Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(5 words)

see Dionysus; Mysteries


(199 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λυκάβας; Lykábas). [German version] [1] One of the Tyrrhenian pirates One of the Tyrrhenian pirates, exiled for murder. The pirates promise the boy Dionysus to take him to the island of Naxos, but intend to abduct him. Their leader Acoetes [1] refuses to support the plan because he recognizes a god in the boy, but L. strikes him down. For their heinous deeds, Dionysus transforms the whole crew into dolphins, apart from Acoetes, whom he spares (Ov. Met. 3,623ff.; Hyg. Fab. 134). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] On of the Centaurs One of the Centaurs who sexually assault th…


(4 words)

see Athens


(145 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Λύκαια; Lýkaia). Name of two towns in northwestern Arcadia, both also attested in the form of the name Λυκόα/ Lykóa, belonging to Megale Polis. [German version] [1] L. in the region of the Maenalii L. in the region of the Maenalii in the upper reaches of the Helisson (Paus. 8,3,4; 27,3; 30,1; 36,7), possibly identifiable with Palaiokastro between Arachova and Karteroli in the southeast of the plain of Davia. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] L. in the region of the Parrhasii L. in the region of the Parrhasii on the northern slope of the Lycaeum west of the confluenc…


(426 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λύκαιον; Lýkaion). In the broad sense, the entire mountain mass consisting of various limestones west of the plateau of Megale Polis in Parrhasia (Paus. 8,2,1; 38,2ff.; 4,20,2; 8,41,3; Str. 8,3,22; Paus. 8,2,1; Thuc. 5,54,1). Polybius reckoned the L. to be among the largest mountain ranges of Greece (in Str. 4,6,12; ὤρεα μακρά in Theoc. 1,123). The L. mountain range in antiquity was rich in springs and forests; today it still has extensive fir forests (Paus. 8,38,3f.). It was fam…


(1,377 words)

Author(s): Stolberg, Michael
[English version] From Antiquity on, the figure of the wolf-man, the werewolf (cf. Old High German wer- mann [18. 4]; other German variations: Wehrwolf, Bärwolf) or lycanthrope (Greek: λύκος, 'wolf'; ἄνθρωπος, 'man') has variously inspired the thought and imagination of writers and artists. Similar notions are found in medieval and Early Modern popular culture, particularly in Lithuania, Livonia, Prussia and Saxony [9. cap. 18; 18; 19]. During the witch-hunts of the Early Modern period, lycanthropy became a factor of exceptional intellectual and social explosi…


(658 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Oldest mythical king of Arcadia (Λυκάων; Lykáōn). Oldest mythical king of Arcadia, son of Pelasgus and of the daughter of Oceanus, Meliboea, or the mountain nymph Cyllene. L.'s sons are the founding heroes of all important Arcadian cities; his son Oenotrus, dissatisfied with his share of the inheritance, is said to have left his homeland and settled in Italy with several followers (hence the name Oenotria) (first in Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 156). The number of 50 sons mentioned in Apol…


(723 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
(Λυκαονία; Lykaonía). [German version] A. Geography, population, economy Country in central Asia Minor with changing boundaries which extended from Tatta Limne (modern Lake Tuz) in the north to the Taurus in the south and from the Coralis Limne (modern Lake Beyşehir) in the west to Mount Karaca in the east. Most of the area was taken up by the steppe-like plateaus about Iconium (Konya) and in the south and southwest by Tatta Limne. In the west and south, L. included part of the western Taurus, which r…


(99 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Λυκαρίων; Lykaríōn). Son of Numenius, from an important family; in the middle of the 1st cent. BC known as syngenḗs ( Court titles B. 2.), honorary head of the gerousia of Alexandria [1], dioikētḗs , exēgētḗs ( exēgētaí ), epì tês póleōs of Alexandria, gymnasiarch ( Gymnasiarchy) of Alexandria. L. is an example of the accumulation of offices in the late Ptolemaic period as well as of the link between state and city duties. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography PP I 37; 156; III 5349a L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1974, 140 no. 0176.


(200 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λύκαστος; Lýkastos). [German version] [1] City in Crete City in Crete (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.; Plin. HN 4,59; Mela 2,113), about 11 km south of Knossos, modern Kanli Kastelli. In Hom. Il. 2,647 participant in the Trojan War. Autonomous in phases but mostly dependent on Knossos and belonging to its territory. In 184 BC, conquered by Gortyn (Pol. 22,19) until revised by Roman arbitration [1]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, Die Verträge zw. kret. Poleis in der hell. Zeit, 1996, 281-285, no. 40. I. F. Sanders, Roman Crete, 1992, 154. [German version] [2] River River f…


(104 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Λυκέας; Lykéas). Undatable author of épē on the historical and mythical history of his home town of Argus, only known from four quotations in Pausanias (1,13,8; 2,19,5; 2,22,2; 2,23,7) who describes him as ὁ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων ἐξηγητής; ho tôn epichōríōn exēgētḗs (‘The one who explains local traditions’) and uses him as a written source which he compares with oral sources. The poem also told of the death of Pyrrhus (in 272 BC, terminus post quem for the dating.). Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1SH 527-530 2FGrH 312 3 C. Bearzot, Storia e storiografia ellenistica …


(841 words)

Author(s): Glock, Andreas (Bremen)
[German version] Lýkeion (Λύκειον, sc. ἱερόν/ hierón ‘sanctuary’) designates any cult centre of Apollo Lykeios. The most famous is the Lyceum in Athens in a wider sense the park of the same name ( Athens [1] II.8.). Its foundation legends (wolf plague: schol. Dem. Or. 24,114; founder Lycus [8]: Paus. 1,19,3) and the naming of the Lyceum in the legend of Theseus (Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 18) presumably indicate the great age of the cult in Athens. In the 4th cent. BC the cult image of Apollo Lykeios in A…


(219 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Λυχνιδός, Λυχνίς; Lychnidós, Lychnís). Capital city of the Illyrian Dassaretae ( Dassaretia) on the via Egnatia (Str. 7,7,4; It. Ant. 318), modern Ohrid in Macedonia on Lake Ohrid. Subjugated by Philip II (Diod. Sic. 16,8,1). It minted its own bronze coins under Philip V (obverse: Macedonian shield; reverse: bow of a ship and ΛΥΧΝΙΔ(Ι)ΩΝ). In 197 BC, L. with its territory fell to the Illyrian king Pleuratus (Pol. 5,108; 18,47,12; Liv. 27,32,9; 33,34,11). From 146 BC, L. belonged to the Roman province of Ma…


(4 words)

see Divination

Lycia et Pamphylia

(225 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] The province was set up in c. AD 74 under the Roman emperor Vespasian, after Lycia had been constituted as an autonomous imperial province following internal unrest (Suet. Claud. 25,3; [1. 137]) in AD 43. The contradictory account in Cass. Dio 60,17,4 is refuted by the existence of legati Augusti pro praetore Lyciae (e.g. AE 1956, 186). For the Roman influence in the Republican period cf. Str. 14,3,3; [2. 94-100]. Until then, Pamphylia belonged to the province of Galatia into which it had been incorporated in 25 BC after the deat…


(4 words)

see Luwian

Lycian League

(370 words)

Author(s): Behrwald, Ralf (Chemnitz)
[German version] (Λυκίων τὸ κοινόν/Λυκίων τὸ ἔθνος; Lykíōn tò Koinón/Éthnos). The constitution of the Lycian League (LL) (for the history Lycii, Lycia) is known for the period of independence mainly from Artemidorus (in Str. 14,3,3), and for the period as a Roman provincial diet (from AD 43) from inscriptions primarily from the 2nd cent. AD. Artemidorus portrays a LL whose strong coherence leads to it being regarded as the model for the koinón of the Achaeans. The 23 members (at the end of the 1st cent. BC more, in the Imperial period over 30) we…


(52 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυκίδας; Lykídas). Athenian, member of the boule , was the only one to vote in 479 BC for the creation of the alliance with the Persians offered by Mardonius [1]. He was stoned by the angry crowd when he left the council building (Hdt. 9,5). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Lycii, Lycia

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Λύκιοι, Λυκία; Lýkioi, Lykía, Lycian Trm̃mis; Latin Lycii, Lycia). [German version] A. Prehistory The south-western Asia Minor landscape of Lycia stretched from the ancient Indus at Caunus to the coast north of Phaselis [5. 265-271] and has not only high mountains and fertile alluvial plains but also highly organized upland with dense rural settlement [8. 29; 13] whose features have been reconstructed since 1989 as a result of field research in central Lycian Cyaneae [2] ([7]). The settlement area of the L…


(142 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λυκῖνος; Lykînos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 4th cent. BC Athenian, initiated a paranómōn action against a psḗphisma in 347 BC, which at the request of Aeschines [2] required Philip II to send envoys to Athens to negotiate the Peace of Philocrates (346 BC). L. petitioned for a fine of 100 talents against Aeschines but did not even receive a fifth of the judges' votes (Aeschin. Leg. 13f.; Aeschin. In Ctes. 62). PA 9198. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Commander of a Macedonian garrison in Megara, 3rd cent. BC Greek of the 3rd cent. BC, was exiled from his homela…
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