summer of 329 BC (Thuc. 2,70; 79; Diod. Sic.12,47,3; Paus. 1,29,7: stele for the fallen at the Dipylon Gate). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)

Phanosthenes

(95 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Φανοσθένης; Phanosthénēs) of Andros. He was named próxenos ( proxenía ) and euergétēs of the Athenians, probably because of his services in introducing shipbuilding timber; he was later granted Athenian citizenship and was selected as stratēgós for 407/6 BC. After the defeat at Notion, Ph. succeeded Conon [1] at the siege of Andros, intercepting two ships from Thurii which were attempting to join the Spartan fleet (Plat. Ion 541d; Xen. Hell. 1,5,18f.; IG I3 182). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography H.A. Reiter, Athen und die Poleis des Delisch-Attisch…

Phanostrate

(79 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Φανοστράτη; Phanostrátē). Greek-Athenian midwife and doctor, depicted on Attic grave stelae from the end of the 4th cent. BC (IG II/III2 6873; Clairmont, 2. 890). The inclusion of the professional title midwife suggests a certain degree of specialisation in medicine and shows at the same time that women were able to work as doctors and earn a considerable income, as is suggested by the quality and individual designs of the stone mason’s craftsmanship. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Phanostratus

(27 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φανόστρατος; Phanóstratos) of Halicarnassus. Tragedian, probably successful at the Attic Lenaea in 306 BC. TrGF I 94 = DID B7. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Phanote

(67 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανότη; Phanótē). Fortified city in the north of Epirus, in the border region between Thesprotia and Molossia, mentioned only in the context of the third Macedonian War (172-168 BC)  (Pol. 27,16,4; Liv. 43,21,4; 45,26,2f.). P. was probably in the  Thyamis valley, near either modern Raveni or modern Doliani. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976, 296  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 186f., 628f., 676.

Phantasia

(593 words)

Author(s): Labarrière, Jean Louis (Paris)
[German version] A. Definition Greek φαντασία ( phantasía, 'imagination') in its basic meaning is connected with φαίνεσθαι ( phaínesthai, 'to come to light, to appear'). The concept therefore refers to what appears, what shows itself and becomes visible (φαντάζεσθαι/ phantázesthai) - independently of whether it is true or false; hence also its etymological derivation from 'light' (φῶς/ phôs; Aristot. An. 3,3,429a 2; Chrysippus in Aetius 4,12-15 Diels). The strictest and most neutral definition, however, is: “ Phantasia is that by means of which an image (φάντασμα/ phántasma) ari…

Phantasos

(4 words)

see Morpheus

Phantasy

(5 words)

see Imagination

Phaon

(312 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Ferryman from Lesbos (Φάων/ Pháōn, ‘ the radiant’). Ferryman from Lesbos who carries Aphrodite in the guise of an old woman, from Lesbos to the mainland without a charge. In reward, she gives him a rejuvenating and beautifying ointment. This story of the origin of P.'s radiant beauty only appears in later sources (Ael. VH 12,18; Serv. Aen. 3,279; Palaephatus 48; Lucian. Dialogi mortuorum 19(2),2 ). Initially, he is primarily encountered in comedy: Cratinus (PCG IV fr. 370) presents hi…

Phara

(180 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαρά/ Phará, Φαραί/ Pharaí, ethnicon Φαραιεύς/ Pharaieús). City in western Achaea on the left bank of the Peirus (Str. 8,7,4f.; Paus. 7,22,1-5 [2. 186-188]; Ptol. 3,16,15: Φέραι or Φάραι; Plin. HN 4,13: Pherae; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φαραί, also Φηραί) near the modern villages of Pharai and Prevedos. With a commanding position on the road between western Achaea (with Patrae) and Arcadia. Significant in the Mycenaean period [1. 230-232, 240f.]. P. was one of the 12 ancient cities of Achaea (Hdt. 1,145: Φαρέες; Pol. 2…

Pharadas

(29 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φαράδας; Pharádas) from Athens; was successful with a satyr play after 85 BC at the Museia in Thespiae (Boeotia) (TrGF I 173). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Pharae

(247 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] City in southern Messenia This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Φαραί/ Pharaí, Φηραί/ Phēraí). City in southern Messenia (Str. 8,4,4f.; 5,8; 7,5; Paus. 4,30,2-31,1; Ptol. 3,16,8 (Φεραί/ Pheraí); Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; [1. 181]), modern Kalamata. In Homer (Hom. Il. 5,543; 9,151; 293) one of the seven cities Agamemnon promised Achilles [2], Spartan perioikoi city. In 394 BC its territory was devastated by Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,7; Nep. Conon 1), made a part of the territory of Messana [2] by Philip [4] II at …

Pharaea

(74 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φαραία, Φηραία; Pharaía, Phēraía). Settlement in north western Arcadia (Pol. 4,77,5; Str. 8,3,32), no more precisely identifiable. Possibly at the modern Lambia, or rather the ancient site at present-day Nemuta on the eastern slopes of the Oros Pholoï. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 35-37  E. Meyer, Arkadisches. Pharai - Pherai - Pharaia in Arkadien, in: MH 14, 1957, 81-88  F. Bölte, s.v. Ph. (1), RE 19, 1809f.

Pharaoh

(83 words)

Author(s): Kahl, Jochem (Münster)
[German version] Greek rendering (φαραω/pharao) known from the Old Testament (Hebrew parō Gn 12:15 and passim) of the ancient Egyptian term for an Egyptian ruler. In Egypt, the term referred originally to the royal palace or court and literally means 'great house' (pr-). From Thutmosis III (1479-1426 BC) at the latest, this expression also designated the person of the Egyptian ruler. As a title before the name of the ruler, it is encountered from the 10th cent. BC onwards. Kahl, Jochem (Münster)

Pharasmanes

(486 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Φαρασμάνης; Pharasmánēs). [German version] [1] Ph. I. King in the Caucasus (1st cent. AD) Son of Mithridates [19] and king of Iberia [1] (Caucasus). From AD 35, as an ally of Rome, P. had been supporting the Armenian kingdom of his brother Mithridates [20] (Tac. Ann. 6,32-35; 11,8-9) and, after AD 51, that of his own son Radamistus (Tac. Ann. 12,44-47). His relatives’ failure as client kings to Rome (cf. Tac. Ann. 13,37) and the acceptance of the Arsacid Tiridates I. as king of Armenia must have affected him…

Pharcadon

(81 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φαρκαδών, Φαρκηδών; Pharkadṓn, Pharkēdṓn). Town in Histiaeotis, a region of Thessaly on the river Peneius, once again named P. (formerly Klokoto or Tsioti). Philippus [7] V. defeated the Aetolians in 199 BC at P. (Liv. 31,41f.). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography L. Darmezin, Sites archéologiques et territoires du massif des Chassia, in: Top. antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 139-155  E. Kirsten, s.v. Pharkadon, RE 19, 1835-1838  H. Kramolisch, s.v. Pharkadon, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 535  Koder/Hild, 238.

Phares

(225 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάραξ/ Phárax). [German version] [1] Spartan military officer (end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Spartan, in 405 BC second in command at Aigos potamos (Paus. 6,3,15). As a naúarchos (naval commander) he took part in operations with Dercylidas in Caria in the early summer of 397 (Xen. Hell. 3,2,12-14) and intercepted the Athenian legates to Persia who were executed in Sparta (Hell. Oxyrh. 10,1 Chambers). In 396 he besieged Conon [1] in Caunus with 120 ships (Diod. 14,79,4f.) [1]. In 390 as próxenos ( Proxenía ) of the Thebans he supported the Boeot…

Pharetra

(6 words)

see Bow and arrow

Pharis

(113 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Φᾶρις, Φαραί; Phâris, Pharaí). Town in Laconica (Hom. Il. 2,582; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 117; Str. 8,5,1; the form Φαραί is used in later literature such as Paus. 4,16,8; Hierocles, Synecdemus 647,10; Liv. 35,30,9), c. 10 km south of Sparta, 2 km east of Amyclae [1], probably Vaphio with the well known Mycenaean beehive tomb, abandoned in the time of Pausanias [1. 76f.; 2. 168f.]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Prehistoric Laconia I, in: ABSA 55, 1…

Pharisaei, Pharisees

(1,622 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland (Herrenberg)
(Φαρισαῖοι/ Pharisaîoi, usually plural). [German version] I. Definition, name A Jewish religious party from at least the middle of the 2nd cent. BC, mentioned as Pharisaei only in Iosephus [4] Flavius, in parts of the NT (Gospels; Acts; once in Paulus [2]: Phil 3,5,) and, based on that, in the patristic literature. In the Jewish traditional literature from the 2nd cent. AD on (Rabbinical Literature) the corresponding Hebrew collective term perūšīm occurs relatively infrequently, often in contrast to the Sadducees. It is controversial to what extent the Pharisees t…

Pharmacology

(2,168 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid)
[German version] I. Etymology The Greek term for pharmacology (ὁ περὶ φαρμάκων λόγος/ ho perì pharmákōn lógos, Pedanius Dioscorides, De materia medica praef. 5) means 'science of remedies'. Originally, the term φάρμακον/ phármakon, whose etymology is not known, did not specifically refer to a medical drug, but to any substance introduced into the body with the ability of changing the body's structure or function. The Latin term medicamentum points to the aspect of assistance and support, as does βοήθημα/ boḗthēma. Specific medications were named after their principal proper…

Pharmacology

(4,223 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) I. Europe (CT) [German version] A. Early Middle Ages (CT) The practice of post-Classical curative art is characterised by six tendencies that complement or follow upon one another: 1. The fundamental texts survived in their original Greek version at least until the 5th-6th cent. (Dioscurides). Some were presumably translated into Latin during the same period at Rome or Ravenna (Hippocrates, Peri diaites, Oribasius, Synopsis and Euporista) or else in North Africa (Dioscurides). There were also new Greek texts from Constantinople (Dioscu…

Pharmacussae

(67 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Φαρμακοῦσσαι; Pharmakoûssai). Two small islands in the sound of Salamis off the coast of Attica (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.); the grave of Circe could be seen on the larger island (Str. 9,1,13), present-day Hagios Georgios in the Bay of Paloukia; the smaller island is the rocky reef Tes Panagias, near Perama [1. 566f.]. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. Psyttaleia, RE Suppl. 14, 566-571.

Pharmacy

(5 words)

see Pharmacology

Pharmakeia

(166 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (φαρμακεία; pharmakeía). The giving of a medical drug, magic potion or poison ( phármakon). In Athens, if someone personally administrated it and this resulted in a citizen's death, a δίκη φόνου ( díkē phónou, 'murder charge'; phónos ) could be brought , which was decided by the Áreios págos (Dem. Or. 23; or. 24; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 57,3). In the case of premeditated killing, the punishment was death, otherwise exile. Plato differentiates between the pharmakeia of doctors and sorcerers on the one hand and that of laymen on the other (Pl. Leg. 932e-933e).…

Pharmakides

(103 words)

Author(s): Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg)
[German version] (Φαρμακίδες; Pharmakídes). According to Paus. 9,11,2, old images of women called Pharmakides ('enchantresses')were displayed at Thebes. According to the Thebans; they had prevented the birth of Hercules [1]  at the behest of Hera. The Pharmakides of Theban local myth are evidently to be identified with Eileithyia and with the Moirae (Moira), who were probably also depicted as Pharmakides on the Cypselus chest (Paus. 5,18,2) [1]. This is supported by the fact that the latter were honoured at Thebes with their own temple (Paus. 9,25,4). Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg) Bibli…

Pharmakos

(419 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen)
[German version] [1] Magician, v. Magic (φάρμακος; phármakos). Magician, v. Magic. Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) [German version] [2] Human 'scapegoat' (φαρμακός/ pharmakós from φάρμακον/ phármakon, 'remedy, medicine'). The pharmakos was a human 'scapegoat' (Scapegoat rituals), who at Athens and in the Ionian poleis was driven out of a city to 'purify' it during the Thargelia as well as in times of crisis such as epidemic and famine. The scapegoat was chosen from among the poor and deformed; pharmakos and associated terms were thus regarded as insults [7; 8]. The pharmakoí received pr…

Pharnabazus

(391 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Φαρνάβαζος; Pharnábazos). [German version] [1] Persian, Satrap of Dascylium [2]/Phrygia Persian, from 468 or 455 BC satrap of Dascylium [2] in Phrygia (Thuc. 2,67,1). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] Grandson of Ph. [1], satrap of Dascylium [2] Grandson of P. [1], satrap of Dascylium [2], died after 373 BC; in 413/12 BC he was an ally of Sparta and in 409 BC of Athens (he sheltered Alcibiades [3] in 404 und had him murdered at the request of Lysander [1]; Xen. Hell. 1,1,6; 14; 2,16; 3,8ff.; Diod.Sic. 14,11,2; Ne…

Pharnaceia

(180 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φαρνάκεια/ Pharnákeia, Φαρνακία/ Pharnakía, Latin Pharnacea). Port on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), founded by Pharnaces [1] I, probably after the occupation of Sinope in 183 BC while incorporating the population of Cotyora (Str. 2,5,25; 7,6,2; 11,2,18; 12,3,13-19; 28-30; 14,5,22; Ptol. 5,6,5; Plut. Lucullus 18,2; Plin. HN 6,11; 32). According to the information on distances in Xen. An. 5,3,2 (cf. also Peripl. m. Eux. 34), however, P. was not on the soil of Ce…

Pharnaces

(490 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Φαρνάκης; Pharnákēs). [German version] [1] Ph. I. King of Pontus, 2nd cent. BC King of Pontus (185-160/154 BC), son of Mithridates [3] III. After the conquest of Sinope in 183 BC, Ph. fought in 182-179 BC (Pontian War Pol. 25,2; Diod. Sic. 29,24) together with the dynast Mithridates of Armenia Minor against a gradually emerging coalition of the kings Eumenes [3] II, Ariarathes IV (Cappadocia), Prusias II and Artaxias [1] I, the dynasts Acusilaus (territory unknown), Gatalos (Sarmate) and Morzius (Paphlagone…

Pharnuches

(127 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Φαρνούχης; Pharnoúchēs), a Lycian interpreter (though, as his name shows, from a Persian colonist family), was assigned in 329 BC by Alexander [4]  the Great to a task force under the leadership of three hetaíroi that was to relieve the fortress of Marakanda from siege by Spitamenes. By means of the incompetence of the officers the troops were almost completely annihilated. It is impossible that a P. had three hetaíroi under his command (as Arr. Anab. 4,3,7 reports on the authority of Ptolemaeus and Aristobulus [7]): it is certain that he was, as …

Pharos

(177 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Lighthouse Lighthouses Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island in the Adriatic ( Pharia, Plin. HN 3,152). 68 km long island in the Adriatic Sea off the Dalmatian coast (Scyl. 23; Str. 2,5,20), modern Hvar (Croatia). According to Pol. 5,108,7, the island was called ὁ Φάρος/ ho Pháros, while the city was called ἡ Φ./ hē Ph. (ruins near Stari Grad, cf. [1]). Since 385/4 BC (Diod. Sic. 15,13,4), Ph. was a colony of Paros (Ephor. FGrH 70 F 89), since 229 BC, it was part of the Illyrian kingdom of Agron [3] and Teuta, then i…

Pharsalus

(631 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (ἡ Φάρσαλος/ hē Phársalos). Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, father of Achilles, rules in the city of Phthia,which in Antiquity had been identified with the city of P. located on the southwestern edge of the Thessalian plain. Hom. Il. 1,155 knows only Phthia. The Thessali founded P. when they took over the land at the source of the Apidanus. They called this part of the plain Phthiôtis, while the subjected territory of the indigenous population that had been pushed ba…

Pharsanzes

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Pharzanes). King of the Regnum Bosporanum in AD 253-254; he interrupted the reign of Rhecusporis V probably as a usurper who was hostile to the Romans. He is known on account of the coins he issued PIR2 P 343. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 470  A.N. Zograph, Ancient Coinage. Ph. II: The Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Littoral, 1977, 334-335.

Pharusii

(90 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαρούσιοι; Pharoúsioi). A nomadic North African people whom Strabo (2,5,33; 17,3,3; 7) always mentions together with the Nigritae (cf. Sall. Iug. 18: Persae; Mela 1,22; 3,103; Plin. HN 5,43: Gymnetes Pharusi; 46: Pharusi, quondam Persae; 6,194: Perusii; Ptol. 4,6,17; Geogr. Rav. 43,10: Paurisi). The P. appear to have partly lived to the west and partly to the south-east of the High Atlas. With their caravans they occasionally reached as far as Cirta (Str. 17,3,7). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Cat. des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 230-232.

Phasael

(532 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Φασάηλος; Phasáēlos). [German version] [1] Eldest son of Antipater [4] and Cyprus Eldest son of Antipater [4] and Cyprus, born in c. 77 BC probably in Marissa (Idumaea; Jos. Bl.  1,8,9; Jos. Ant. lud. 14,7,3). In 47 BC, P. was appointed governor  (στρατηγός/stratēgós) of Jerusalem and the surrounding area by Antipater (ἐπίτροπος/ epítropos of Judaea under the high priest and ethnarchos Hyrcanus [3] II), while his brother Herod [1] took on the same office in Galilee (Jos. Ant. lud. 14,9,2; Jos. Bl 1,10,4). Josephus credits P…

Phasaelis

(207 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φασαηλίς/ Phasaēlís, Φασηλός/ Phasēlós, modern Ḫirbat Faṣāil). City founded by Herodes [1] I in memory of his elder brother Phasael [1] to the north of Jericho in the fertile Jordan rift valley, probably after 30 BC (Ios. Ant. Iud. 16,5,2; Ios. BI 1,21,9). Inherited after Herod's death by his sister Salome (Ios. Ant. Iud. 17,8,1; Ios. BI 2,6,3), after her death P. became the property of Livia [2], wife of the emperor Augustus (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,2,2; Ios. BI 2,9,1). P. was known for it…

Phaselis

(508 words)

Author(s): Thomsen, Andreas (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Xenophon | Zenobia | Commerce | Colonization | Lycii, Lycia | Pergamum | Delian League | Education / Culture (Φασηλίς; Phasēlís). Port city on the eastern Lycian coast near what is today Tekirova. It was established as a Greek colony (Cic. Verr. 2,4,21; Plut. Cimon 12,3) by Lindus in about 690 BC, possibly at the site of an earlier Phoenician settlement. By the 6th cent., P. had developed into an important trade centre, owing to its favourable location. In…

Phasiani

(120 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Φασιανοί; Phasianoí, Xen. An. 4,6,5), a tribe mentioned together with the Chalybes and Taochi that lived on the Phasis, a river that should not be identified with the Phasis in Colchis (modern Rioni/ Georgia) but with the modern Pasinsu (Armenian Basean) that flows into the Araxes [1]/ Aras at Pasinler. The region known as Pasean in Armenian and Basiani in Georgian corresponds approximately to the modern region of Basen/Pasen with the city of Pasinler, c. 60 km east of Erzurum in north-eastern Turkey. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography W.E.D. Allen, A His…

Phasis

(683 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(Φάσις; Phásis). [German version] [1] River in the southwestern Caucasus River in the southwestern Caucasus that flowed into the Pontos Euxeinos near Ph. [2], present-day Rioni. Its estuary shifted several times, resulting in the growth of the mainland (cf. Str. 1,3,7). An ocean bay at the estuary of the P. is mentioned by Ptol. 5,10,1. The P. is first mentioned by Hesiod (Hes. Theog. 337-344). It was navigable over a course of 180 stadia (Ps.-Scyl. 81). The river's upper course was a rapid mountain strea…

Phayllus

(158 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάϋλλος/ Pháÿllos). [German version] [1] Phocian strategos (4th cent. BC) A Phocian (Phocis) stratēgós, who was dispatched with 7000 soldiers to support Lycophron [3] of Pherae against  Philip [4] II of Macedonia during the third of the Sacred Wars in 353 BC, but suffered a defeat. After the death of his brother Onomarchus he assumed supreme command over the Phocians as stratēgòs autokrátōr and kept Philip from Thermopylae with Spartan, Athenian and Achaean help and mercenaries, whom he rewarded with treasures from Delphic temples. P. took the war to Boeo…

Phea, Phia

(131 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Φεά/ Pheá, Φαιά/ Phaiá, Φεαί/ Pheaí). Foothills and port on the coast of Elis [1] on the isthmus of the peninsula of Ichthys (modern Katakolo) (Hom. Od. 15,297; H. Hom. 1,427; Thuc. 2,25,3f.; 7,31,1; Pol. 4,9,9; Diod. Sic. 12,43,4; Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; Str. 8,3,12; 26f.; Paus. 5,18,6; Pol. 4,9,9; Plin. HN 4,13; 22) near modern Katakolo, harbour for Olympia. Traces of a settlement were found on the hill of Pontikokastro (acropolis) and under water in the Bay of Hagios Andreas as well as …

Pheasant

(430 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The pheasant, the male of which is splendidly colourful, ( Phasianus colchicus, φασιανός/ phasianós sc. ὄρνις/ órnis, phasianus or phasiana sc. avis) comes originally from the region in Colchis around the river Phasis it is named after (modern Rioni, to the south of the Caucasus) (Agatharchides fr. 15 Jacoby FGrH 86 in Athen. 9,387c, cf. Mart. 13,72). From the 5th cent. BC it was introduced - with unique success for a galliform - into the wild in the Graeco-Roman cultural area. Aristophanes, who is th…

Phegaea

(140 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Φηγαία/ Phēgaía, Φηγαιά/ Phēgaiá; demotikon Φηγαιεύς/ Phēgaieús). Attic p aralia deme of the phyle of Aigeis, from AD 127/8 of Hadrianis, with three (four) bouleutaí on the east coast of Attica (near what is today Draphi [3. 335] or Ierotsakuli? [1. 82 with note 12]). It was not an independent dêmos, but a kṓmē ('village community'; of Stiria?) that was established by the people of Phegaea, as included in the list of demes IG II2 2362 as one of the demes of Pandionis (cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.) [2. 55, 57ff.]. IG II2 1932,14f. shows evidence of cults of Hercules and th…

Phegeus

(304 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Φηγεύς; Phēgeús). [German version] [1] Son of Alpheius Son of Alpheius [2] (Hyg. Fab. 244), brother of Phoroneus; mythological king of Phegea in Arcadia, which was later called Psophis (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φηγεία; Paus. 8,24,2). He expiated the sin of Alcmaeon [1], who had killed his own mother, and married him to his daughter Alphesiboea (different name: Arsinoe [I 3]). However, Alcmaeon had to move on and then married Achelous' [2] daughter Callirhoe [2], for whom Alcmaeon deceitfully robbed P. of Harmo…

Phegus

(46 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Φηγοῦς; Phēgoûs). Attic mesogeia (?) deme of the Erechtheis phyle, with one bouleutḗs. Demotikon Φηγούσιος/ Phēgoúsios (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.). Location unknown. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 38, 62, 70, 112 Nr. 110, Tab. 1  J.S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 126.

Pheidippides

(176 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] (Φειδιππίδης; Pheidippídēs). Courier ( hēmeródromos) from Athens, who after the Persians' landing at Marathon (490 BC) was sent to the Lacedaemonians with a request for support troops (Hdt. 6,105f.; Persian Wars); haunted by a vision of Pan on Mount Parthenium in Arcadia, he reached Sparta on the second day (Hdt. 6,105f.). P. is encountered in the later tradition as Latin Phidippus (Nep. Miltiades 4,3) or Philippides (as in poorer manuscripts of Hdt. [1]; Plin. HN 7,84; Plut. Mor. 862a-b; Paus. 1,28,4; 8,54,6; Poll. 3,148; Solin. 1, 98; Suda s.v. Ἱππίας/ Hippías) and u…

Pheidippus

(287 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Φείδιππος; Pheídippos). [German version] [1] Son of Thessalus, naval commander at Troy Son of Thessalus, brother of Antiphus, consequently grandson of  Heracles [1] and Chalciope [3] (Hyg. Fab. 97,14). One of Helen [1]'s suitors (Hyg. Fab. 81). He and his brother command 30 ships at Troy (Hom. Il. 2,676-680). On the voyage home he is blown off course to Thesprotia, where he also dies. In Odysseus's tall stories  (Hom. Od. 14,316; 19,287) the king Pheidon of the Thesproti appears twice. The latter's name is…

Pheidon

(487 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φείδων; Pheídōn). [German version] [1] Ph. the Corinthian From Corinth, legislator, early 7th cent. BC According to Aristot. Pol. 1265b 12-16, he was one of the 'oldest legislators' who is said to have been the originator of a law in which the number of houses had to equal the number of citizens; it appears therefore to have served to protect the owners of plots of land and to maintain the balance of land ownership ratios ( klḗros ). Like the similar law of Philolaus [1], the law is probably authentic; it was possibly still in use in the time of the Bacchiadae regime (early 7th cent. BC). Hölkeskamp…

Phellus

(173 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Φελλός; Phellós). Lycian polis near modern Çukurbağ. As early as the 6th/5th cent. BC, an important town was situated here (in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 258 erroneously a Pamphylian pólis) with the Lycian name wehñti (Lycii, with map). In the mid 5th cent. BC, Harpagus, a dynast of Xanthus, resided here; right through to the 4th cent. BC, P. remained an important centre for the minting of coins of various dynasts and it had a significant heroon. In this period, P. still had a…

Pheme

(83 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Φήμη/ Phḗmē; Latin Fama ). Goddess or personification of public speech, rumour and (helpful or malicious) gossip (Hes. Op. 760-764; Bacchyl. 2,1; 10,1). Aeschines (Aeschin. In Tim. 128 with schol.; Aeschin. Leg. 144f.; cf. Paus. 1,17,1) mentions an altar of P. (built after the Battle on the Eurymedon [5]), making the distinction that P. appeared in person, while Diabolḗ ('Calumny') could be traced to individual people. However, Ach. Tat. (6,10,4-5) makes P. the daughter of Diabole. Nünlist, René (Basle)

Phemius

(46 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φήμιος/ Phḗmios). Mythical singer (next to Demodocus [1]) on Ithaca, son of Terpius. He sang to Penelope's suitors, among other things, about the returning home of the Greeks from Troy (Nostoi, Epic cycle); Odysseus spared him (Hom. Od. 22,330-380). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Phemonoe

(59 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φημονόη/ Phēmonóē). Daughter of Apollo; she was his first seer (Pythia) in Delphi and invented the hexameter verse; the maxim 'know yourself'(γνῶθι σεαυτόν/ gnôthi seautón) is supposed to have come from her (Paus. 10,5,4; 10,6,3; 10,12,5; Str. 9,3,5). Her name is also widely used to mean a prophetess (Luc. 5,126. 185; Stat. Silv. 2,2,39). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Phenake

(4 words)

see Whig

Pheneus

(368 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (ὁ/ἡ Φενεός; ho/hē Pheneós, ethnikon Φενεάτης/ Pheneátēs or Φενικός/ Phenikós). City in Azania in northern Arcadia (Str. 8,8,2; 4; Paus. 8,13,6-22,1; Plin. HN. 4,20f.; 31,54; Diod. Sic. 15,49,5) in the north of a karst basin with no overground outlet drained by swallow-holes into the Ladon [1. 94, 99] where a shallow lake only periodically formed but with at times a catastrophically high water level (cf. Theophr. Hist. p…

Pherae

(464 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Φέραι; Phérai). City east of Thessalian Pelasgiotis (Thessalians) at a place that was continually settled from the Neolithic period onwards because of its favourable position on the south-western bank of the Boebe and on the abundant spring, of Hypereia (Plin. HN 4,20). The oldest known sanctuary of P. to date, dedicated to the principal goddess, Artemis Enodia, da…

Phere

(57 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φηρή/ Phērḗ, Φηραί/ Phēraí). Town in West Arcadia on the river Alpheus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,541ff.; Hom. Od. 3,488ff.; 15,186ff.). Home of Orsilochus [1], the son of the river god Alpheus [2], and his descendants. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, Arkadisches. Pharai - Pherai - Pharaia in Arkadien, in: MH 14, 1957, 81-88.

Phereclus

(73 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle)
(Φέρεκλος/ Phéreklos). [German version] [1] Trojan Troianer Trojan, son of Tecton ('master builder') and grandson of Harmon ('joiner'); he constructed the ships which Paris used to kidnap Helen [1]; he was killed by Meriones  (Hom. Il. 5,59ff.; Ov. Epist. 16,22). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Helmsman of Theseus Theseus’ helmsman on his journey to Crete (Simon. 550b PMG). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, Nr. 334.

Pherecrates

(809 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φερεκράτης; Pherekrátēs). Important poet of Attic Old Comedy. First worked as an actor [1, testimony 2a], his own performances beginning after Cratinus [1] and Crates [1], but before Hermippus [1], Phrynichus [3], Aristophanes [3], Eupolis (cf. [1, testimony 2a, 5, 6]). There is a reference to a victory (it is unclear in which agon) for 437 BC [1, testimony 2a]; the Lenaea victory list ascribes two victories to P. [1, testimony 6]. He is said to have written 17 [1, testimony 1] or…
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