Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Pamphilidas

(62 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παμφιλίδας/ Pamphilídas) from Rhodes. A cautious admiral, and willing to seek peace, in the war against Antiochus [5] III. (Pol. 21,7,6-7; 21,10,5; cf. Liv. 37,2,9; 37,19,1). He was in action on the Carian coast in 190 BC, together with Eudamus [2], and played a leading role in the naval victory over Hannibal [4] off Side (Liv. 37,22,3; 37,24,9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Pamphlet

(4 words)

see Communications

Pamphos

(240 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading)
[German version] (Πάμφως; Pámphōs). Early Greek poet, author of various hymns to deities, perhaps mythical, mentioned in Pausanias: P. is supposed to be earlier than Homer (Paus. 8,37,9) and Narcissus (ibid. 9,31,9), but later than Olen (ibid. 9,27,2). Pausanias connects P. with Attica (ibid. 7,21,9; 9,29,8) and Eleusis, for which he cites a hymn by P. to Demeter (ibid. 1,39,1; 9,29,8; [4. 74f.]). The tradition that P. was the inventor of the lamp could also be Eleusinian (Plut. fr. 61 Sandbach; [6…

Pamphylia

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Martini, Wolfram (Gießen)
(Παμφυλία/ Pamphylía). [German version] I. Geography The name is usually derived from one of the three traditional Doric tribes (Dymanes, Hylleis, Pamphyloi) or from the Greek adjective pám-phylos, 'from all tribes'. Occasionally it is derived from a homonymous daughter (Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 103,15), sister (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.) or wife (schol. Dionys. Per. 850) of the seer Mopsus. However, as there is a Hittite mention of P. (see below), all this may be a Graecizing malapropism. In antiquity, P. referred to the fertile a…

Pamphylian

(603 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Cologne)
[German version] To date, Pamphylian (the Greek dialect of Pamphylia) is very sparsely attested: epigraphical evidence at Sillyum (1st half of 4th cent. BC: only parts of sentences decipherable); brief funerary inscriptions from the early Hellenistic period onward, most with personal names (most important finds at Aspendus); coin legends; furthermore, 27 glosses which survive with indications of origin [1. 141-143]. Pamphylian, which was spoken in a frontier region inhabited by various Greek and non-Greek tribes (Πάμφυλοι/ Pámphyloi: lit. 'all-men' or Doric for 'phyle'…

Pamprepius

(395 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Παμπρέπιος/ Pamprépios) of Panopolis in Egypt. The sources on his biography [1. 7-9] are detailed but often tendentious: Suda s.v. Π. = vol. 4, 13,28-15,28 Adler, with excerpts from Malchus (also in Phot. cod. 242); Hesychius = Suda vol. 4,13,25-27 Adler; the horoscope of P. preserved in Rhetorius; Damascius, Vita Isidori (esp. antipathetic). Born in AD 440, P. studied at Alexandria, where he became acquainted with Hermias and came into contact with Neoplatonic circles. Around the…

Pan

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] (Πάν/ Pán). Doric form of Arcadian Πάων/ Páōn, probably derived etymologically via Αἰγίπαν/ Aigípan from Mycenaean aiki-pata, which is related to Latin pastor ('shepherd'), pasci ('to graze') [1]; cf. also the ancient Indian god Pusan [15]. As the god of goatherds and shepherds, P.'s home is Arcadia [12] (Pind. fr. 95; hardly any evidence prior to 500 BC); as the twin brother of Arcas, he is a son of Zeus Lycaeus and Callisto (Epimenides fr. 16 DK); he has theriomorphic traits (the feet and head of a goa…

Panactum

(316 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Πάνακτον, Πάνακτος; Pánakton, Pánaktos). Attic border fortress on the southern edge of the Plain of Scurta near modern Prasino (once Kavasala) [2; 3; 4; 5. 224f.; 6], sometimes incorrectly identified with the Gyphtokastro (Eleutherai) in the Kaza Pass. Built before the  Peloponnesian War, in 422 BC P. fell to the Boeotians through treachery (Thuc. 5,3,5), who, in violation of a treaty, demolished it before returning it (Thuc. 5,18,7; 39,2f.;…

Panaenus

(271 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Πάναινος/ Pánainos). Painter and sculptor from Athens, brother or more likely nephew (Str. 8,3,30) of the sculptor Phidias, with whom he worked, possibly in the same workshop. His active period was the second third of the 5th cent. BC. Paus. 5,11,4-6 reports that he painted the fence in the temple of Zeus in Olympia with a programmatic cycle of myths. As can be inferred from remains and dowel holes, this fence was made of individual stone slabs, which were set up between the front…

Panaetius

(1,380 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Παναίτιος; Panaítios). [German version] [1] Sicilian tyrant, about 700 BC P. of Leontini, established the first known tyrannis in Sicily around 700 BC. P. overthrew the ruling oligarchy, probably by inciting the people (Aristot. pol. 5,10,1310b 29; 5,12,1316a 37; Polyaen. 5,47). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 129; 593  T. J. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks, 1948, 66-68  N. Luraghi, Tirannidi archaiche in Sicilia e Magna Grecia, 1994, 11-20. [German version] [2] Trierarch at Salamis In 480, at the battle of Salamis, P. …

Panaetius Painter

(6 words)

see Onesimus [2]

Panamaros

(4 words)

see Zeus

Panarces

(79 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Πανάρκης; Panárkēs). Date and origin uncertain; Ath. 452c, adducing Clearchus' [6] On Riddles (Περὶ γρίφων, Perì gríphōn), attributes riddles to him but cites only one, known also from Pl. Resp. 479b, where the scholiast quotes two versions, each in four iambic trimeters, and attributes them to Clearchus = fr. 95 Wehrli. It is uncertain whether P. lived as early as that, or whether the riddle was attributed to him, in Plato's time. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Panas

(77 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (also Pen-Nout). Son of Psenobastis (PP I 344), father of Ptolemy (PP I 322); syngenḗs and stratēgós (see Court titles B. 2) of the Egyptian district of Tentyritis under Cleopatra [II 12] VII, priest of various indigenous gods, administrator of Augustus and thus one of the local elite who had managed to cross from Ptolemaic to Roman service. PP I/VIII 293. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 125f. (0137).

Panathenaea

(672 words)

Author(s): Parker, Robert (Oxford)
[German version] (Παναθήναια; Panathḗnaia). Attic festival, celebrated over several days at the end of H ekatombaion, the first month of the Attic year. According to the majority of ancient sources, the first Panathenaea were held by the mythical king Erichthonius [1] (Harpocr. s.v. π., ll. 14f.; Marmor Parium 10); however, some also attribute their foundation (Plut. Theseus 24,3) or respectively expansion (Paus. 8,2,1) to Theseus. According to schol. Aristid. Panathenaicus p. 323 Dindorf (= Aristot. fr. 637 …

Panathenaic prize amphorae

(514 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Black-figured, painted pottery vessels for Attic olive oil, presented as a prize to victors in the gymnic and hippic agones at the 'Great Panathenaea' (Sport festivals). The series began with the reorganization of the Panathenaic festival (Panathenaea) in 566/5 BC, and continued into the 2nd cent. BC; the black-figured technique was maintained throughout. The PPA combined the form of the neck amphorae of the time of their origin (echinus foot and mouth, neck ring, handles with rou…

Panchaea

(84 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (παγχαΐα/ panchaía sc. χώρα/ chṓra, ‘a very splendid land’). P. is the main island in a fictional archipelago first mentioned by Euhemerus and located in the Indian Ocean: “Sailing from happy Arabia out into the Ocean”, one arrives “in a still more blessed land”, the “very splendid land” (Diod. Sic. 5,41,3; 6,1,4). P. is  seen as the ideal of a country both for its natural qualities and for its political and economic conditions (Euhemerus FGrH 63 F 2). Utopia Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Pan Chao

(5 words)

see Pan-Ku

Pancrates

(537 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παγκράτης/ Pankrátēs). [German version] [1] Musician, archaic style Musician; according to Aristoxenus [1] an enthusiast of the archaic style ( trópos) of Pindar and Simonides (Plut. De Musica 1137f). Harmon, Roger (Basle) [German version] [2] Poet, 3rd-2nd cent. BC Hellenistic poet (3rd-2nd cent. BC), author of the didactic poem Θαλάσσια ἔργα ( Maritime works), of which three fragments, dealing with the pilotfish, the wrasse and the salp and their 'common' names, are preserved by Athenaeus (who always refers to him as Arkás). Identification with the homonymous author of a Bokchorē…
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