Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Paeum

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Παῖον; Paîon). Small town with well-preserved acropolis wall in western Arcadia in the spring- and vegetation-rich dale lying across the Ladon and Erymanthus valleys, modern Paleokastro, 400 m to the east of modern Neon Paos. In the early period P. was an independent polis (Hdt. 6,127), later it belonged to Cleitor and in the time of Pausanias (2nd century AD) it was desolate (8,23,9). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Arcadia, EAA 2. Suppl. vol. 1, 1994, 332  M. Jost, Villages de l'Arcadie antique, in: Ktema 11 (1986), 1990, 148f.  Jost, 45  Pritchet…

Pagae

(195 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Παγαί/ Pagaí, ethnic name Παγαῖος/ Pagaîos; Att. and lit. Πηγαί/ Pēgaí or Πηγαῖος/ Pēgaîos). Port city in Megaris on the Corinthian Gulf, identified with the remains of a fortified harbour settlement near what is today Alepochori. In 461 BC P. was occupied by the Athenians (Thuc. 1,103,4) who undertook marine operations from that location (Thuc. 1,111,2). During the 30-year peace the Athenians were forced to return P. to Megara [2] (Thuc. 1,115; cf. IG I3 1353). The fortunes of P. we…

Paganism

(7,378 words)

Author(s): Mohr, Hubert
Mohr, Hubert A. Concept and Theory (CT) [German version] 1. Concept (CT) Paganism is the modern, scholarly term for the intentional resumption ('reception') and resurgence ('revitalisation', 'reconstruction') of ancient, or ethnic, religious traditions or of their constituent parts (cults, myths, symbols), insofar as these occurred outside of Christianity and Judaism, and opposed the two. The underlying concept of Judeo-Christian polemic, 'heathenism', should be distinguished from the religious-historical …

Paganus

(510 words)

Author(s): Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] The Latin adjective paganus (variation paganicus), derived from pagus ('village', 'district') means 'rustic', 'rural', used as a noun 'farmer', 'villager'; it is only rarely used in a figurative sense ('countrified', 'illiterate') (Sidon. Epist. 8,16,3). Beginning in the 1st cent. AD it took on the meaning derived from military jargon of 'not belonging to the troop', 'set apart', 'outsider', 'non-soldier', 'civilian', 'citizen'. This meaning is found in Christian Latin literature only in Tertullian (De pallio 4); in De corona 11 he associates paganus with the …

Pagasae

(531 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles | Education / Culture (Παγασαί/ Pasagaí). City in Thessaly on the northern coast of the bay named after it, modern Neai Pagasai. Tradition maintains that before P. was founded, the site was dedicated to Apollo Pagasaeus, and the wharf and was the place of departure and arrival for the Argonauts. P. was founded in c. 600 BC by the Thessali, who took possession of a 5,3 km wide coastal strip (Str. 9,5,15; Scyl. 64). Dependent on Pherae, P. was the most significant place on the 'Pagasite Gulf' (Παγασιτικὸς κόλπος/ Pagasitikòs …

Pages

(5 words)

see Basilikoi paides

Pagrae

(82 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγραι; Págrai). Port settlement on the Caucasian coast of the Pontos Euxeinos, 180 stadia from Hieros Limen (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 28; Anon. Peripl. m. Eux. 10r 9; possibly identical with Toricus in Scyl. Peripl. m. Eux. 74), near modern Gelenǧik, 43 km to the southeast of modern Novorossiysk. Probably part of the Regnum Bosporanum. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 237f.  D.D. and G.T. Kacharava, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoy epochi, 1991, 207, 280f.

Pagus

(449 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Pl. pagi, etymologically related to pangere and pax; 'region with fixed borders'). The Latin pagus refers to the non-urbanized 'district', whose population lived in individual farms and villages ( vici; see vicus ), possibly with one or more oppida ( oppidum ) serving as a refuge; the pagus was the customary form of settlement for many Italian tribes, esp. the Oscan population of the mountainous regions of Central Italy [4] and among the Celts of Upper Italy [2]. The Romans used pagus as the designation for the subdivision of an urban territory. The pagi in the Roman Con…

Pahlawa

(162 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Indian name of the kings of the so-called Indo-Parthian dynasty, which is primarily known because of its coins. Gondophares, who ended the rule of the Shaka in Arachosia (Arachosia) and ultimately probably also in Gandhara (Gandaritis), is regarded as the founder of the dynasty. The inscriptions from Taḫt-i Bahī from the 26th year of this king established his rule quite precisely as from AD 20 to 46. In keeping with this, the apostle Thomas is said to have met Gondophares on his j…

Paidagogos

(360 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (παιδαγωγός/ paidagōgós, Latin paedagogus). A household slave of low standing (Pl. Alc. 1,122b; Pl. Ly. 223a-b) who was the attendant of a school-aged child, first attested for the year 480 BC (Hdt. 8,75). Images on vases and terracotta depict him as a bald foreigner with a shaggy beard and a stick [1. 28ff.]. He was constantly with the child and protected it from danger. He taught it proper conduct and good manners; some paidagog also supervised the home-work [2. 276, 282; 3. 75]. In Rome in the course of acquiring a Greek education (C. 2.) a slave was chosen to be paidadgo…

Paideia

(724 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (παιδεία; paideía). Disregarding Sparta ( agōgḗ ), paideia, along with paídeusis (παίδευσις), is the main Greek term for the education (Education / Culture and Education) of a child ( paîs, παῖς) and above all of a young person, which is why paideia also means 'childhood', 'youth'. It therefore refers both to the process of raising and educating and to the result, the education, and as such to the asset of the adult that cannot be lost. In Aesch. Sept. 18, paideia is not distinguished from trophḗ ('rearing'), but in general it is understood as something that must …

Paides

(5 words)

see Child, Childhood

Paid labour / wage work

(1,078 words)

Author(s): Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[German version] PL, which is legally to be understood as the leasing of work (Latin locatio operarum), should not be confused with the leasing of a person, e.g. a slave ( locatio rei). The locatio operis faciundi must also be distinguished from the locatio operarum, being a contract for the completion of specific work (construction projects, public works, manufacture or repair of an object by an artist). An inscription from Puteoli (105 BC) gives a good example of such a locatio operis (CIL X 1781 = ILS 5317), the building of a wall on public land in front of the Temple of …

Paidonomoi

(224 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (παιδονόμοι; paidonómoi, lit. 'guardians of boys'). The Greek office of the paidonómos was regarded by Aristotle (Pol. 1300a 4-6) as a specifically aristocratic one. It presupposes a state education. In Sparta (Xen. Lac. 2,2; Plut. Lycurgus 17,2,50d) and on Crete (Ephorus FGrH 70 F 149), the paidonómoi acted as inspectors, supervising the education ( agōgḗ ) of boys between the ages of 7 and 20 [1. 2387; 2. 60-63, 201 n. 8]. Aristotle argues (Pol. 1336a 30-41) that their competence should be extended to pre-school c…

Paidotribes

(206 words)

Author(s): Christes, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (παιδοτρίβης/ paidotríbēs, 'boy-trainer'). Paidotríbai were originally (beginnings hard to date [1. 96]; first in Aristoph. Nub. 973f.; a 'Solonic' law in Aeschin. 1,12) responsible for the sports training of boys in the palaístra (wrestling-school, sports grounds). From the time of Plato onward palaístrai are recorded that are named after their paidotríbai. Employed in gymnasia [1. 247; 2. 2389f.] they may also have trained professional athletes [2. 2390]. On the distinction from teachers of gymnastic exercises ( gymnastḗs) and teachers of athletes ( aleíp…

Paikuli

(83 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Village in Iraqi Kurdistan with an expanse of ruins around a stepped altar in the form of a tower (now also in ruins). Stone blocks with Parthian and Middle Persian inscriptions and busts with the representation of the Sassanid Šahānšāh Narseh (293-302; Narses [1]) are preserved. The remains were interpreted by E. Herzfeld as a victory monument to Narseh. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography E. Herzfeld, P. Monument and Inscription of the Early History of the Sasanian Empire, vol. 1, 1924.

Painters

(4 words)

see Artists

Painters (female)

(6 words)

see Women painters

Painting

(8 words)

see Paintings on Historical Subjects

Painting

(3,601 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(ζωγραφία/ zōgraphía, Latin pictura or ars pingendi). [German version] I. Greek painting The earliest evidence of ancient painting can be found on the high-quality monumental wall frescoes (Wall paintings, Fresco) of the Cretan-Mycenaean civilisation in palaces (Palace) and houses in Crete and Thera [1]. The most recent examples are from the Byzantine period [2]. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) [German version] A. Sources and history of scholarship Original works are scarcely and poorly preserved, if at all. This is particularly detrimental for the evaluation of and …
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