Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Cypselides

(373 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Κυψελίδαι; Kypselídai). Dynasty of the Corinthian tyrant  Cypselus [2], who followed the  Bacchiadae around the mid 7th cent. BC. The rule of the C. (Cypselus,  Periander,  Psammetichus) was limited (probably post-event) by the Delphic oracle to Cypselus and his sons, and was supposed to end with the generation of his grandchildren (Hdt. 5,92e). According to Aristotle (Pol. 1315b 11ff.), the  tyrannis of the C. was the second longest lasting in Greece (73 1/2 years). He explains this long duration with Cypselus' popularity (cf. also Nicolaus of Dam…

Cypselus

(271 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Κύψελος; Kýpselos). [German version] [1] Son of Aepytus [2] Son of  Aepytus [2], ruler of Arcadia at the time when the Heraclids attempted to invade the Peloponnese once more. He gave his daughter Mesope in marriage to  Cresphontes, Heraclid and king of Messenia, and was thus spared the invasion (Paus. 4,3,6; 8,5,6). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Corinth, probably 657-627 BC Tyrant of Corinth (probably 657-627 BC), son of Eëtion. He followed the  Bacchiadae, a group of ruling aristocrats, and established the first  tyrannis in Greec…

Cypselus chest

(251 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Container ( kypsélē, kibōtós, lárnax) made from cedar wood decorated with ivory and gold plaques and carvings, described by Pausanias (5,17,5-19,10) as a votive gift from  Cypselus [2] or the  Cypselides in the temple of Hera in Olympia. Legend declared the chest to be the vessel in which Cypselus [2] was saved from the Bacchiadae as a child, or rather as its replica. It was probably manufactured in the mid 6th cent. BC. Because of the description provided by Pausanias, the Cypselus chest is an important source for the exploration of archaic imagery. A…

Cyranides

(705 words)

Author(s): Jori, Alberto (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κυρανίδες; Kyranídes). This treatise in four books of unknown authorship is preserved in Greek and in a Latin translation from 1169. It deals with the healing properties of stones, plants and animals (in alphabetic order) and is allegedly the work of Harpocration [3] of Alexandria and a certain Cyranus. Some scholars (e.g., M. Wellmann [7]) prefer the form ‘Coeranides’, but in agreement with textual tradition, the spelling ‘Cyranides’ should be preferred [1]. The meaning of the na…

Cyrenaica

(630 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κυρηναία; Kyrēnaía, Lat. Cyrenae). North-east African coastal region of the Cyrenaea (mod. Cyrenaica) with western border at  Arae [2] Philaenorum/Φιλαίνων Βωμοί (mod. Ras el-Aáli) [1. 73f., 469] and its eastern one near  Catabathmus megas (mod. Solum); cf. Str. 17,3,22 [2. 509f.]. The region took its name from the Theraean   apoikía Cyrene.  Cyrene was part of the Libyan  pentapolis, together with Barca (mod. Barka), later outstripped by Ptolemaïs (mod. Tolemaide), also Euhesperides, later Berenice (mod. Be…

Cyrenaics

(1,267 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
(Κυρηναϊκοί; Kyrēnaïkoí). [German version] A. History The term Cyrenaics ─ derived from the home town Cyrene of Socrates' pupil  Aristippus [3] ─ is used to describe those philosophers who subscribed to the tradition founded by the latter. A list of C. can be found in Diog. Laert. 2,86. Whenever ancient texts refer globally to Aristippus and the C., the topic is almost invariably that they considered  pleasure ( hēdonḗ) the supreme good ( summum bonum) and highest aim ( télos). In the development of this view (and of the philosophy of the C. in general), two phases can be …

Cyrene

(1,085 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Africa | Wine | | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Commerce | Colonization | Crete | Limes | Rome | Rome (Κυρήνη; Kyrḗnē, Lat. Cyrene). [German version] I. History C. was founded by the Dorian island city of Thera in the mod. Cyrenaica, mod. Shahhat. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 4,150-158; SEG IX 3 (with a true core); Str. 17,3,21 [1. 9-67]. Overpopulation and famine ─ not internal political struggles ─ forced the inhabitants of Thera into the foundation of this   apoikía (differently in Menecl…

Cyrillonas

(67 words)

Author(s): Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] (Diminutive form of Cyrillus). Name of an otherwise unknown author of six poems in the Syrian language; one of them is about a Hun attack on northern Mesopotamia (thus c. AD 396); the other five concern themselves with NT themes. Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) Bibliography D. Cerbelaud, Cyrillonas, l'agneau véritable, 1984 S. Landersdorfer, Ausgewählte Schriften der syr. Dichter, 1913, 1-54 I. Vona, I Carmi di Cirillona, 1963.

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

Cyrnus

(5 words)

see Theognis; Sphragis

Cyrrhestice

(235 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Κυρρηστική; Kyrrhēstikḗ). Region in northern Syria south of  Commagene, between the Euphrates and the  Amanus; named after its capital Cyrrhus [2]. The name is used for the first time, but perhaps anachronistically, in connection with events of the year 286 BC (Plut. Demetrius 48,6). Attested with certainty is a revolt of 6,000 Cyrrhesticans against Antiochus [5] the Great in 221 (Pol. 5,50; 57). At the time Seleucid rule was ending, local dynasts appear to also have had their say in the political affairs in C: the Cyrrhestican and (apparently disloyal) Roman socius C…

Cyrrhus

(465 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
(Κύρρος; Kýrrhos). [German version] [1] Macedonian city Macedonian city near the modern Aravissos between Pella and Edessa, existed already in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,100,1); was to be the site of one of the gigantic temples supposedly planned by Alexander the Great (Diod. Sic. 18,4,5); half-finished partial structures in an ancient quarry near C. could be connected with this intended construction project [1]. An unpublished inscription (cf. [2]) attests to a municipal authority concerned with the bu…

Cyrtii

(84 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Κύρτιοι; Kýrtioi, Lat. Cyrtii). Mentioned at Str. 11,523; 727 as nomads in northern Media and Persia. Pol. 5,52,5 mentions the C. as reserve troops of the Median governor Molon in the struggle against Antiochus III. Liv. 37,40,9 mentions them as opponents of the Romans in the battle of Magnesia (190 BC); at Liv. 42,58,13 they appear as Roman mercenaries with Callinicus (171 BC). On the basis of their name, they are seen as the ancestors of the Kurds. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Cyrtones

(144 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κύρτωνες; Kýrtōnes). Small Boeotian city (πόλισμα) on the border with eastern Locris, north-west of Hyettus on a pass to Korseia leading across the Chlomon mountains; probably to be identified with the sparse ancient remains near modern Kolaka. The old name was Cyrtone (Κυρτώνη; Kyrtṓnē, Paus. 9,24,4). In the Roman period there was a temple and grove of Apollo and Artemis in C., as well as a spring sacred to the nymphs. References: Paus. 9,24,4; cf. also Hdn. De prosodia catholica 3,1,293; 337; Hdn. De paronymis 3,2,861; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kyrtones. Funke, Peter (Münste…

Cyrus

(2,651 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Κῦρος; Kŷros, Lat. Cyrus). [German version] [1] C. I. (the Elder) Grandfather of  Cyrus [2] (the Great), known from the cylinder inscription of his grandson (TUAT I 409,21). Here he is given the title ‘great king, king of Anšān’ ( šarru rabû šar Anšān;  Anshan) and called ‘descendant’ ( liblibbu) of  Teispes. The genealogical link C. (I.) ─ Cambyses (I.) ─ C. (II.) is also mentioned in Hdt. 1,111. C. the Elder may accordingly be interpreted as a petty king of Persian descent, ruling over (a part of (?) the formerly Elamite) Fārs in the 7th/…

Cytaea

(121 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Κυταιίς; Kytaiís, Apoll. Rhod. 2,1267; Κύταια; Kýtaia, schol. ad Lycoph. Alexandra 1312; Κόταϊς; Kótaïs (τὸ φρούριον), Procop. Goth. 4,14,49; 4,14,51 Agathias 2,19,1). City in  Colchis, on the headwaters of the modern Kutaisi on the middle Rioni ( Phasis) in Georgia. Archaeological finds indicate the existence of a settlement with acropolis from the 7th cent. BC; fragments of Greek pottery indicate contacts between inland Colchis and the Mediterranean region from the 7th/6th cents. BC. In the…

Cytenium

(230 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κυτίνιον, Κύτινον, Κυτένιον; Kytínion, Kýtinon, Kyténion). Along with Boium, Erineus and Acyphas/Pindus one of the cities of central Greek Doris supposedly founded by  Dorus (Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6; Conon, FGrH 26 F 1,27; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Aristid. 12,40; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κύτινα; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121; 126). Aeschin. Leg. 116 with schol. emphasizes the special status of C. among the Dorian cities; for Hsch. s.v. Λιμοδωριεῖς (‘hungry Dorians’) see  Doris [II 1]. C. is to be located on the southern slope…

Cythera

(756 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κύθηρα; Kýthēra, Lat. Cythera, the modern Kithira). [German version] A. Geography of the island Off the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese, 30 km long and 18 km wide, C. covers an area of around 262 km2, and is surrounded by several small, uninhabited islands. The coast consists mostly of steep cliffs, indented with small bays from which narrow, steep valleys lead into…

Cytheris

(167 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] Descriptive artist's name (‘belonging to Aphrodite’) of a Roman mime actress ( mima) of the 1st cent. BC; bought out of slavery by Volumnius Eutrapelus, her official name was Volumnia (Cic. Phil. 2,58). Nothing is known about her stage performances, but all the more about her erotic qualities. She attained notoriety as mistress of Antonius [I 9]: before his marriage to Fulvia in 47 she accompanied him on his public appearances in an open litter (Cic. Att. 10,10,5; Plut. Antonius 9,7). Cicero …

Cytherus

(179 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κύθηρος; Kýthēros). Attic paralia(?) deme of the Pandionis phyle, from 307/6 to 201 BC of the Antigonis; supplied two bouleutaí. According to Str. 9,1,20, one of the locations belonging to the Attic dodecapolis. Its localisation near Poussi Kalojerou by Traill [3] is methodologically unsustainable; Dem. Or. 42 suggests a site near a city, in a wooded area. In IG II2 2496 three houses belonging to the deme of C. in Piraeus are leased by otherwise unattested Meritai [4. 383 no. 72]. A cult association between Trikomoi, Erchia and C. can scarcely be deduced from IG II2 1213…
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