Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Libanius

(1,811 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] A. Life L. from Antioch/Syria, AD 314-393, is the most outstanding Greek rhetor of the late Imperial period. The most useful biographical data are contained in L.'s work itself, especially in his letters, but also in his speeches with autobiographical topics, esp. or. 1 and 2. Furthermore, there are references in contemporary writings (among others by Iulianus [11] and Iohannes [4] Chrysostomos), a Vita by Eunapius and the Byzantine tradition, probably largely based on the latter (Zosimus, Zonaras, Suda et al.). L. was born in 314 as the son of a highly respec…

Libanomanteia

(14 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
see Divination [German version] Libanos see Weihrauch see Incense Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)

Libanotris

(4 words)

see Incense

Libanus

(275 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[German version] (Λίβανος/ Líbanos, Lat. Libanus). Mountain range in northern Syria between the Mediterranean coast and the Antilibanos in the interior. The name (Hebrew lebānôn, Ugaritic Lbnm, Akkadian Labnāna, Arabic Lubnān) derives from the Semitic root * lbn ‘white’, i.e. the ‘white mountain’. The tale of L.' descent from a giant in Philo of Byblus (Euseb. Praep. evang. I,10,9) is mythological. The earliest information is found in OT and Assyrian sources. The Lebanon extends for about 160 km almost parallel to the coast. Its highest elevation with 3126 m is Ǧeb…

Libarna

(98 words)

Author(s): Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Ligurian town in regio IX located on the via Postumia ( nobile oppidum, Plin. HN 3,49), modern Serravalle Scrivia. Municipium, later probably colonia (CIL V 7428), tribus Maecia. Possibly renewed by Constantinus [3] in AD 410 ([1] on Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,12,4). Remains: theatre, amphitheatre, insulae, baths, forum, aqueduct, graves. Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa) Bibliography 1 G. Chr. Hansen, in: J. Bidez (ed.), Sozomenus, Kirchengesch. (GCS N.F. 4), 21995, 545. G. Forni (ed.), Fontes Ligurum et Liguri…

Libation

(773 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Haase, Mareile (Toronto)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt Since sacrifices were primarily intended to ensure that the daily needs of the gods were met, not only victuals but also beverages (generally water, beer, wine) were an essential component of regular sacrifices to the gods, as well as of sacrifices offered to the dead. Both in Egypt and in Mesopotamia, libation and terms used for libation stand as pars pro toto for sacrifice. This may have stemmed originally from the fact that for people living at a subsistence level the libation of water constituted their only opport…

Libel

(97 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Libel was prosecuted as serious injury to the character in both Greek (Attic) and Roman law. In Athens, libel may have come under kakēgoría (cf. also loidoría ) and have led to a fine in a private suit. In Roman law, libel was likewise a civil offence as a form of iniuria (a wrongful act). Possibly related to libel was the carmen famosum (‘defamatory poem’) of the Twelve Tables ( tabulae duodecim ). An aggravated form of libel was the Roman calumnia (false accusation), which could lead to harsh punishments. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Libella

(98 words)

Author(s): Stumpf, Gerd (Munich)
[German version] Diminutive of libra , ‘little pound’. Like the Sicilian litra , it denotes a tenth of a silver unit, from the early 2nd cent. BC the as as a tenth of the denarius and then of the sestertius . The term libella was only used in small-change calculations. Libella was used for any small coin or, in the phrase heres ex libella (Cic. Att. 7,2,3), the heir of a tenth share. Stumpf, Gerd (Munich) Bibliography M. Crawford, Coinage and Money under the Roman Republic. Italy and the Mediterranean Economy, 1985, 147f. Schrötter, s.v. L., 352.

Libellis, a

(186 words)

Author(s): Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[German version] The offices of the imperial court included an office primarily responsible for law-related complaints. This office dealt with judicial complaints addressed specially to the emperor as an instance of appeal, whereas working on imperial decisions on petitions as well as rescripts principally was a matter of other offices ( epistulis, ab ). Its purview also included suits which were decided at the imperial court as the primary instance, if the emperor assumed jurisdiction, such as proceedings of crimen laesae maiestatis ( lèse majesté) or maledictio Caesaris (‘slande…

Libellus

(790 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Libellus in civil actions Libellus (‘small document’) was, from around the mid 5th cent. AD, the technical term for the complaint in a Roman civil action, which by this time was less ponderously arranged than in the formerly customary procedures of the litis denuntiatio . The libellus contained the facts upon which the complaint was based, without detailed explanatory statements, and a motion to summon the respondent ( postulatio ). The judge firstly addressed the legitimacy of the summons request (‘conclusiveness test’), reaching a sententia

Libera

(98 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] The consort of Liber; as he is the god of male fertility, so she is the goddess of female fertility (Aug. Civ. 6,9). She belongs to the Aventine triad of Ceres, Liber and L. (Fast. Caeretani, CIL I 1, 212) and is venerated together with Liber, at the Liberalia and at wine festivals [1. 256ff.]. In accordance with the identification of Liber with Dionysius L. is equated with Ariadne (Ov. Fast. 3,512). For bibliography see Liber. Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) Bibliography 1 O. de Cazanove, Jupiter, Liber et le vin latin, in: RHR 205, 1988, 245-265.

Liberal arts

(7 words)

see Artes liberales

Liberalitas, largitio

(1,766 words)

Author(s): Corbier, Mireille (Paris) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] A. Etymology and development of the word's meaning The term liberalitas (= li.) denotes, on an abstract level, an attribute (cf. Sen. Dial. 7,24,3: ... quia a libero animo proficiscitur, ita nominata est), in a particular case an act of generosity. The term largitio (= la.) belongs to the area of gifts, as does li.; derived from the adjective largus (in the original sense of a freely flowing spring, Cic. Off. 2,52) la. usually signifies the distribution of gifts. In the political vocabulary of the late Republic la., seen as a gift by means of which a particular purp…

Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum

(263 words)

Author(s): Böttrich, Christfried (Leipzig)
[German version] (LAB or Ps.-Philo). Jewish work, probably originated between AD 70 and 132 in Palestine. The position of the author is clearly shaped by the loss of the Second Temple after its destruction by the later emperor Titus. The text is only preserved in a Latin translation (before the 5th cent.) that is based on a Greek text; the original was in Hebrew. The LAB is an interpretative retelling of biblical history (‘rewritten Bible’) from the Creation to Saul's death after which the text ends. Presumably it was conceived to extend to the destruction of…

Liber glossarum

(354 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Modern term for an alphabetical Latin encyclopaedia from the late 8th cent. covering Linguistic notes to explanations of terms, the most comprehensive and most important educational aid of the Carolingian epoch; prototypes are the MSS Parisinus Lat. 11529/30 and Cambrai 693 (both late 8th cent.; cf. [4]). Concerning the origin of the glossary ( Glossography) in the surroundings of Corby, in Tours, and in the Carolingian court library, and concerning Alcuin as terminus post quem, …

Liber Iubilaeorum

(369 words)

Author(s): Böttrich, Christfried (Leipzig)
[German version] (usually called the ‘Book of Jubilees’ [Jub], sometimes also the Leptogenesis, ‘Little Genesis’). Jewish work, originated in the 2nd cent. BC in Palestine. The book owes its name to the peculiar division of history into Jubilee periods (49 years each according to Lv 25), on the other hand to the fact that biblical history from Gn 1 to Ex 20 is essentially retold in an interpretative manner (‘rewritten Bible’). Only an Ethiopian translation is preserved complete, which is derived from a Gree…

Liberius

(356 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Roman pope 352-377 Roman pope 352-366. L.'s pontificate was burdened by the difficult dispute over Arianism. Emperor Constantius II banished L. to Beroea in 355, because he would not recant in Milan his support for the condemned bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, who was hostile to Arianism, whereupon Felix had himself appointed and ordained counter-bishop ( Felix [5] II.). The anguish of exile, reflected by the four letters of the spring of 357 recorded by Hilarius of Poitiers led…

Liber, Liberalia

(560 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] Liber Pater is an Italic-Roman god of nature, fertility, and wine. L. is attested archaeologically first on the inscriptions of the Praenestine cistae from the 4th cent. BC (CIL I 2, 563), then on a cippus from Pisaurium from the 3rd-2nd cents. BC (CIL I 2, 381). The historians report that L. was introduced from Greece into Rome in the year 496, when the Sibylline Books had recommended to transfer the triad of Demeter, Kore, and Iacchus - who correspond to the Roman deities Ceres,…

Liber linteus

(91 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan book type in the form of a written linen cloth folded according to a fixed pattern. The so-called ‘Mummy-wrapping of Agram’ ( liber linteus Zagrabiensis) is preserved in the original with c. 40 cm height and 340 cm preserved length containing a ritual text in calendric form ( Calendar; no earlier than the 3rd cent. BC). There are also pictorial and sculpted copies of libri lintei in Etruscan graves, on sarcophagi and urns. Divination Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Roncalli (ed.), Scrivere etrusco. Exhibition catalogue Perugia, 1985.

Liber Pontificalis

(353 words)

Author(s): Melville, Gert (Dresden)
[German version] A serially compiled collection of summarized biographies of popes, prefaced by a fictional correspondence between Damasus and Hieronymus. The at times semi-official character of this preface led to its wide distribution (usually under the title Gesta or Chronica pontificum) [3]. Although the earliest MSS (7th/8th cents.) contain the chain of popes up to Conon I (died 687), the oldest part ended most likely with Felix III (IV) (died 530). The latter was based on chronographical models such as the so-called Index and the Catalogus Liberianus (MGH AA 9,73-76). It fi…
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