Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(729 words)

Author(s): Ruffing, Kai (Münster)
[German version] The extent and type of animal husbandry in ancient  agriculture was essentially determined by the availability of fodder, which in turn was dependent on the respective geomorphologic and climatic conditions. Thus, Boeotia was famous in the Homeric period for its meadows rich in green fodder (ποίη/ poíē; Hom. Il. 2,503; H. Hom. 3,243; 4,190); fodder was also available from fallow fields and woodlands; in addition there were pastures (λειμών/ leimṓn; Hom. Il. 2,461-469). Specifically, Homer mentions a type of clover (λωτός/ lṓtós ( lotus) and wild  parsley (σέλινον/ s…


(795 words)

Author(s): Heider, Ulrich (Cologne)
[German version] Roman name for partners in treaties with Rome, who were independent subjects in international law. The parties to the treaties were geographically in direct contact with the Imperium Romanum or were counted as part of it. Proculus calls all foederati externi (Dig. 49,15,7), but at the time of the Republic there were foederati on provincial soil (Cic. Verr. 5,51). The term has purely political implications, locating it geographically at the borders of the empire is inadequate. From the Principate period treaties were made by the emp…


(391 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Ceremonial treaty of peace and friendship between Rome and another state which is placed under the protection of the gods. By contrast to a truce ( indutiae) the foedus was drawn up for the long term ( pia et aeterna pax). The result of the foedus was a   societas or an   amicitia , Rome's partners were   foederati ,   socii or amici (the terms are not strictly differentiated). Originally the foedera were probably signed by the   fetiales in the form of a sponsio (Liv. 1,24); later their role was confined to supervising the religious formalities. The foedus was usually signed by…

Foedus Cassianum

(240 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Alliance entered into with the Latins after the victory over them at the Lacus Regillus in 493 BC by the consul Sp.  Cassius [I 19] Vecellinus, which was extended to the Hernici in 486. The document was still preserved at the time of Cicero on a bronze column (the original?) in the Forum (Cic. Balb. 53). The historicity of the text is acknowledged today, as is the early dating, contrary to earlier research [1. 68f.; 2. 299-301]. The main conditions are found in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,95: peace …

Foedus Gabinum

(148 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Alleged treaty from the time of king Tarquinius Superbus (end 6th cent. BC), which was still extant in the Augustan period on a shield covered in cowhide in the temple of Semo Sancus; documented in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,58,4 and on coins of two Antistii (family from Gabii, C.  Antistius [II 7] Vetus and C. Antistius Reginus) from the Augustan period: FOEDUS P.R. CUM GABINIS (RIC2 1, 68 no. 363 and 73 no. 411). Main content was an isopoliteia between Rome and Gabii. According to Varro (Ling. 5,33) the ager Gabinus represented an exceptional feature of augural law between the age…

Foenum Graecum

(5 words)

see  Fenugreek


(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman gentile name (older form epigraphically Foslius, InscrIt 13,1,37,  folius [3]), attested in the early Republic solely for the family of the patrician Folii, which died out at the end of the 4th cent. BC; later common proper name of non-senatorial families. [German version] [1] Pontifex maximus, killed by the Celts in 387 BC Pontifex maximus, remained in Rome with other old men when Rome was taken by the Celts in 387 BC and was killed (Liv. 5,41,3). …

Folk songs

(916 words)

Author(s): CH.BR.
[German version] It is not clear how to decide which ancient poems should be categorized as folk songs (FS). The category ‘Greek FS’ is a creation of modern publishers of Greek poetry; unlike poetic genres such as   dithýrambos ,   paián ,   íambos etc., FS do not reflect ancient classification. What remains of Greek FS (short poems and fragments) are collected under the customary modern title of Carmina popularia in modern publications of early Greek  lyric poetry [1; 3. 488-514; 4; 5. 463-482]. These texts probably stem from choral and monodic performance on a v…


(3,118 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Schönbeck, Hans-Peter (Halle/Saale)
[German version] I. Term and genre In antiquity the folk-tale as a well-defined literary genre with unequivocally established terminology was not known. However, since oral narratives, partly put down in writing, that according to the modern meaning of the term can undoubtedly be designated as folk-tales, existed in all ages and all cultures, the issue of the folk-tale becomes a meaningful and inevitable subject also with regard to antiquity. The German word ‘Märchen’ is derived from OHG māri, MHG diu/daz maere = ‘report’, ‘message’, i.e. ‘narrative’, still entirely in the …


(686 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] [1] Bellows (φῦσα / phŷsa, bellows). The blacksmith's tool already mentioned in Homer (Il. 18, 372; 412; 468-70) is associated in Greek art in particular with  Hephaestus (Siphnian Treasury, Delphi), but rarely appears in depictions of workshops. There were two (Hdt. I 68) or more (Hom. Il. 18,468-470) folles in a workshop. In Roman art the follis is also depicted relatively rarely; on a blacksmith's gravestone in Aquileia (Mus. inv. no. 166) the worker at the follis holds a protective shield in front of himself; a fresco in the house of the Vettii in Po…


(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Vestal virgin before 91 until after 68 BC, sister of Fonteius [I 2] (Cic. Font. 46-49). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)


(1,213 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman Plebeian family from Tusculum (who, as mint masters, liked to place on their coins the Dioscuri, who were particularly revered there, RRC 290, 307, cf. 353), whose members often held the office of praetor; the family did not attain the consulate until the early Imperial period. 1. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F. Legate Legate of the proconsul Q. Servilius Caepio in Asculum; their murder by the local population triggered the  Social Wars [3] (Cic. Font. 41; 48; Vell. Pat. 2,15,1; App. B Civ. 1,173); perhaps identical with the mint master RRC 290 or 307. Elvers, Karl…


(643 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] (τροφαί / trophaí; Lat. alimenta). Name for nutritious solid and liquid substances which can sometimes be eaten or drunk raw, but which are not normally suitable for consumption without preparation and are therefore further processed into meals in the kitchen. A systematic classification of food is offered by Galen's treatise ‘On the Powers of Food’ ( De alimentorum facultatibus libri III), one of the few ancient dietary specialized writings that are completely extant. Galen classifies food on the principle of its place in natural history…

Food offerings

(410 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris)
[German version] Generally, a sacrificial offering in food form, raw (the first fruit of harvest, a cup of wine) or cooked (such as a pot of porridge or the πανσπερμία/ panspermía, a mixture of first fruit or seeds), dedicated to the gods or the dead. The term comprises the offering of consecrated meat, cereals and other vegetarian foodstuffs (vegetables, fruit, cake, cheese), as well as different liquids (wine, milk, honey-based drinks etc.); it includes also the offering of whole meals ( theoxénia ) and animal sacrifice (sacrifice). Offerings of vegetaria…

Foot ornaments

(5 words)

see  jewellery


(241 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (θρῆνυς/ thrḗnys, ὑποπόδιον/ hypopódion, σφέλας/ sphélas, rarely χελώνη/ chelṓnē; Latin scabellum, scamnum). The footstool was used as a foot bench for a person sitting on the  klismos,  throne or a similar high seating (cf. Hom. Od. 17,409 f.), or as a step for climbing up on the  Kline or down from it. There were three footstool variants: rectangular footstools with simple vertical legs, rectangular footstools with curved legs that ended in animal feet (lion feet), sphinxes etc., as well a…


(304 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] Roman festival. On 15 April thirty pregnant cows ( fordae boves) were sacrificed in the  curiae (Varro, Ling. 6,15; Ov. Fast. 4,629ff.; cf. Paul Fest. 74 and 91 L. ─ in this case the dialect form Hordicidia ─ and also Varro, Rust. 2,5,6 ─ Hordicalia ─ and Lydus, Mens. 4,72 Φορδικάλια; Phordikália). According to Ovid's account, a parallel sacrifice took place on the Capitol led by the pontificespontifex ) (cf. Lydus ibid.). When the sacrificial servants had removed the unborn calf from the mother's body they offered up its entrails. Afterwards, the virgo maxima of the Ve…

Foreign peoples; foreigners

(6 words)

see  Barbarians


(114 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] City in Apulia (Φερέντη; Pheréntē, Diod. Sic. 19,65,7; Forentum, Hor. Carm. 3,4,16; Forentani, Plin. HN 3,105). Roman from 317 BC (Liv. 9,20), a municipium from the time of Augustus. Identification with modern Forenza has been abandoned in favour of Lavello (in the northern Basilicata). The ancient settlement was located on the hill in Lavello. There is evidence of settlement from the Neolithic to the Imperial period, which receded in the 3rd cent. after the colonia of Venusia was established in 291 BC. Gargini, Michela (Pisa) Bibliography Nissen 2, 831 E. Greco, Magn…


(294 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Linguistically, a forest in Latin (Serv. Aen. 1,310) is differentiated according to the degree of human cultivation ( silva, nemus,   saltus ) and the associated religious sphere ( lucus,  ‘Grove’). On one hand, forests caused fear and discomfort (Cic. Nat. D. 2,6; Plin. HN 12,3), on the other hand they were valued as places of (even productive) rest and recuperation (Plin. Ep. 1,6,2; 9,10,2; Tac. Dial. 9,6; 12,1). Forests received an extremely negative connotation among Romans in the context of the military …
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