Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Paintings on Historical Subjects

(7,022 words)

Author(s): Scharf, Friedhelm (Kassel RWG)
Scharf, Friedhelm (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) History painting (HP) occupies an exceptional position among pictorial genres that was first acknowledged during the Early Renaissance by Leon Battista Alberti in De Pictura (1435) [1]. In his tract that proved so fundamental for art theory, Alberti was referring to 'narrative painting' in its entirety, which could take its themes from such diverse sources as Christian iconography and pagan mythology, literature and history. However, Classical Greek or Roman t…

Paintings on historical subjects

(717 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] In Egyptian art, the illustration of historical events constitutes a rare exception; stylized motifs, such as the king slaying enemies, must be understood as timeless and are used as unchanging topoi over the centuries in various pictorial media. The insufficient material remains, art-theoretical texts and literature from ancient Greece relating to the painting of historical subjects do not permit a precise definition of ancient historical painting, in analogy to the modern term f…

Pakistan; Gandhara Art

(3,006 words)

Author(s): Barlovits, Regina
Barlovits, Regina [German version] A. Terminology (CT) Gandhara denotes on the one hand a geographical and on the other a cultural-historical landscape. The region of Gandhara - the boundaries of which are not precisely defined - lies in the north of modern Pakistan, stretching along the Indus northward from Taxila, then along the Kabul River as far as the Khyber Pass, the present-day frontier between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Its heartland is formed by the region around Peshawar, perhaps also the cou…

Palace

(3,814 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] I. Terminology and Definition The modern term ‘palace’ is derived from the Palatine (Mons Palatinus), one of Rome’s seven hills, on which the residences of the Roman emperors were located. Palaces are buildings that a ruler uses as a residence and for representation. Depending on additional functions, they could have other names in Antiquity, relating to their respective use. Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) II. Ancient Near East [German version] A. Structural History In the Ancient Near East and Egypt, the palace was originally a house with considerably expa…

Palace style

(5 words)

see Pottery

Palacium

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Παλάκιον; Palákion). Scythian fortress in the steppe region of the Crimea (Str. 7,4,7); together with the fortified settlements Chabon and Neapolis it was founded by Scilurus and his sons (Str. 7,4,3). The Scythians used P. as a base against Mithridates [5] V. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 309.

Palaemon

(4 words)

see Melicertes

Palaeography, Greek

(870 words)

Author(s): Eleuteri, Paolo (Venice) | Pradel, Marina Molin
[English version] The term palaeography was first used by the Benedictine Bernard de Montfaucon in his work Palaeographia graeca, which appeared in 1708 and opened the way for modern research into the history of Greek writing with its description of modes of operation as well as of methods. Yet Montfaucon initially received little recognition and it was not until approximately a century later that a work by Friedrich Jacob Bast [1] appeared with the actual analysis of Greek writing as its subject. For almost the …

Palaeography, Latin

(1,065 words)

Author(s): Eleuteri, Paolo (Venice) | Marchioli, Nicoletta Giovè
[English version] From its beginnings, palaeography was regarded as an auxiliary discipline - useful and even indispensable for deciphering and dating manuscripts and documents. It was understood this way by Daniel Van Papenbroeck [8. I-LII] and Jean Mabillon [4], whose works, dealing mainly with diplomatics, mark the beginning of scholarly occupation with the history of the Latin writing system [2]. The term palaeography was coined by the Maurist Bernard de Montfaucon [7]. Soon enough, the new di…

Palaeologan Renaissance

(1,038 words)

Author(s): De Faveri, Lorena (Venice)
The P.R. is one of the most significant phases in terms of the cultural history of the Byzantine empire, during which the engagement with classical texts reached its peak. [German version] A. Overview In 1261 the dominion of the Latins (1204-1261) over Constantinople (s. also Byzantium) ended. The emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos (1259-1282) tried to effect an influential political position for the Byzantine empire once more, but his military and financial resources were almost exhausted (one of the reasons for the eventual fal…

Palaephatus

(655 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Παλαίφατος/ Palaíphatos, 'the one who tells old stories'). Passed down to us under this pseudonym was the collection Περὶ ἀπίστων/ Perì apístōn ( On Incredible Things) containing 52 short chapters about the same number of myths. The Suda records under P. four people with this name. The first is an epic poet from Athens, author of a cosmogony; the second comes, according to Suda, from Paros or Priene (Πριηνεύς/ Priēneús probably incorrect instead of Παριανεύς/ Parianeús, i.e. 'from Parion': the encyclopaedia therefore fluctuates perhaps between the island…

Palaepolis

(192 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] (Παλαίπολις; Palaípolis). Probably a fort of Cyme [2] (Liv. 8,22,5), possibly the original name of Neapolis [2]. P. is particularly the nickname of Parthenope, the original centre of Naples on the Pizzofalcone. In 327 BC (Liv. 8,22,8), P. was occupied by the Roman consul Q. Publilius Philo who on that account celebrated a triumph a year later (CIL I2 p. 171; Liv. 8,22,8; 23,1-8; 25,10; 26,7). In 1949 a necropolis was excavated in the via Nicotera in Naples whose first phase is characterized by Greek ceramics from the mid-7th cent. BC to the first half of the 6th cent. BC. …

Palaerus

(286 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import (Πάλαιρος; Pálairos). City in western Acarnania, to the east of Leucas (Str. 10,2,21) on a mountain spur of the mostly impassable peninsula of Plagia, which at the time P. was at its zenith predominantly belonged to its territory; the name is Illyrian. The citadel in the modern district of Kechropoula (epigraphical identification: [2]) commands the fertile plain of Zaverda (modern P.) to the east and the south. In 431 BC the Corinthian town (πόλισμα/ pólisma) of Sollium and…

Palaeste

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Παλαίστη/ Palaíst ē). Town in Acroceraunia on the coast of Epirus, modern Palasë in Albania, where Caesar landed his troops during his Dyrrhachium campaign on 4 January 48 BC (Caes. B. Civ. 3,6,3; Luc. 5,460). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 125f.

Palaestina

(1,106 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] I. Name, geography, early history The Latin name P. originated from Greek Παλαιστίνη ( Palaistínē); the latter originated from Aramaic pelištaīn and Hebrew pelištīm, which was originally used to describe the settlement area of the Philistines in the south of the Near Eastern Mediterranean coast between Gaza and Carmel (likewise Egyptian prst/ pw-r-s-ṯ, 'foreign land of Philistaea', and Palaistínē in Hdt. 1,105; 3,5; 91; 7,89). P. was also mentioned as KUR pa-la-as-tú  in Neo-Assyrian sources since Adad-nirārī III (811-783 BC). The designation P. pa…

Palaic

(335 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] The language of the country of Plā (cuneiform Pa-la-a-) situated northwest of the Halys in Paphlagonia. It belongs to the Anatolian languages and is passed down from the 16th-15th cent. BC by the Hittites (Ḫattusa II, Hittite). The names of Plā and of neighbouring Tum(m)anna (Ḫattusa II , map), survive in the Greek regional names Blaē̈nḗ and Domanítis. It would therefore seem more accurate if the name of the language, which derives from Hittite Plaumnili- (derivation from the ethnic name Plaumen-*), were 'Plaic'. The extent of the area in which P. was spoken is…

Palaiste

(115 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (παλαιστή/ palaist ). Greek unit of length (a 'hand's width', cf. Latin palmus ) of 4 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi), corresponding to 1/4 foot. Extrapolating from the length of the underlying measurement, the foot (πούς/ pous ), the palaiste is between 68 and 87 mm long. This unit of measure, the dáktylos ('finger's width'), the σπιθαμή ( spithamḗ /'span') and the πῆχυς ( pêchys /'cubit') draw on the proportions of the human body. According to Herodotus 1 foot corresponds to 4 hands and a cubit to 6 hands (Hdt. 2,149,3). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsc…

Palaistra

(191 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (παλαίστρα, Latin palaestra). The palaistra developed in the 6th cent. BC as a core element of a gymnasium (with illustration) and, together with a dromos (an elongated running-track) and various long colonnades and covered walkways,  forms a  constitutive part of this type of architecture. A palaistra consists of a roughly square court, surrounded by a peristyle, and various suites of adjacent rooms. Palaistrai were used as places for wrestling; the associated rooms were used for exercising, changing and storing equipment. Greek palaistrai were public spaces,…

Palamedes

(482 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
(Παλαμήδης/ Palamḗdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Nauplius and Clymene (Π./ P., or Ταλαμήδης/ Talamḗdēs, Etr. Palmithe or Talmithe). Son of Nauplius [1] and Clymene [5] or Hesione [2], brother of Oeax (Apollod. 2,23; 3,15). The seemingly obvious etymological meaning of the name ('with skilful hands') becomes doubtful considering the Etruscan form talmithe (from Greek pálmys = basileús, 'king'). In Greek, P. is the epitome of the skilful inventor ( prṓtos heuretḗs ) [1] (cf. Pl. Phdr. 261d). He is attributed, for instance, with the invention…

Palantia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Principal town of the Vaccaei (ILS 6096; Plin. HN 3,26; Mela 2,88; It. Ant. 449; Παλλαντία/ Pallantía: Str. 3,4,13; App. Ill. 231 ( et al.); Ptol. 2,6,50; Orus. 7,40,8), modern Palencia on the Carrión river in Castilla la Vieja. P. was repeatedly besieged in vain by the Romans in the Celtiberian Wars (153-134 BC). After being subjugated, P. was one of the peregrine communities of the conventus Cluniensis (Plin. l.c.). In AD 409 the Vandals, Suebi and West Goths (Goti) advanced across of the territory of P., plundering as they went (Orus. l.c.): The city was destroyed by …
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