Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Cylinder seal

(5 words)

see  Seal

Cyllene

(244 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυλλήνη; Kyllénḗ). [German version] [1] Mountain range in Arcadia The northernmost mountain range in Arcadia in the border area stretching to Achaea, the second highest (Ziria, 2,374 m) of the Peloponnese, a limestone ridge that ends on all sides with the surrounding chain of mountains. The ancient authors considered C. to be the highest mountain range in the Peloponnese (Str. 8,8,1; Paus. 8,17,1). C. was sacred to  Hermes Cyllenius. He is said to have been born here in a cave and to have accomplished d…

Cyllenius

(103 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Κυλλήνιος; Kyllḗnios). Author of two epideictic epigrams that show thematic and stylistic affinities with the ‘Garland’ of Philippus, but which cannot with certainty be traced back to it. In Anth. Pal. 9,4 a wild pear tree praises in elaborate language and little-known words the one who made it fertile through a graft; in Anth. Pal. 9,33 there is a brilliant distich about a ship that was shipwrecked even before it was completed (a variant is 9,35 that Planudes attributes to the same C. whilst the P manuscript however attributes it to  Antiphilus [3]). Albiani, Maria Graz…

Cylon

(336 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κύλων; Kýlon). [German version] [1] Athenian aristocrat, victor in Olympia in 640 BC, attempted to establish tyrannical rule in 632 BC Athenian aristocrat, son-in-law of  Theagenes of Megara, became Olympic victor in 640 BC. C. and his hetaireíahetairía  [2]) occupied the Acropolis in Athens around 632 in order to establish  tyrannical rule there -- possibly with support from Megara. C. did not manage to mobilize the population to support him. The rebels initially were besieged by a contingent of citizens, b…

Cyme

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη; Kýmē). [German version] [1] Settlement on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine C. on  Euboea. The exact location of the ancient settlement is unknown; it should be looked for near what is today the town of C., commonly Kumi, on the east coast of Euboea, possibly about 5 km north at the monastery of Sotiros (17th cent.) where there is also a Venetian fortress. Recently the remains of an Early Helladic settlement were found near Murteri south of C. whose inhabitants already traded…

Cymodoce

(59 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Κυμοδόκη; Kymodóke, Cymodoce, ‘wave-receiver’).  Nereid who calms the wind and waves, in Hes. Theog. 252f., Hom. Il. 18,39, Verg. Aen. 5,826 (accordingly Verg. G. 4,338) and 10,225 ( Cymodocea: Aeneas's ship turned into a nymph), Hyg. Fab. praef. 8, Stat. Silv. 2,2,20. Also represented on vases [1]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. Kymodoke, LIMC 6.1, 163f.

Cynaegeirus

(85 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Κυναίγειρος; Kynaígeiros) from Athens, son of Euphorion, brother of Aeschylus [1], fell in battle at  Marathon (490 BC;  Persian War). Herodotus (6,114) reports that his arm was chopped off while trying to hold on to the stern of an enemy ship. This heroic act was represented in the painting of Marathon at the Stoa Poikile in Athens (Ael. NA 7,38) and was a favourite exemplum for later rhetors (Lucian.e, Iupp. Trag. 32; Luciane, Rhetorum praeceptor 18). Traill, PAA 588715. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Cynaetha

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Κύναιθα; Kýnaitha). Town in northern Arcadia near modern Kalavryta, the exact location is unknown. The high valley of C. (800 m) is bordered in the north and south by low hills, in the west and south-east by the mountain ranges Erymanthus and Chelmos. In Hellenistic times it was supposedly the scene of especially brutal wars between various parties. Evidence: Pol. 4,16,11-21,9; Str. 8,8,2; Paus. 8,19,1-3; Ath. 14,626e; Steph. Byz., s.v. Κ. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinc…

Cynamolgus

(215 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Pliny (HN 10,97 = Sol. 33,15) reports -- taking up the work of Ps.-Aristotle (Hist. an. 9,13 p. 616a 6-13 = 8,5 of the Arabic-Latin translation of Michael Scotus) -- about the cinnamon bird cinnamolgus (κιννάμωμον ὄρνεον; kinnámōmon órneon) in Arabia that builds its nest in high trees of twigs from the  cinnamon and which the inhabitants shot down with lead arrows for profit. Through Isid. Orig. 12,7,23 this fairytale went into the extended Latin  Physiologus of Ps.-Hugo of St. Victor (3,30 [1. 95], cf. [2. 103f.]) an…

Cynegius

(137 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (Maternus Cynegius, ILS 1273). Probably born in Spain, Christian. Under  Theodosius I in AD 381 vicarius (?), 383 comes sacrarum largitionum, 383/ 384 quaestor sacri palatii. As praefectus praetorio Orientis 384-388, C. is said to have improved the state of the municipal curiae on behalf of the emperor (Lib. Or. 39,3). On two trips through the east of the empire (in 384 and 388) he intensively fought pagan religious practice (probably without explicit imperial permission) (Zos. 4,37; Chron. min. 1,244f. Mommsen) and in s…

Cynicism

(3,324 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Κυνισμός; Kynismós). [German version] A. Introduction The philosophical protest movement of Cynicism originated in Greece in the 4th cent. BC centred on  Diogenes [14] of Sinope and his students; it existed until the 5th cent. AD. As almost none of the older literature of the Cynics is extant, our knowledge comes mainly from anecdotes and remarks -- the authenticity of which is hard to test -- which however mirror a coherent and uniform philosophy. As early as antiquity the term ‘Cynicism’ was explained through two different etymologies. The first links the movement …

Cynicism

(1,753 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) [German version] A. The Middle Ages (CT) The reception of Cynicism in the Middle Ages and in modern times is, with few exceptions, simply the reception of Diogenes. The most important source for the knowledge of Diogenes in the Middle Ages was the brief description given of Diogenes' lifestyle by the Church Father Jerome in his work Adversus Jovinianum (2, 14). Jerome summarizes what makes Diogenes into a model for him in the statement that Diogenes was ‘more powerful than King Alexander and a victor over human nature’ ( potentior rege Alexandro et naturae victo…

Cynics' letters

(5 words)

see  Cynicism

Cynisca

(53 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνίσκα; Kyníska). Rich Spartan woman, born around 442 BC, daughter of Archidamus [1] II, sister of Agesilaus [2] II. C. was the first woman to participate in chariot races at Olympia where she was twice victorious (Xen. Ages. 9,6; Plut. Agesilaus 20; Paus. 3,8,1f.; 6,1,6; SGDI 4418). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Cyn(n)ane

(85 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Κυν(ν)άνη; Kyn(n)ánē). Daughter of  Philippus II and an Illyrian, born around 357 BC. Brought up in a martial way, she is said to have participated in Philip's battles. In 338/7 C. married Amyntas [4] and bore Eurydice [3] with whom she lived in Macedonia after the death of Amyntas. In 322 C. accompanied Eurydice to Asia with an army as a bride for Arridaeus [4]. C. was murdered by Alcetas [4] and given a royal burial by  Cassander. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve, no. 456.

Cynocephali

(74 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Κυνοκέφαλοι; Kynoképhaloi, ‘dog heads’) is the term for various fanciful frontier peoples; they settled in Libya (Hdt. 4,191), in Ethiopia (Aesch. fr. 603ab Mette; Str. 16,4,16) and in India (Ctesias, FGrH 688 F 45), and are considered to be particularly just and long-lived. The link between animal and ideal human traits typifies this utopian thought. Moreover the word also describes the baboons sacred to Egypt.  Monsters Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Cynopolis, Cynopolites

(190 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Town in Upper Egypt The Greek town called κυνῶν πόλις ( kynôn pólis); ‘town of dogs’; Str. 17,812) was at times the capital city of the 17th nomos of Upper Egypt (κυνοπολίτης; Kynopolítēs) and according to Ptol. 4,5,29 was situated on an island. C. (Egyptian Ḥr-dj) is often mentioned in texts of the New Kingdom and was the cult town of the dog-headed god  Anubis. Under Ramses XI it was destroyed in a civil war. Its exact location is unknown, presumably it was near Sheikh Fadl where a dog cemetery was also found. Plut. De …

Cynortium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνόρτιον; Kynórtion). The mountain above the theatre of the Asclepius sanctuary of Epidaurus with the sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas (Paus. 2,27,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography V. Lambrinudakis, Excavation and Restoration of the Sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas and Asclepius at Epidauros, in: Peloponnesiaka Suppl. 13, 1987f., 298ff.

Cynosarges

(194 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνόσαργες; Kynósarges). Sanctuary of Hercules first mentioned for the year 490 BC (Hdt. 6,116) with a gymnasium in the deme Diomea south of the Ilissus in front of the walls of Athens (Plut. Themistocles 1; Diog. Laert. 6,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ.). Because of the finding-place of IG II2 1665 it is vaguely considered to lie near Hagios Pantelemon. The link between a dromos to Agrae (IG II2 2119 Z. 128) and C. is doubtful. The C. gymnasium was meant for illegitimate children (  nóthoi ) (Dem. Or. 23,213; Ath. 6,234E; Plut. Themistocles 1,2). At…

Cynoscephalae

(112 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κυνὸς Κεφαλαί; Kynòs Kephalaí, ‘heads of dogs’). Part of the central Thessalian mountain range Chalcodonion (modern Mavrovuni, formerly Karadağ) between Pherae and Scotussa with many limestone rounded hilltops (hence the name). At C. in 364 BC the Thebans under Pelopidas defeated Alexander of Pherae (Plut. Pelopidas 32). In 197 Philip V suffered decisive defeat here against T. Quinctius Flamininus (Pol. 18,20ff.). Antiochus III had the bones of the fallen Macedonians buried in 191 (…
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