Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Cyaneae

(390 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Κυανέαι). [German version] [1] Two rocky islands Two small rocky islands directly to the west of the confluence of the Bosporus and the  Pontus Euxinus, 2.3 km north of Garipçe Burnu, 100 m in front of the lighthouse of Rumelifeneri, modern İreke Taşı. In Greek myths they were identified with the dangerous  Symplegades or  Planctae (Hom. Od. 16,176; Apoll. Rhod. 2,317ff.). Here there was a shrine (Hdt. 4,85). Pompey built an altar in honour of Apollo here [1. 28f., 35-39]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography 1 R. Güngerich (ed.), Gryllius, De Bosporo Thracic…

Cyanippus

(181 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Κυάνιππος, ‘Black horse’). [German version] [1] King of Argus King of Argus, son of Aegialeus and of Comaetho, descendant of Bias (Paus. 2,18,4; 30,10). According to Apollodor (1,103), C. is the son of  Adrastus [1] and brother of  Aegialeus [1]. Pausanias confuses his family tree: he speaks about four generations and five rulers but does not include C. among these, as the rulers cannot be called Nēleídai until Talaus (whose mother is a daughter of Neleus). Pausanias includes Diomedes as C.'s guardian as he assumes rule for C. who was a minor [1]. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2…

Cyathus

(133 words)

Author(s): Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover)
[German version] A jug or drinking vessel that, derived from Greek κύαθος, is especially a Roman measure of capacity for dry goods and liquids of 45.6 ml. The cyathus amounts to 1/12 of the sextarius (= 0,55 l). The number of cyathi drunk is counted as a multiple of uncia, e.g. four cyathi are called trientes (= 1/3 of the sextarius) or 11 cyathi are called deunx. According to a Roman custom popular at banquets, people had to drink as many cyathi as the number of letters in the name of the one to be honoured. Larger goblets were also used that were a multiple of the cyathus.  Deun…

Cyaxares

(438 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Κυαξάρης, ancient Persian Uvaxštra-, etymology uncertain). [German version] [1] Median king of the 7th or 6th cent. BC Median ‘king’ of the 7th/6th cents. BC. In the Median lógos of Herodotus (Hdt. 1,73f.; 103-107) C. appears as τύραννος/ týrannos or βασιλεύς/ basileús of the Medes, as the son of  Phraortes, grandson of  Deioces and father of  Astyages. During his 40-year reign, he is said -- after a Scythian interregnum -- to have conquered the Assyrians and to have fought against Alyattes of Lydia (probably for possession of Cappado…

Cybebe

(8 words)

see Cybele

Cybele

(2,723 words)

Author(s): Takacs, Sarolta A. (Cambridge, MA)
(Κυβέλη; Kybélē, Lat. Cybele, -a) is the goddess of fertility, city protectress (expressed in the mural crown), prophetess and healer. A. Asia Minor [German version] 1. Bronze Age The alternative form of the name Cybebe (Κυβήβη, Lat. Cybebe) allows us to equate the goddess of Asia Minor of the 1st millennium BC with the goddess Kubaba known from Hittite, Hurrian and Sumerian-Akkadian sources [1]. One of the most important centres for the worship of this goddess in the 2nd millennium was Hittite  Karkemiš/Karkamis [2] situ…

Cybistra

(73 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Ḫattusa (Κύβιστρα; Kýbistra). Town in  ‘Cataonia at the end of the road from the Cilician Gates across the Taurus, later also called Heraclea; modern Tont Kalesı, 13 km south-east of Ereğli; belonged later to  Cappadocia II. It was a diocese from AD 325 and an archdiocese from c. 1060. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Kybistra, RE Suppl. 4, 1123 Hild/Restle, 188-190.

Cychreus

(145 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Κυχρεύς; Kychreús). Protective hero of the island of Salamis. Son of  Poseidon and Salamis, the daughter of Asopus (Paus. 1,35,2). He liberates the Island of  Salamis from a dreadful snake, thus making it habitable and becomes the first inhabitant and king of the island. As he has no sons, he transfers rule to  Telamon, who is fleeing from Aegina, and gives him his daughter Glauce in marriage (Apollod. 3,161; Diod. Sic. 4,72,7). C. had a shrine on the island (Plut. Solon 9) and wa…

Cyclades

(600 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κυκλάδες νῆσοι; Kykládes nêsoi, Latin Cyclades, ‘circle islands’). The modern term refers to the southern Aegean group comprising a total of more than 200 islands between the Greek mainland and the Cretan sea with the exception of the islands off the western coast of Asia Minor which essentially concurs with the original ancient concept (Hdt. 5,30). Thucydides (1,4; 2,9,4) considers that Melos and Thera belong to it, Scylax (48; 58) includes Thera, Anaphe and Astypalaea and only exclu…

Cycliadas

(108 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Κυκλιάδας; Kykliádas). Strategos of the Achaean League in 209 and 200 BC, as an exponent of the Macedon-friendly faction, he supported  Philippus V in 209 against Elis (Liv. 27,31,10), but adroitly rejected his offer of help against  Nabis in 200 (Liv. 31,25,3; 9f.; [1. 165-168]). Banished after the change toward Rome (Liv. 32,19,2; [2. 40f.]), C. was at the disposal of the king as an envoy to T.  Quinctius Flamininus in Nicaea (198) (Pol. 18,1,2; Liv. 32,32,10) and after the defeat of Cynoscephalae (197) (Pol. 18,34,4). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 …

Cyclopes

(334 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Greek Κύκλωπες; Kýklōpes, singular Κύκλωψ; Kýklōps, Latin Cyclopes, singular Cyclops; etymology see below). C. is the term used to describe about 18 groups or individual figures in Greek myth who differ not just in their descent and location but also in their outward form and characteristics. As early as antiquity, Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 88) was the first to undertake systematization and to attempt to trace them back to a single ancestor, Cyclops, son of  Uranus and/or the king of Thrace (Schol. Eur. Or. 965). People distinguished in particular between: 1. the C. w…

Cycnus

(327 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Κύκνος; Kýknos, Latin Cygnus; ‘swan’). Name of several heroes whose common element is their relationship with swans. Among these the most important are: [German version] [1] Son of Ares and Pelopea Son of  Ares and of Pelopea (Apollod. 2,5,11: the Pyrene), king of Amphanae, husband of Themistonoe. In the grove of Apollo in Thessalonian Pagasae, C. robs pilgrims travelling to Delphi and invites them to participate in chariot races which he always wins (detailed narration [Hes.] scut. 57ff.). He kills the losers and decorates …

Cydantidae

(82 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυδαντίδαι; Kydantídai). Attic mesogeia(?)-deme of the phyle Aegeis, from 224/3 BC of Ptolemaïs; placed one (two) bouleutaí. Location unknown; Vurva [1. 173; 4. 24ff.], Kato Charvati [2], Mendeli [3 have been suggested. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Siewert, Die Trittyen Attikas und die Heeresreform des Kleisthenes, 1982 2 Traill, Attica 15f., 41, 62, 69, 111 no. 79, pl. 2, 13 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 128 with n. 17 4 E. Vanderpool, The Location of the Attic Deme Erchia, in: BCH 89, 1965, 21-26.

Cydathenaeum

(173 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυδαθήναιον; Kydathénaion, Κυδαθηναιείς; Kydathenaieís). Great and only asty-deme of the phyle Pandionis, from 307/6 to 201 BC of Antigonis, had 11 (12) bouleutaí; in the centre of Athens north of the Acropolis to the Eridanus, west to the Agora. For the 5th cent. BC there is evidence of a sanctuary and thiasotai of Hercules on the Eridanus. The tanneries ibid. (IG II2 1556, 33ff.; 1576, 5ff.; SEG 18, 36 B9) are considered by Lind [1] to be the cause of the enmity felt by  Aristophanes [3] towards the tannery owner Cleon; both originate fr…

Cydias

(426 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κυδίας; Kydías). [German version] [1] Erotic poet Erotic poet, quotes from Pl. Chrm. 155d, mentioned by Plut. Mor. 931e. He was obviously popular in Athens as he is depicted as a komast on a red-figured dish (Munich 2614) and on a psykter (London, BM E767) from c. 500 BC [1. 12-13]. He may perhaps be identical with Cydidas of Hermione referred to by Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 967 [2. 215]. Possibly (rather improbable) he is the dithyramb poet Cedeides/Ceceides mentioned by Aristoph. Nub. 985 (with schol.) [3]. Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) Bibliography 1 K. Friis Johansen, Eine Dithyrambos-A…

Cydippe

(316 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Κυδίππη; Kydíppē, Latin Cydippe). [German version] [1] Wife of Acontius According to Xenomedes (FGrH 442 T 2; F 1), Callimachus (fr. 67-75) tells how Acontius elicits from C., through an inscription on an apple (a quince: Aristaen. 1,10,26; on the apple-throwing motif: [1]), the vow that she will marry him. Attempts by the father Ceyx that came to nothing to marry C. to someone else lead to the Delphic oracle recommending Acontius as the son-in-law. Through the union the house of Acontiades is founded in…

Cydnus

(123 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κύδνος; Kýdnos). Aside from Pyramus and Sarus, the third large river of the Kilikia Pedias. In front of its estuary it formed the so-called Ῥῆγμα ( Rhêgma, ‘chasm’), a lagoon that served as the harbour of  Tarsus and originally flowed through Tarsus, before it was diverted, after a flood, by Justinian I eastward around the town (Procop. Aed. 5,5,17). After bathing in its cold waters (impressive waterfalls north of Tarsus) Alexander the Great fell gravely ill (Arr. Anab. 2,4,7). In the Middle Ages C. was c…

Cydonia

(357 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Crete | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Κυδωνία; Kydonía). Town in north-western Crete, now Chania, according to Str. 10,4,7 the third biggest town on the island (cf. Flor. 1,42,4). According to legend, its establishment can be traced back to  Minos and his son Cydon (Diod. Sic. 5,78,2; Paus. 8,53,4). Th…

Cylaces

(95 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] More correctly perhaps Gylakes (Armenian Głak), Armenian eunuch and ‘head gentleman-in-waiting’ ( Hajr mardpet). After C. had temporarily changed over to the Persian side, he attempted from AD 368 onwards, together with the ‘regent’ ( hazarapet)  Artabannes [1], to protect the interests of young king  Pap and to limit the power of the higher nobility and the Church. Around 370 Sapor II induced Pap, through secret messages, to murder his ministers and to have their heads sent to him (Amm. Marc. 27,12; 30,1,3). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography J. Markwart, S…

Cylinder seal

(5 words)

see  Seal

Cyllene

(244 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυλλήνη; Kyllénḗ). [German version] [1] Mountain range in Arcadia The northernmost mountain range in Arcadia in the border area stretching to Achaea, the second highest (Ziria, 2,374 m) of the Peloponnese, a limestone ridge that ends on all sides with the surrounding chain of mountains. The ancient authors considered C. to be the highest mountain range in the Peloponnese (Str. 8,8,1; Paus. 8,17,1). C. was sacred to  Hermes Cyllenius. He is said to have been born here in a cave and to have accomplished d…

Cyllenius

(103 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Κυλλήνιος; Kyllḗnios). Author of two epideictic epigrams that show thematic and stylistic affinities with the ‘Garland’ of Philippus, but which cannot with certainty be traced back to it. In Anth. Pal. 9,4 a wild pear tree praises in elaborate language and little-known words the one who made it fertile through a graft; in Anth. Pal. 9,33 there is a brilliant distich about a ship that was shipwrecked even before it was completed (a variant is 9,35 that Planudes attributes to the same C. whilst the P manuscript however attributes it to  Antiphilus [3]). Albiani, Maria Graz…

Cylon

(336 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κύλων; Kýlon). [German version] [1] Athenian aristocrat, victor in Olympia in 640 BC, attempted to establish tyrannical rule in 632 BC Athenian aristocrat, son-in-law of  Theagenes of Megara, became Olympic victor in 640 BC. C. and his hetaireíahetairía  [2]) occupied the Acropolis in Athens around 632 in order to establish  tyrannical rule there -- possibly with support from Megara. C. did not manage to mobilize the population to support him. The rebels initially were besieged by a contingent of citizens, b…

Cyme

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη; Kýmē). [German version] [1] Settlement on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine C. on  Euboea. The exact location of the ancient settlement is unknown; it should be looked for near what is today the town of C., commonly Kumi, on the east coast of Euboea, possibly about 5 km north at the monastery of Sotiros (17th cent.) where there is also a Venetian fortress. Recently the remains of an Early Helladic settlement were found near Murteri south of C. whose inhabitants already traded…

Cymodoce

(59 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Κυμοδόκη; Kymodóke, Cymodoce, ‘wave-receiver’).  Nereid who calms the wind and waves, in Hes. Theog. 252f., Hom. Il. 18,39, Verg. Aen. 5,826 (accordingly Verg. G. 4,338) and 10,225 ( Cymodocea: Aeneas's ship turned into a nymph), Hyg. Fab. praef. 8, Stat. Silv. 2,2,20. Also represented on vases [1]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. Kymodoke, LIMC 6.1, 163f.

Cynaegeirus

(85 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Κυναίγειρος; Kynaígeiros) from Athens, son of Euphorion, brother of Aeschylus [1], fell in battle at  Marathon (490 BC;  Persian War). Herodotus (6,114) reports that his arm was chopped off while trying to hold on to the stern of an enemy ship. This heroic act was represented in the painting of Marathon at the Stoa Poikile in Athens (Ael. NA 7,38) and was a favourite exemplum for later rhetors (Lucian.e, Iupp. Trag. 32; Luciane, Rhetorum praeceptor 18). Traill, PAA 588715. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Cynaetha

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Κύναιθα; Kýnaitha). Town in northern Arcadia near modern Kalavryta, the exact location is unknown. The high valley of C. (800 m) is bordered in the north and south by low hills, in the west and south-east by the mountain ranges Erymanthus and Chelmos. In Hellenistic times it was supposedly the scene of especially brutal wars between various parties. Evidence: Pol. 4,16,11-21,9; Str. 8,8,2; Paus. 8,19,1-3; Ath. 14,626e; Steph. Byz., s.v. Κ. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinc…

Cynamolgus

(215 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Pliny (HN 10,97 = Sol. 33,15) reports -- taking up the work of Ps.-Aristotle (Hist. an. 9,13 p. 616a 6-13 = 8,5 of the Arabic-Latin translation of Michael Scotus) -- about the cinnamon bird cinnamolgus (κιννάμωμον ὄρνεον; kinnámōmon órneon) in Arabia that builds its nest in high trees of twigs from the  cinnamon and which the inhabitants shot down with lead arrows for profit. Through Isid. Orig. 12,7,23 this fairytale went into the extended Latin  Physiologus of Ps.-Hugo of St. Victor (3,30 [1. 95], cf. [2. 103f.]) an…

Cynegius

(137 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (Maternus Cynegius, ILS 1273). Probably born in Spain, Christian. Under  Theodosius I in AD 381 vicarius (?), 383 comes sacrarum largitionum, 383/ 384 quaestor sacri palatii. As praefectus praetorio Orientis 384-388, C. is said to have improved the state of the municipal curiae on behalf of the emperor (Lib. Or. 39,3). On two trips through the east of the empire (in 384 and 388) he intensively fought pagan religious practice (probably without explicit imperial permission) (Zos. 4,37; Chron. min. 1,244f. Mommsen) and in s…

Cynicism

(3,324 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Κυνισμός; Kynismós). [German version] A. Introduction The philosophical protest movement of Cynicism originated in Greece in the 4th cent. BC centred on  Diogenes [14] of Sinope and his students; it existed until the 5th cent. AD. As almost none of the older literature of the Cynics is extant, our knowledge comes mainly from anecdotes and remarks -- the authenticity of which is hard to test -- which however mirror a coherent and uniform philosophy. As early as antiquity the term ‘Cynicism’ was explained through two different etymologies. The first links the movement …

Cynicism

(1,753 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) [German version] A. The Middle Ages (CT) The reception of Cynicism in the Middle Ages and in modern times is, with few exceptions, simply the reception of Diogenes. The most important source for the knowledge of Diogenes in the Middle Ages was the brief description given of Diogenes' lifestyle by the Church Father Jerome in his work Adversus Jovinianum (2, 14). Jerome summarizes what makes Diogenes into a model for him in the statement that Diogenes was ‘more powerful than King Alexander and a victor over human nature’ ( potentior rege Alexandro et naturae victo…

Cynics' letters

(5 words)

see  Cynicism

Cynisca

(53 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνίσκα; Kyníska). Rich Spartan woman, born around 442 BC, daughter of Archidamus [1] II, sister of Agesilaus [2] II. C. was the first woman to participate in chariot races at Olympia where she was twice victorious (Xen. Ages. 9,6; Plut. Agesilaus 20; Paus. 3,8,1f.; 6,1,6; SGDI 4418). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Cyn(n)ane

(85 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Κυν(ν)άνη; Kyn(n)ánē). Daughter of  Philippus II and an Illyrian, born around 357 BC. Brought up in a martial way, she is said to have participated in Philip's battles. In 338/7 C. married Amyntas [4] and bore Eurydice [3] with whom she lived in Macedonia after the death of Amyntas. In 322 C. accompanied Eurydice to Asia with an army as a bride for Arridaeus [4]. C. was murdered by Alcetas [4] and given a royal burial by  Cassander. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve, no. 456.

Cynocephali

(74 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Κυνοκέφαλοι; Kynoképhaloi, ‘dog heads’) is the term for various fanciful frontier peoples; they settled in Libya (Hdt. 4,191), in Ethiopia (Aesch. fr. 603ab Mette; Str. 16,4,16) and in India (Ctesias, FGrH 688 F 45), and are considered to be particularly just and long-lived. The link between animal and ideal human traits typifies this utopian thought. Moreover the word also describes the baboons sacred to Egypt.  Monsters Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Cynopolis, Cynopolites

(190 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Town in Upper Egypt The Greek town called κυνῶν πόλις ( kynôn pólis); ‘town of dogs’; Str. 17,812) was at times the capital city of the 17th nomos of Upper Egypt (κυνοπολίτης; Kynopolítēs) and according to Ptol. 4,5,29 was situated on an island. C. (Egyptian Ḥr-dj) is often mentioned in texts of the New Kingdom and was the cult town of the dog-headed god  Anubis. Under Ramses XI it was destroyed in a civil war. Its exact location is unknown, presumably it was near Sheikh Fadl where a dog cemetery was also found. Plut. De …

Cynortium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνόρτιον; Kynórtion). The mountain above the theatre of the Asclepius sanctuary of Epidaurus with the sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas (Paus. 2,27,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography V. Lambrinudakis, Excavation and Restoration of the Sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas and Asclepius at Epidauros, in: Peloponnesiaka Suppl. 13, 1987f., 298ff.

Cynosarges

(194 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνόσαργες; Kynósarges). Sanctuary of Hercules first mentioned for the year 490 BC (Hdt. 6,116) with a gymnasium in the deme Diomea south of the Ilissus in front of the walls of Athens (Plut. Themistocles 1; Diog. Laert. 6,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ.). Because of the finding-place of IG II2 1665 it is vaguely considered to lie near Hagios Pantelemon. The link between a dromos to Agrae (IG II2 2119 Z. 128) and C. is doubtful. The C. gymnasium was meant for illegitimate children (  nóthoi ) (Dem. Or. 23,213; Ath. 6,234E; Plut. Themistocles 1,2). At…

Cynoscephalae

(112 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κυνὸς Κεφαλαί; Kynòs Kephalaí, ‘heads of dogs’). Part of the central Thessalian mountain range Chalcodonion (modern Mavrovuni, formerly Karadağ) between Pherae and Scotussa with many limestone rounded hilltops (hence the name). At C. in 364 BC the Thebans under Pelopidas defeated Alexander of Pherae (Plut. Pelopidas 32). In 197 Philip V suffered decisive defeat here against T. Quinctius Flamininus (Pol. 18,20ff.). Antiochus III had the bones of the fallen Macedonians buried in 191 (…

Cynossema

(67 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κυνὸς σῆμὰ; Kynòs sêma, ‘dog grave’). Cape on Thracian Chersonesus south of Madytus near modern Kilit Bahır where the Hellespont is at its very narrowest, well known for the sea victory of the Attic fleet over the Peloponnesians in 411 BC (Thuc. 8,104-107; Diod. Sic. 13,40,6; cf. also regarding the name ‘dog grave’ Eur. Hec. 1270ff.; Ov. Met. 13,569). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Cynosura

(346 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Κυνόσουρα; Kynósoura, ‘dog's tail’). Name of several headlands. [German version] [1] Promontory on the east coast of the island of Salamis Promontory on the east coast of the island of Salamis, 4 km long and narrow (Hdt. 8,76,1; 77,1). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 1, 870. [German version] [2] Narrow headland in the north-east of the bay of Marathon Narrow headland in the north-east of the bay of Marathon, where the Persian fleet landed in 490 BC (Paus. 1,32,3; 7), modern Cape Stomi. On C. there are walls of unknown d…

Cynthus

(35 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κύνθος; Kýnthos, Latin Cynthus). Name of a mountain 113 m high on  Delos with a sanctuary to Zeus (Cynthius) and Athena (Cynthia). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography G. Gruben, Die Tempel der Griechen, 41986, 146f.

Cynuria

(460 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυνουρία; Kynouría, Κυνοσουρία; Kynossouría). [German version] [1] Landscape on the Gulf of Argolis Landscape on the Gulf of Argolis on the north-eastern coast of the Parnon mountains. As a border region between Laconia and Argolis, C. was often the cause of disputes between Sparta and Argos (cf. Str. 1,4,7). The northern part, the Thyreatis, one of the most fertile plains of the Peloponnese, consisted of the valleys of Tanos and Vrasiotis. According to Herodotus (8,73,1; 3), C. was originally Ionian and wa…

Cynus

(168 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κῦνος; Kŷnos). Town of Opuntian  Locris (Hom. Il. 2,531; Scyl. 60; Lycoph. Alexandra 1147; Ptol. 3,15,9; Plin. HN 4,27; Hecat. in Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ.; Mela 2,3,40) and ship mooring place (ἐπίνειον; epíneion, emporium) of  Opus (Paus. 10,1,2; Str. 9,4,2; Steph. Byz. loc. cit.; Liv. 28,6,12). The settlement covered the peak of the hill, known as modern Palaiopyrgos or Pyrgos after the ruins of the ancient walls and after a medieval tower that juts out over the little bay on the northern tip of the plain of Ataland…

Cypaera

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κύπαιρα; Kýpaira). Neighbouring town of Xyniae in south-western Achaea Phthiotis on the border with Dolopia, near modern Palaia Giannitsu (not near modern Makryrrachi, formerly Kaitsa). For 363 BC a temple donation from C. is noted in Delphi (Syll.3 239 B 12). From the end of the 3rd cent. C. belonged to the League of the Aetolians who conquered it back in 198 BC from its short-term possession by the Macedonians (Liv. 32,13,14). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géograph…

Cyparissia

(301 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυπαρισσία; Kyparissía). [German version] [1] Town on the Messenian west coast This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea Town on the Messenian west coast and the location of the modern town of the same name with a few remains mostly from Roman times; parts of the wall of the acropolis below a medieval castle. Aside from Pylos and Methone, the harbour of C. with its good connection to the upper Pamisus Valley was considered the only significant Messenian access to the sea. C. is already mentioned in the Pylos Tablets and is in any case identical to Κυπαρισσήεις ( Kypar…

Cyparissus

(325 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Κυπάρισσος; Kypárissos). [German version] [1] Of Ceos of Ceos, beloved of  Apollo. Pained because he had accidentally killed his own favourite stag, C. begged to be allowed to mourn for ever and was turned into a cypress (Ov. Met. 10,106-142). Even though Ovid provides the earliest documentary evidence, the story itself is believed to be much older [1. 52]. In Servius' version, C. is a son of  Telephus, also hailing from Crete, also beloved of  Zephyrus or  Silvanus, but the stag was killed by Silvanu…

Cyphanta

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κύφαντα or Κύφας; Kýphanta or Kýphas). Spartan perioikic polis (  períoikoi ) on the east coast of the  Parnon peninsula with an Asclepius sanctuary, already in ruins at the time of Pausanias, located in the bay with the mod. name of Kyparissi. Documentary evidence: Pol. 4,36,5; Paus. 3,24,2; Ptol. 3,16,10; 22; Plin. HN 4,17. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 1991, 146-149 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, East-Central Laconia, in: ABSA 15, 1908/9, 173.

Cypress

(344 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Of the conifer genus Lat. cupressus (since Enn. Ann. 262 (223) and 490 (511); late Lat. cyparissus, Isid. Orig. 17,7,34; κυπάρισσος/ kypárissos, probably from the pre-Indogermanic, already in Hom. Od. 5,64) with 14 species, only the wild form C. sempervirens L. with the variant C. horizontalis ( C. mas in Plin. HN 16,141) occurred in south-east Europe. However, the old culture strain [1. 34 ff.] of the variant C. pyramidalis ( C. femina: Plin. HN 16,141; it was already sown by Cato: Cato Agr. 48,1; 151), widespread and well known on Cyprus and Crete…

Cypria

(590 words)

Author(s): Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
[German version] (τὰ Κύπρια; tà Kýpria; also τὰ Κύπρια ἔπη; tà Kýpria épē, τὰ Κυπριακά; tà Kypriaká, αἱ Κυπριακαὶ ἱστορίαι; hai kupriakai historíai, its title derived from the dominance of Aphrodite = Cypris in the causality of the plot [3; cf. 9. 287]). This epic, a part of the  epic cycle, recounts in 11 bks. (according to Proclus) the history of Troy prior to the better-known Iliad ( Homerus [1]). Approximately 50 hexameters in 12 [1] or respectively 10 [2] frs. are extant; in addition there are short summaries in  Proclus and  Apollodorus, as well as nume…

Cyprianus

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] C. Gallus Heptateuch poet see  Heptateuch poet Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [2] C. Thascius Caecili(an)us From AD 248/9 bishop of Carthago [German version] A. Biography Caecilius Cyprianus qui et Thascius (his transmitted name, combining his original Punic cognomen Thascius C. with a newly adopted Christian cognomen after his godfather Caecilianus, according to Pontius, vita 4 -- or rather Caecilius, according to Jer. Vir. ill. 67 [1. 110, n. 1]) was the son of wealthy parents. Prior to his conversion t…

Cypriot

(953 words)

Author(s): Hintze, Almut (Cambridge) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] I. Ancient Cypriot The sources for C. are inscriptions in  Cypriot script (most important finding places: Idalium, Golgi, Paphus, Marion; oldest Text: o-pe-le-ta-u / opheltau/11th/10th cents. BC),  glossography (esp. Hsch., schol. on the Iliad and the Odyssey, fr. of an anonymous grammarians: Anecd. Bekk. 3,1094) and Cypriot proper names. C. a) corresponds particularly with  Arcadian and in parts also with  Mycenaean, and b) has its own specific features. For a): arsis of e, o before a nasal sound (/ in/= ἐν, / on-/ un-/ = ἀνά) and of o (gen. sg. in / -au/< -āo, 3rd sg. -tu

Cypriot Archaeology

(5 words)

see  Cyprus

Cypriot Script

(678 words)

Author(s): Hintze, Almut (Cambridge)
[German version] The Cypriot script (CS), probably a further development of the  Cypro-Minoan scripts [1; 2], is a syllabic script, related to  Linear B, with signs for vowels and open syllables. Their common origin is apparent in signs which correspond not only in form, but also in phonetic value ( lo/ ro, na, pa, po, se, ta/ da, to, ti). In contrast with Linear B, CS is a purely syllabic script (without ideograms). There are also minor differences in the orthographic rules: in CS, t and d are not differentiated ( i-ta-te = Attic ἐνθάδε), whereas r and l are ( lu-sa-to-ro = Attic gen. Λυσάνδρο…

Cypriot scripts (medieval)

(209 words)

Author(s): Eleuteri, Paolo (Venice)
[German version] Collective term for Greek scripts from the 2nd half of the 11th cent. AD, esp. on the island of Cyprus, as well as from Palestine.  These scripts did not fully develop their characteristic traits until the period between 1250 and 1300. One of these traits is the so-called 'epsilon style', a vertical, calligraphic style with pseudo-ligatures executed with an upward stroke in two forms: a rectangular one and a small round one. The latter is common in the so-called 'Family 2400' of t…

Cypro-Minoan Scripts

(708 words)

Author(s): Hintze, Almut (Cambridge)
[German version] Term coined by Arthur Evans to describe the late Bronze Age Cypriot linear scripts related to  Linear A [1. 69f.] ( Cyprus). The writing system is presumed to have been syllabic, but the texts are still largely undeciphered. Differences in writing modus, form of signs, and sign inventory have led to the distinction of three variants [2. 11-17]: (a) Cypro-Minoan (= CM) 1, (b) CM 2, (c) CM 3. On (a): From the late 16th to 11th cents. BC, texts in CM 1 are found all over Cyprus and also in north Syrian Ras Šamra ( Ugarit). The signs are painted on …

Cyprus

(1,764 words)

Author(s): Peña, P. Bádenas De La | Tsakmakis, Antonis (Nicosia )
Peña, P. Bádenas De La [German version] Cyprus (CT) Because of its strategic position, the island of Cyprus (C.) has always been a place where the claims of the various powers of the eastern Mediterranean for supremacy clashed. From the 12th cent. BC on the Greeks increasingly left their mark; added to this in Antiquity were Phoenicians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians and Romans; in the Middle Ages Franks and Venetians; and in the modern period Turks and Britons, all of whom, to varying degrees, left tra…

Cyprus

(2,847 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Cyprus [3] The island was incorporated into Roman possessions in 58 BC and remained part of the province of Cilicia until 48/47 BC. It was returned to the Ptolemaic kingdom by Caesar and Antony, and came permanently into Roman possession from 30 BC. As a province in its own rights, it was initially administered by a legatus, then from 22 BC by the Senate through an annually appointed procurator; following Diocletian's reorganization of the provinces, it was placed under the administration of the consularis of the dioecesis Oriens in Antioch [1] . After the initial f…

Cypsela

(125 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Κύψελα; Kýpsela, Cypsala). Inland Thracian town on the lower left bank of the  Hebrus at the via Egnatia (Str. 7,7,4), in a very marshy area (Str. 7,7,4; 6; 7a,1,9f.; 48; 57), mod. Ipsala. In the 4th cent. BC, C. was residence and mint of the  Odrysae dynasty. Because it was in Ptolemaic possession, the town was besieged by  Antiochus [3] II in 254 BC (Polyaenus, Strat. 4,16); in c. 200 BC, it was taken by Philip V. In 188 BC, Cn. Manlius Vulso was attacked by Thracians near C. In the Byzantine perio…

Cypselides

(373 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Κυψελίδαι; Kypselídai). Dynasty of the Corinthian tyrant  Cypselus [2], who followed the  Bacchiadae around the mid 7th cent. BC. The rule of the C. (Cypselus,  Periander,  Psammetichus) was limited (probably post-event) by the Delphic oracle to Cypselus and his sons, and was supposed to end with the generation of his grandchildren (Hdt. 5,92e). According to Aristotle (Pol. 1315b 11ff.), the  tyrannis of the C. was the second longest lasting in Greece (73 1/2 years). He explains this long duration with Cypselus' popularity (cf. also Nicolaus of Dam…

Cypselus

(271 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Κύψελος; Kýpselos). [German version] [1] Son of Aepytus [2] Son of  Aepytus [2], ruler of Arcadia at the time when the Heraclids attempted to invade the Peloponnese once more. He gave his daughter Mesope in marriage to  Cresphontes, Heraclid and king of Messenia, and was thus spared the invasion (Paus. 4,3,6; 8,5,6). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Corinth, probably 657-627 BC Tyrant of Corinth (probably 657-627 BC), son of Eëtion. He followed the  Bacchiadae, a group of ruling aristocrats, and established the first  tyrannis in Greec…

Cypselus chest

(251 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Container ( kypsélē, kibōtós, lárnax) made from cedar wood decorated with ivory and gold plaques and carvings, described by Pausanias (5,17,5-19,10) as a votive gift from  Cypselus [2] or the  Cypselides in the temple of Hera in Olympia. Legend declared the chest to be the vessel in which Cypselus [2] was saved from the Bacchiadae as a child, or rather as its replica. It was probably manufactured in the mid 6th cent. BC. Because of the description provided by Pausanias, the Cypselus chest is an important source for the exploration of archaic imagery. A…

Cyranides

(705 words)

Author(s): Jori, Alberto (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κυρανίδες; Kyranídes). This treatise in four books of unknown authorship is preserved in Greek and in a Latin translation from 1169. It deals with the healing properties of stones, plants and animals (in alphabetic order) and is allegedly the work of Harpocration [3] of Alexandria and a certain Cyranus. Some scholars (e.g., M. Wellmann [7]) prefer the form ‘Coeranides’, but in agreement with textual tradition, the spelling ‘Cyranides’ should be preferred [1]. The meaning of the na…

Cyrenaica

(630 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κυρηναία; Kyrēnaía, Lat. Cyrenae). North-east African coastal region of the Cyrenaea (mod. Cyrenaica) with western border at  Arae [2] Philaenorum/Φιλαίνων Βωμοί (mod. Ras el-Aáli) [1. 73f., 469] and its eastern one near  Catabathmus megas (mod. Solum); cf. Str. 17,3,22 [2. 509f.]. The region took its name from the Theraean   apoikía Cyrene.  Cyrene was part of the Libyan  pentapolis, together with Barca (mod. Barka), later outstripped by Ptolemaïs (mod. Tolemaide), also Euhesperides, later Berenice (mod. Be…

Cyrenaics

(1,267 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
(Κυρηναϊκοί; Kyrēnaïkoí). [German version] A. History The term Cyrenaics ─ derived from the home town Cyrene of Socrates' pupil  Aristippus [3] ─ is used to describe those philosophers who subscribed to the tradition founded by the latter. A list of C. can be found in Diog. Laert. 2,86. Whenever ancient texts refer globally to Aristippus and the C., the topic is almost invariably that they considered  pleasure ( hēdonḗ) the supreme good ( summum bonum) and highest aim ( télos). In the development of this view (and of the philosophy of the C. in general), two phases can be …

Cyrene

(1,085 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Africa | Wine | | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Commerce | Colonization | Crete | Limes | Rome | Rome (Κυρήνη; Kyrḗnē, Lat. Cyrene). [German version] I. History C. was founded by the Dorian island city of Thera in the mod. Cyrenaica, mod. Shahhat. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 4,150-158; SEG IX 3 (with a true core); Str. 17,3,21 [1. 9-67]. Overpopulation and famine ─ not internal political struggles ─ forced the inhabitants of Thera into the foundation of this   apoikía (differently in Menecl…

Cyrillonas

(67 words)

Author(s): Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] (Diminutive form of Cyrillus). Name of an otherwise unknown author of six poems in the Syrian language; one of them is about a Hun attack on northern Mesopotamia (thus c. AD 396); the other five concern themselves with NT themes. Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) Bibliography D. Cerbelaud, Cyrillonas, l'agneau véritable, 1984 S. Landersdorfer, Ausgewählte Schriften der syr. Dichter, 1913, 1-54 I. Vona, I Carmi di Cirillona, 1963.

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

Cyrnus

(5 words)

see Theognis; Sphragis

Cyrrhestice

(235 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Κυρρηστική; Kyrrhēstikḗ). Region in northern Syria south of  Commagene, between the Euphrates and the  Amanus; named after its capital Cyrrhus [2]. The name is used for the first time, but perhaps anachronistically, in connection with events of the year 286 BC (Plut. Demetrius 48,6). Attested with certainty is a revolt of 6,000 Cyrrhesticans against Antiochus [5] the Great in 221 (Pol. 5,50; 57). At the time Seleucid rule was ending, local dynasts appear to also have had their say in the political affairs in C: the Cyrrhestican and (apparently disloyal) Roman socius C…

Cyrrhus

(465 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
(Κύρρος; Kýrrhos). [German version] [1] Macedonian city Macedonian city near the modern Aravissos between Pella and Edessa, existed already in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,100,1); was to be the site of one of the gigantic temples supposedly planned by Alexander the Great (Diod. Sic. 18,4,5); half-finished partial structures in an ancient quarry near C. could be connected with this intended construction project [1]. An unpublished inscription (cf. [2]) attests to a municipal authority concerned with the bu…

Cyrtii

(84 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Κύρτιοι; Kýrtioi, Lat. Cyrtii). Mentioned at Str. 11,523; 727 as nomads in northern Media and Persia. Pol. 5,52,5 mentions the C. as reserve troops of the Median governor Molon in the struggle against Antiochus III. Liv. 37,40,9 mentions them as opponents of the Romans in the battle of Magnesia (190 BC); at Liv. 42,58,13 they appear as Roman mercenaries with Callinicus (171 BC). On the basis of their name, they are seen as the ancestors of the Kurds. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Cyrtones

(144 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κύρτωνες; Kýrtōnes). Small Boeotian city (πόλισμα) on the border with eastern Locris, north-west of Hyettus on a pass to Korseia leading across the Chlomon mountains; probably to be identified with the sparse ancient remains near modern Kolaka. The old name was Cyrtone (Κυρτώνη; Kyrtṓnē, Paus. 9,24,4). In the Roman period there was a temple and grove of Apollo and Artemis in C., as well as a spring sacred to the nymphs. References: Paus. 9,24,4; cf. also Hdn. De prosodia catholica 3,1,293; 337; Hdn. De paronymis 3,2,861; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kyrtones. Funke, Peter (Münste…

Cyrus

(2,651 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Κῦρος; Kŷros, Lat. Cyrus). [German version] [1] C. I. (the Elder) Grandfather of  Cyrus [2] (the Great), known from the cylinder inscription of his grandson (TUAT I 409,21). Here he is given the title ‘great king, king of Anšān’ ( šarru rabû šar Anšān;  Anshan) and called ‘descendant’ ( liblibbu) of  Teispes. The genealogical link C. (I.) ─ Cambyses (I.) ─ C. (II.) is also mentioned in Hdt. 1,111. C. the Elder may accordingly be interpreted as a petty king of Persian descent, ruling over (a part of (?) the formerly Elamite) Fārs in the 7th/…

Cytaea

(121 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Κυταιίς; Kytaiís, Apoll. Rhod. 2,1267; Κύταια; Kýtaia, schol. ad Lycoph. Alexandra 1312; Κόταϊς; Kótaïs (τὸ φρούριον), Procop. Goth. 4,14,49; 4,14,51 Agathias 2,19,1). City in  Colchis, on the headwaters of the modern Kutaisi on the middle Rioni ( Phasis) in Georgia. Archaeological finds indicate the existence of a settlement with acropolis from the 7th cent. BC; fragments of Greek pottery indicate contacts between inland Colchis and the Mediterranean region from the 7th/6th cents. BC. In the…

Cytenium

(230 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κυτίνιον, Κύτινον, Κυτένιον; Kytínion, Kýtinon, Kyténion). Along with Boium, Erineus and Acyphas/Pindus one of the cities of central Greek Doris supposedly founded by  Dorus (Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6; Conon, FGrH 26 F 1,27; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Aristid. 12,40; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κύτινα; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121; 126). Aeschin. Leg. 116 with schol. emphasizes the special status of C. among the Dorian cities; for Hsch. s.v. Λιμοδωριεῖς (‘hungry Dorians’) see  Doris [II 1]. C. is to be located on the southern slope…

Cythera

(756 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κύθηρα; Kýthēra, Lat. Cythera, the modern Kithira). [German version] A. Geography of the island Off the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese, 30 km long and 18 km wide, C. covers an area of around 262 km2, and is surrounded by several small, uninhabited islands. The coast consists mostly of steep cliffs, indented with small bays from which narrow, steep valleys lead into…

Cytheris

(167 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] Descriptive artist's name (‘belonging to Aphrodite’) of a Roman mime actress ( mima) of the 1st cent. BC; bought out of slavery by Volumnius Eutrapelus, her official name was Volumnia (Cic. Phil. 2,58). Nothing is known about her stage performances, but all the more about her erotic qualities. She attained notoriety as mistress of Antonius [I 9]: before his marriage to Fulvia in 47 she accompanied him on his public appearances in an open litter (Cic. Att. 10,10,5; Plut. Antonius 9,7). Cicero …

Cytherus

(179 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κύθηρος; Kýthēros). Attic paralia(?) deme of the Pandionis phyle, from 307/6 to 201 BC of the Antigonis; supplied two bouleutaí. According to Str. 9,1,20, one of the locations belonging to the Attic dodecapolis. Its localisation near Poussi Kalojerou by Traill [3] is methodologically unsustainable; Dem. Or. 42 suggests a site near a city, in a wooded area. In IG II2 2496 three houses belonging to the deme of C. in Piraeus are leased by otherwise unattested Meritai [4. 383 no. 72]. A cult association between Trikomoi, Erchia and C. can scarcely be deduced from IG II2 1213…

Cythnus

(317 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κύθνος; Kýthnos, Lat. Cythnus, the modern Thermia). Island in the western  Cyclades (86 km2): 21 km long, 11 km wide; a monotonous, undulating plain (height 200 to 350 m.), predominantly slate. Its rugged coastline offers no good harbours. Two hot springs, already active in Roman times, are situated near Lutra on the north coast. C. is little fertile, short of water and virtually without trees. In antiquity C. was known for its fine cheese (Poll. 6,63; Eust. in Dionys. Per. 525; Plin. HN 13,134; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kythnos). Finds in a Mesolithic-Neolithic cemete…

Cytissorus

(90 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κυτί(σ)σωρος; Kytí(s)sōros). C.'s parents are  Phrixus and Chalciope [2], a daughter of  Aeetes; grandson of  Athamas, king of the Minyae (Apoll. Rhod. 2,1148ff.; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,388; Apollod. 1,83), whom he rescues from being sacrificed when he returns from Aeetes to his homeland, Thessalian Achaea. Athamas was to have been sacrificed to  Zeus Laphystios as an act of atonement. C. having rescued his grandfather, the curse remains on his descendants (Hdt. 7,197). In Sophocles (schol. Aristoph. Nub. 257) it is Heracles who rescues Athamas. Frey, Alexandra …

Cytorus

(90 words)

Author(s): Marek, Christian (Zürich)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Κύτωρος; Kýtōros). Port ( empórion) in a sheltered bay east of  Amastris [4] on the Black Sea coast of Paphlagonia; the modern Gideruz. The bay with its heavily wooded (boxwood) cliffs is overlooked by the mountain of the same name. A foundation of  Sinope, C. was taken into the synoikismós of Amastris in 300 BC. Marek, Christian (Zürich) Bibliography Ch. Marek, Stadt, Ära und Territorium in Pontus-Bithynia und Nord-Galatia, 1993, 17f. L. Robert, À travers l'Asie Mineure, 1980, 147-150.

Cyttarinii

(98 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Κυτατταρῖνοι; Kytattarĩnoi). Community in the interior of Sicily; not located. Along with the Petrini and the Scherini the koinón of the C. paid a tax in wheat and barley to the synoikismós of  Entella [1. 264f. no. 208: 5th decree, l. 20]. In 254 BC the C. joined the Roman side in the 1st Punic War (Ἠνατταρῖνοι, Diod. Sic. 23,18,5). Ruined by Verres ( Cetarini, Cic. Verr. 2,3,103). Cf. [2]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 L. Dubois, Inscriptions grecques dialectales de Sicile, 1989 2 G. Bejor, Città di Sicilia nei decreti di Entella…

Cyzicus

(461 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | | Asia Minor | Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Delian League | Education / Culture (Κύζικος; Kýzikos). City in Mysia on the south coast of the  Propontis on the isthmus of the Arktonnesos (Kapıdağ) peninsula; the modern Balkız, to the east of Erdek. C. owed its prosperity to its double harbour and large territory (cf. the description with the city's location at Str. 12,8,11). From the beginning of coinage down to …

Cyzistra

(39 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Κύζιστρα; Kýzistra). Town and Byzantine fortress in the Cappadocian strategia of Cilicia (Ptol. 5,6,15), the modern Zengibar Kalesı, 56 km south-south-west of  Caesarea. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 219f.

Czech Republic

(9,406 words)

Author(s): Vidmanová, Anežka | Martínková, Dana | Svatoš, Martin | Stehlíková, Eva | Hošek, Radislav | Et al.
Vidmanová, Anežka [German version] I. Antiquity in the medieval culture of Bohemian countries (CT) In the Middle Ages, knowledge of Antiquity found its way to the countries of the Bohemian Kingdom only indirectly and through intermediaries. The spread of this knowledge was largely due, on the one hand, to Bohemians educated in foreign countries who, after completing their studies, brought home ancient literary works or books dealing with the problems of Antiquity and, on the other hand, to those who spent tim…
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