Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Coabis

(62 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] Road junction in the Jordan valley (Χωβα, Jdt 4,4; Χωβαι, Jdt 15,4), according to the Tabula Peutingeriana 12 miles from  Scythopolis and 12 miles away from  Archelais, but in view of the total distance between those two locations ( c. 50 miles) that cannot be the case and so it is unlocated. Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) Bibliography TIR/IP 105, s.v. C.

Coactores

(244 words)

Author(s): Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[German version] The coactores, first mentioned in Cato (Agr. 150), were tasked with collecting revenue. They had an intermediary function between creditors and debtors. For the most part they were active at auctions, partly in collaboration with argentarii. They conducted the tabulae auctionariae and received a fee that mostly amounted to one per cent of the sale price. Several indicators suggest that their occupation disappeared in the course of the 2nd cent. AD. The theory that the coactores and the coactores argentarii were identical is not convincing. The coactores argentarii s…

Coae Vestes

(160 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Luxury  clothing from the island of Cos, with a transparent effect. They were known as early as Aristotle (Hist. an. 5,19; cf. Plin. HN 4,62) and received special mention during the Roman Imperial period.They were regarded as luxury clothing for demi-mondaines (e.g. Hor. Sat. 1,2,101; Tib. 2,3,57) but were also worn by men as light summer clothing. The sheen, purple colouring and decoration in gold thread, i.a. were highly esteemed. The fabric was woven from the raw silk of the bombyx ( Silk,  Butterfly), whose cocoons produced only short thread…

Coal-pan

(4 words)

see  Heating

Coastline, changes in

(439 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] The course of coastlines and the character of coastal landscapes are constantly being changed by the interplay of eustatic variations in sea level, tectonically caused instances of eruption and subsidence, deposits of sediment from rivers, alluvia from the sea, volcanoes and related bradyseism (e.g. in Puteoli), sea currents, wind, breakers and tides. Bearing this in mind can be important for evaluating particular historical events. Thus, for example, the coastal strip at  Thermop…

Cobades

(4 words)

see  Cavades

Cobbler

(737 words)

Author(s): Burford Cooper, Alison
[German version] I. Introduction and terminology As is shown by the numerous literary allusions and references, ancient society was well acquainted with the craft of the cobbler (Aristoph. Lys. 414-419; Xen. Cyr. 8,2,5; Herodas 7; Hor. Sat. 2,3,106; Lucian, Gallus). Its usefulness was recognized: the cobbler was among Plato's craftsmen of the original polis (Pl. Resp. 369d; cf. 370a; 370d; 370e). Although shoes will certainly also have been manufactured and repaired in the private household (Hom. Od. 14,22 ff.; Hes. Op. 541 f.; Theophr. Char. 4,15…

Cocalus

(119 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κώκαλος; Kṓkalos; Lat. Cocalus). Mythical king, who took over control of Sicily after the destruction of the  Cyclopes (Just. Epit. 4,2,2). He allowed  Daedalus [1], who was fleeing from the Cretan king  Minos, into the city  Camicus (in Paus. 7,4,6 Inykos), as also Minos who was pursuing him; the latter, however, he then had killed in a shower of hot water (schol. Hom. Il. 2,145; Apollod. [see authors/works] 1,14f.) that his daughters poured down on him through the bathroom ceili…

Cocceianus

(6 words)

see  Cassius [III 1]

Cocceius

(616 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Auctus, L. Architect, late 1st cent. BC Freedman of C. Postumius (Pollio). Architect (CIL X 1614), who constructed the road tunnels between Lake Avernus and Cumae and between Puteoli and Naples for M. Vipsanius  Agrippa [1] (Str. 5,5,245). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Benario, C. and Cumae, in: CB 35, 1959, 40-41 D. Kienast, Augustus, 1982, 347 fn. 148, 348 fn. 153. [German version] [2] C.C. Balbus Cos. suff. 39 BC Cos. suff. in 39 BC (InscrIt 13,1, p. 282; 291; 278; 135; 506; MRR 2, 386). As a supporter of M.  Antonius he was …

Coccygium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοκκύγιον ὄρος; Kokkýgion ŕos). ‘Cuckoo mountain’, another name for the mountain Thornax, west of  Hermion(e) on the Argolid headland, with sanctuaries of Zeus and Apollo; today's Hagios Elias. References: Paus. 2,36,1f.; schol. Theoc. 15,64. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Foley, The Argolid 800-600 B.C., 1988, 184.

Cochlear(e)

(173 words)

Author(s): Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Spoon, smallest unit of Roman hollow measures (χήμη, chḗmē, ‘Spoon’). Smallest unit of Roman hollow measures, especially for medicines. Exceptionally, cochlear(e) is calculated differently: in the Carmen de ponderibus as 1/6 of the mystum (1.9 ml); in Isidorus (Orig. 16,25) the cochlear(e) amounts to 2.3 ml.  Acetabulum;  Amphora;  Congius;  Culleus;  Cyathus;  Hemina;  Hollow measures;  Modius;  Quadrantal;  Quartarius;  Semodius;  Sextarius;  Urna 1 cochlear   11.4 ml 4 cochlearia 1 cyathus 45.5 ml 6 cochlearia 1 acetabulum 68.2 ml 12 cochlearia 1 qua…

Cock

(4 words)

see  Chicken

Cockfighting

(455 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Stefan (Hagen)
[German version] A. Spread and popularity Cockfighting is attested from the 5th cent. BC to the Roman Imperial period (earliest evidence in Pind. Ol. 12,14, latest in Hdn. 3,10,3). It was especially popular with the Greeks [1. 117; 2. 82-92]: fighting cocks were considered an ideal example of the will to win (Ael. VH 2,28); it is in that light that they are depicted on the Panathenaean prize amphorae [3. 34] ( Panathenaean amphorae); in Aesch. Eum. 861 they symbolize martial anger (the cock as ‘the bi…

Cockroach

(253 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] English name for the representatives of the Blattaria order of insects which can be found throughout the world in c. 3,000 types since the Carboniferous, one of them the German cockroach Blatella germanica. The Latin name is usually blatta; in Isid. Orig. 12,8,7, however, this name is used for a type of butterfly ─ actually a moth whose name was derived from its colour: when touched, its wings leave a blackish-blue spot on the hand ( blatteum colorem, ‘crimson’). In this text, the only zoological piece of information about the animal is its aversion to lig…

Cocles

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] ‘The one-eyed’ (Enn. Scaen. 67f. V.2 in Varro, Ling. 7,71; Plin. HN 11,150), used as a nickname. Cognomen of  Horatius C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography A. Hug, s.v. Spitznamen, RE 3A, 1828.

Cocondrius

(99 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Κοκόνδριος; Kokóndrios). Greek rhetor of undetermined date (probably Byzantine); a slim treatise on tropes ( trópoi) is extant. These are at the beginning systematically divided into three groups ( génē), namely trópoi referring to an individual word (e.g. onomatopoeia), to the whole sentence (e.g. allegory), or to both (e.g. hyperbaton). In elaboration C. does not adhere strictly to this system but deals with other types as well. For example, poets are quoted exclusively: Homer, as well as Alcaeus, the tragedians, and Theoc.  Style, figures of style;  trope Weißen…

Cocytus

(202 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κωκυτός; Kōkytós, Lat. Cocytus). [German version] [1] River of the Underworld ‘River of lamentation’ (cf. κωκύειν, ‘to weep, lament’). According to Paus. 1,17,5 from Homer onwards one of the rivers of the Underworld, named after the Thesprotic C. [1. 76]. It is fed from the  Styx and flows with the Pyriphlegeton into the  Acheron [2] (Hom. Od. 10,513f.); in Virgil the Acheron flows into the C. (Verg. Aen. 6,296f.). According to Pl. Phd., the C. flows around in a circle and empties into the  Tartarus (113b…

Code

(4 words)

see  Cryptography

Codex

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Cavallo, Guglielmo (Rome) | Voß, Wulf Eckart (Osnabrück)
I. Cultural history [German version] A. Wood tablet-codex The codex (from codex, ‘tree trunk’, ‘wood’) was originally a stack of wooden tablets prepared for writing on. Writing-tablets, together with papyrus scrolls, are attested in Pharaonic Egypt from very early on, as also in the Near East (tablets are extant from at least the 8th cent. BC). They are also attested (likewise indirectly) from as early as archaic and classical Greece; the earliest extant finds in Greek date to the Hellenistic period. For t…
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