Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Cyaneae

(390 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Κυανέαι). [German version] [1] Two rocky islands Two small rocky islands directly to the west of the confluence of the Bosporus and the  Pontus Euxinus, 2.3 km north of Garipçe Burnu, 100 m in front of the lighthouse of Rumelifeneri, modern İreke Taşı. In Greek myths they were identified with the dangerous  Symplegades or  Planctae (Hom. Od. 16,176; Apoll. Rhod. 2,317ff.). Here there was a shrine (Hdt. 4,85). Pompey built an altar in honour of Apollo here [1. 28f., 35-39]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography 1 R. Güngerich (ed.), Gryllius, De Bosporo Thracic…

Cyanippus

(181 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Κυάνιππος, ‘Black horse’). [German version] [1] King of Argus King of Argus, son of Aegialeus and of Comaetho, descendant of Bias (Paus. 2,18,4; 30,10). According to Apollodor (1,103), C. is the son of  Adrastus [1] and brother of  Aegialeus [1]. Pausanias confuses his family tree: he speaks about four generations and five rulers but does not include C. among these, as the rulers cannot be called Nēleídai until Talaus (whose mother is a daughter of Neleus). Pausanias includes Diomedes as C.'s guardian as he assumes rule for C. who was a minor [1]. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2…

Cyathus

(133 words)

Author(s): Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover)
[German version] A jug or drinking vessel that, derived from Greek κύαθος, is especially a Roman measure of capacity for dry goods and liquids of 45.6 ml. The cyathus amounts to 1/12 of the sextarius (= 0,55 l). The number of cyathi drunk is counted as a multiple of uncia, e.g. four cyathi are called trientes (= 1/3 of the sextarius) or 11 cyathi are called deunx. According to a Roman custom popular at banquets, people had to drink as many cyathi as the number of letters in the name of the one to be honoured. Larger goblets were also used that were a multiple of the cyathus.  Deun…

Cyaxares

(438 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Κυαξάρης, ancient Persian Uvaxštra-, etymology uncertain). [German version] [1] Median king of the 7th or 6th cent. BC Median ‘king’ of the 7th/6th cents. BC. In the Median lógos of Herodotus (Hdt. 1,73f.; 103-107) C. appears as τύραννος/ týrannos or βασιλεύς/ basileús of the Medes, as the son of  Phraortes, grandson of  Deioces and father of  Astyages. During his 40-year reign, he is said -- after a Scythian interregnum -- to have conquered the Assyrians and to have fought against Alyattes of Lydia (probably for possession of Cappado…

Cybebe

(8 words)

see Cybele

Cybele

(2,723 words)

Author(s): Takacs, Sarolta A. (Cambridge, MA)
(Κυβέλη; Kybélē, Lat. Cybele, -a) is the goddess of fertility, city protectress (expressed in the mural crown), prophetess and healer. A. Asia Minor [German version] 1. Bronze Age The alternative form of the name Cybebe (Κυβήβη, Lat. Cybebe) allows us to equate the goddess of Asia Minor of the 1st millennium BC with the goddess Kubaba known from Hittite, Hurrian and Sumerian-Akkadian sources [1]. One of the most important centres for the worship of this goddess in the 2nd millennium was Hittite  Karkemiš/Karkamis [2] situ…

Cybistra

(73 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Ḫattusa (Κύβιστρα; Kýbistra). Town in  ‘Cataonia at the end of the road from the Cilician Gates across the Taurus, later also called Heraclea; modern Tont Kalesı, 13 km south-east of Ereğli; belonged later to  Cappadocia II. It was a diocese from AD 325 and an archdiocese from c. 1060. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Kybistra, RE Suppl. 4, 1123 Hild/Restle, 188-190.

Cychreus

(145 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Κυχρεύς; Kychreús). Protective hero of the island of Salamis. Son of  Poseidon and Salamis, the daughter of Asopus (Paus. 1,35,2). He liberates the Island of  Salamis from a dreadful snake, thus making it habitable and becomes the first inhabitant and king of the island. As he has no sons, he transfers rule to  Telamon, who is fleeing from Aegina, and gives him his daughter Glauce in marriage (Apollod. 3,161; Diod. Sic. 4,72,7). C. had a shrine on the island (Plut. Solon 9) and wa…

Cyclades

(600 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κυκλάδες νῆσοι; Kykládes nêsoi, Latin Cyclades, ‘circle islands’). The modern term refers to the southern Aegean group comprising a total of more than 200 islands between the Greek mainland and the Cretan sea with the exception of the islands off the western coast of Asia Minor which essentially concurs with the original ancient concept (Hdt. 5,30). Thucydides (1,4; 2,9,4) considers that Melos and Thera belong to it, Scylax (48; 58) includes Thera, Anaphe and Astypalaea and only exclu…

Cycliadas

(108 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Κυκλιάδας; Kykliádas). Strategos of the Achaean League in 209 and 200 BC, as an exponent of the Macedon-friendly faction, he supported  Philippus V in 209 against Elis (Liv. 27,31,10), but adroitly rejected his offer of help against  Nabis in 200 (Liv. 31,25,3; 9f.; [1. 165-168]). Banished after the change toward Rome (Liv. 32,19,2; [2. 40f.]), C. was at the disposal of the king as an envoy to T.  Quinctius Flamininus in Nicaea (198) (Pol. 18,1,2; Liv. 32,32,10) and after the defeat of Cynoscephalae (197) (Pol. 18,34,4). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 …

Cyclopes

(334 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Greek Κύκλωπες; Kýklōpes, singular Κύκλωψ; Kýklōps, Latin Cyclopes, singular Cyclops; etymology see below). C. is the term used to describe about 18 groups or individual figures in Greek myth who differ not just in their descent and location but also in their outward form and characteristics. As early as antiquity, Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 88) was the first to undertake systematization and to attempt to trace them back to a single ancestor, Cyclops, son of  Uranus and/or the king of Thrace (Schol. Eur. Or. 965). People distinguished in particular between: 1. the C. w…

Cycnus

(327 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Κύκνος; Kýknos, Latin Cygnus; ‘swan’). Name of several heroes whose common element is their relationship with swans. Among these the most important are: [German version] [1] Son of Ares and Pelopea Son of  Ares and of Pelopea (Apollod. 2,5,11: the Pyrene), king of Amphanae, husband of Themistonoe. In the grove of Apollo in Thessalonian Pagasae, C. robs pilgrims travelling to Delphi and invites them to participate in chariot races which he always wins (detailed narration [Hes.] scut. 57ff.). He kills the losers and decorates …

Cydantidae

(82 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυδαντίδαι; Kydantídai). Attic mesogeia(?)-deme of the phyle Aegeis, from 224/3 BC of Ptolemaïs; placed one (two) bouleutaí. Location unknown; Vurva [1. 173; 4. 24ff.], Kato Charvati [2], Mendeli [3 have been suggested. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Siewert, Die Trittyen Attikas und die Heeresreform des Kleisthenes, 1982 2 Traill, Attica 15f., 41, 62, 69, 111 no. 79, pl. 2, 13 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 128 with n. 17 4 E. Vanderpool, The Location of the Attic Deme Erchia, in: BCH 89, 1965, 21-26.

Cydathenaeum

(173 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυδαθήναιον; Kydathénaion, Κυδαθηναιείς; Kydathenaieís). Great and only asty-deme of the phyle Pandionis, from 307/6 to 201 BC of Antigonis, had 11 (12) bouleutaí; in the centre of Athens north of the Acropolis to the Eridanus, west to the Agora. For the 5th cent. BC there is evidence of a sanctuary and thiasotai of Hercules on the Eridanus. The tanneries ibid. (IG II2 1556, 33ff.; 1576, 5ff.; SEG 18, 36 B9) are considered by Lind [1] to be the cause of the enmity felt by  Aristophanes [3] towards the tannery owner Cleon; both originate fr…

Cydias

(426 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κυδίας; Kydías). [German version] [1] Erotic poet Erotic poet, quotes from Pl. Chrm. 155d, mentioned by Plut. Mor. 931e. He was obviously popular in Athens as he is depicted as a komast on a red-figured dish (Munich 2614) and on a psykter (London, BM E767) from c. 500 BC [1. 12-13]. He may perhaps be identical with Cydidas of Hermione referred to by Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 967 [2. 215]. Possibly (rather improbable) he is the dithyramb poet Cedeides/Ceceides mentioned by Aristoph. Nub. 985 (with schol.) [3]. Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) Bibliography 1 K. Friis Johansen, Eine Dithyrambos-A…

Cydippe

(316 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Κυδίππη; Kydíppē, Latin Cydippe). [German version] [1] Wife of Acontius According to Xenomedes (FGrH 442 T 2; F 1), Callimachus (fr. 67-75) tells how Acontius elicits from C., through an inscription on an apple (a quince: Aristaen. 1,10,26; on the apple-throwing motif: [1]), the vow that she will marry him. Attempts by the father Ceyx that came to nothing to marry C. to someone else lead to the Delphic oracle recommending Acontius as the son-in-law. Through the union the house of Acontiades is founded in…

Cydnus

(123 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κύδνος; Kýdnos). Aside from Pyramus and Sarus, the third large river of the Kilikia Pedias. In front of its estuary it formed the so-called Ῥῆγμα ( Rhêgma, ‘chasm’), a lagoon that served as the harbour of  Tarsus and originally flowed through Tarsus, before it was diverted, after a flood, by Justinian I eastward around the town (Procop. Aed. 5,5,17). After bathing in its cold waters (impressive waterfalls north of Tarsus) Alexander the Great fell gravely ill (Arr. Anab. 2,4,7). In the Middle Ages C. was c…

Cydonia

(357 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Crete | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Κυδωνία; Kydonía). Town in north-western Crete, now Chania, according to Str. 10,4,7 the third biggest town on the island (cf. Flor. 1,42,4). According to legend, its establishment can be traced back to  Minos and his son Cydon (Diod. Sic. 5,78,2; Paus. 8,53,4). Th…

Cylaces

(95 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] More correctly perhaps Gylakes (Armenian Głak), Armenian eunuch and ‘head gentleman-in-waiting’ ( Hajr mardpet). After C. had temporarily changed over to the Persian side, he attempted from AD 368 onwards, together with the ‘regent’ ( hazarapet)  Artabannes [1], to protect the interests of young king  Pap and to limit the power of the higher nobility and the Church. Around 370 Sapor II induced Pap, through secret messages, to murder his ministers and to have their heads sent to him (Amm. Marc. 27,12; 30,1,3). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography J. Markwart, S…
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