Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Palas

(93 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Region in which boundary markers separated the territories of the Burgundiones and the Romans, also called Capellatium; hither, Iulianus [11] led a campaign against the Alamanni on the right bank of the Rhine river in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,2,15). P. should probably be localised around Öhringen northeast of Heilbronn. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography P. Goessler s.v. P., RE 18.2, 2516-2528  W. Dahlheim, Capellatium, in: RGA 4, 1980, 338f.  L. Jacob, I. Ulmann, Kommentar zu Ammianus, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Früh…

Palatini

(386 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The term 'palatini' was used since the 4th cent. AD as a designation for those serving in a military or civil capacity at court ( palatium) or in close association with it. Among the palatini of the militia armata were the soldiers of the scholae palatinae and also those of the elite troops first attested in 365, but probably already separated from the comitatenses around 320. We know from the notitia dignitatum of 157 units of palatini, most of whom came under the jurisdiction of the magistri militum praesentales ( magister militum ); however, in the…

Palatium

(6 words)

see Mons Palatinus; Palace

Pale

(77 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Πάλη/ Pálē). Town west of Cephallenia on the Paliki peninsula north of modern Lixuri. Hdt. 9,28,5 confuses Παλέες/ Palées with αλεῖοι/ Waleíoi, 'citizens of Elis', when mentioning the involvement of the troops of P. in the battle of Plataeae in 479 BC. There are hardly any ancient remains. Inscriptions: IG IX 1, 645f.; Coins: BMC, Gr (Peloponnese) 84-88. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)

Pales

(428 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] Deity of shepherds and herds. In the pastoral Latin literature (e.g. Verg. Ecl. 5,36; Calp. Ecl. 4,106) and in classical texts on Roman religion (Varro in Gell. NA 13,23,4; Ov. Fast. 4,723ff.) P. is female. However a male P. is documented as well (Varro in Serv. Georg. 3,1). The entry of the 7th July in the late Republican Fasti antiates maiores: Palibus II (InscrIt 13,2 p. 14) and Varro Rust. 2,5,1: Palibus point to the existence of two P.s [1] and could be a further indication of a male P. [2.101f.]. In order to avoid the assumption that two deitie…

Palestinian-Aramaic

(211 words)

Author(s): Voigt, Rainer (Berlin)
[German version] PA (or Syropalestinian) was the literary language of the Christian Melcitian population in Palaestina (hence it is usually referred to as Christian Palestinian Aramaic). Together with Samaritan Aramaic and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, it belonged to the western dialects of Central Aramaic (from the 3rd cent. AD onwards). There are two periods in the tradition: from the period when this Western Aramaic dialect was still spoken (5th-8th cent. AD), we have literary testimonials (parts…

Palice

(201 words)

Author(s): Messina, Aldo (Triest)
[German version] (Παλική; Palikḗ). City in Sicily, founded by Ducetius in 453 BC near the sanctuary of the Palici as a centre of the kingdom of the Siculi by moving Menainon to the plain (Diod. Sic. 11,88,6). When Diod. Sic. 12,29,2-4 reports on the destruction of the city of Thrinacia in 440 BC by Syracusae, the reference is possibly to P. (cf. Diod. Sic. 11,90,2; [1]). After P. was rebuilt, it was a flourishing city right through to the early Hellenistic period. In the 2nd cent. BC, it was abando…

Palici

(318 words)

Author(s): Lamboley, Jean-Luc (Grenoble)
[German version] (Παλικοί/ Palikoí, Lat. Palici). The P. are twin deities who came from indigenous Sicily and lived in Siculian territory. Their history is nly known to us from literary sources. According to Aeschylus' Aetnaeae , they were sons of Zeus and Thalia, the daughter of Hephaestus. In order to protect herself from Hera's jealousy, Thalia hid in the earth; at birth the children emerged from the earth like resurrected people (their name means 'they who return'). The sanctuary of P. was identified in 1962, close to the lak…

Palilia

(5 words)

see Pales; Parilia

Palimbothra

(199 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | India, trade with | Mauryas (Παλίμβοθρα/ Palímbothra, also Παλίβοθρα/ Palíbothra; name derived from an early Middle Indian form of Old Indian Pāṭaliputra [1. 34]). City of the Prasii, located in a position favourable for communications in the densely populated state of Magadha at the confluence of the Son and Ganges in modern Patna in Bihar. Made by Sandracottus the capital city of the Maurya empire (Mauryas), often mention…

Palimpsest

(350 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (παλίμψηστος/ palímpsēstos [βίβλος/ bíblos or χάρτης/ chártēs], lat. codex rescriptus). A 're-scraped' book, papyrus or parchment leaf, prepared for renewed writing after its first text was scraped off. The first text was either wiped off with a sponge or scraped away with pumice stone. This method was already used in Egypt (e.g. PBerlin 3024, 12th dynasty, from c. 2000 BC), and was also standard practice in later periods, out of thrift (Cic. Fam. 7,18,2) or lack of virgin papyrus or parchment (cf. Catull. 22,5). Plutarch (Mor. 779c, 50…

Palindikia

(270 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (παλινδικία; palindikía). 'Once more raising a legal action in the same matter', cf. anadikía and the underlying words (ἀνὰ/ anà and πάλιν δικάζειν/ pálin dikázein). The criticism levelled against advocates ( logográphos), to have obtained a palindikía through trickery (Plut. Demosthenes 61; Poll. 8,26), did not always have to take a rupturing of material legal power ( paragraphḗ ) into account, but could also relate to the fact that that a legal claim was prosecuted with a variety of actions, as was permissible in Ath…

Palindrome

(274 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] In literary theory a palindrome, corresponding to παλίνδρομος ( palíndromos, 'running backwards'), denotes a sequence of letters - a word, sentence or verse ( versus supinus, recurrens; [2. 278f.] on Mart. 2,86,1-2; cf. Sid. Epist. 9,14,4-6) - that can also be read backwards with the same or a different sense, occasionally resulting also in the same or a different verse. A palindrome in the strict sense corresponds to itself mirror-wise from the middle outwards. Thus in Late Antiquity 'crab verse' (καρκίνος/ karkínos or καρκινωτόν/ karkinōtón) was a familiar for…

Palinodia

(113 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
[German version] (παλινῳδία/ palinōidía). Poem by Stesichorus in which he withdrew the vituperation of Helen [1] because of which he had lost his eyesight (192 PMGF). This 'revocation' is said to have restored his vision. Stesichorus withdrew his report that Helen had travelled to Troy and appears instead to have introduced the story that she had spent the war years in Egypt. There were apparently two palinodies (193 PMGF). Later the term was used for any type of revocation (cf. for instance Cic. Att. 4,5,1). Chiastically arranged songs (a b : b a) are also called 'palinodic' (H…

Palinurus

(175 words)

Author(s): Bove, Annalisa (Pisa)
[German version] (Παλίνουρος; Palínouros). The modern Capo Palinuro on the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy (Str. 6,1,1; Cass. Dio 49,1: Παλίνουρον; Plin. HN 3,71: promunturium Palinurum). Ancient literature mostly associates its name with the helmsman of Aeneas (Aeneas [1]) who was shipwrecked here (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,53,2; Verg. Aen. 6,337ff.; Mela 2,69; Sol. 2,13). The idea that there was a city P. is supported by silver staters with the inscription PAL-MOL that lead us to assume that P. and Molpe were Hellenized Italian settlements in the sphere of influence of Sybaris. Archaeologica…

Palla

(4 words)

see Pallium

Palladas

(329 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Παλλαδᾶς; Palladâs). Important exponent of pre-Byzantine epigrammatic poetry and probably the author of a collection of mostly satirical epigrams (cf. Anthology E.); he lived in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD in Alexandria (numerous allusions to an Egyptian context in P,. whose name appears on several occasions with the ethnikon Ἀλεξανδρεύς/ Alexandreús). Dating is made possible by Anth. Pal. 11,292 (attack on Themistius, in 384 praefectus urbi of Constantinople); 10,90 (presumably written after the destruction of the Serapeum in 391, cf. 9,37…

Palladion, Palladium

(616 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] (Παλλάδιον/ Palládion, Latin Palladium). A statue that guaranteed the protection of a city [1]. The most famous one is the Palladion of Troy, which already in Antiquity had been connected etymologically to Pallas [3] (Apollod. 3,12,3) and was claimed to have fallen from the sky (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 179; Dion. Hal. Ant. 2,66,5; Ov. Fast. 6,421f.) and to have been brought by Dardanus [1] to Troy as Athena's gift (Dion. Hal. Ant. 1,68f.) or as a gift from Zeus (Iliupersis PEG I fr. 1). …

Palladius

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Παλλάδιος; Palládios). [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, 4th cent. Greek rhetor of the first half of the 4th cent. AD (Suda s.v. P. gives his prime as under Constantinus [1] I) from Methone (probably the Messenian one). According to the Suda, in addition to declamations he wrote in all three rhetorical genres ( genera dicendi ) and also an antiquarian work on the festivals of the Romans (FGrH F 837). Whether P. is identical with one of the numerous Palladii mentioned in the letters of Libanius and if …

Pallake

(328 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Elke (Berlin)
[German version] (παλλακή; pallakḗ). The word pallakḗ (Epic παλλακίς/ pallakís) has the basic meaning  “girl”. In Homer a woman living with an already married man, who has come into the house as a prisoner of war or a slave, is called a pallakís (Hom. Il. 9,449; 9,452; Hom. Od. 14,199ff.; cf. 4,10ff.). By the 5th cent. BC, Herodotus is using the term pallakḗ in the sense of “concubine” (cf. e.g. Hdt. 1,84,3; 1,136,1). In the 5th and 4th cents. BC a pallakḗ was a woman who, without a formal marriage agreement, lived permanently with a married or unmarried man; monogamous …
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