Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(237 words)

Author(s): Link, Stefan (Paderborn)
[German version] Soldiers equipped with the lancea; they served in the Roman army as elite troops (Jos. BI 3,120; 5,47), speculatores (scouts), and in the imperial bodyguard (Suet. Claud. 35,1; Suet. Galba 18,1). The lancea, also called hasta [1] am(m)entata, was a long spear with a thong ( ammentum) in the middle (Isid. Orig. 18,7,5); this increased the leverage of the arm and gave the lancea additional spin, so that it flew quite far. Of less penetrating power than the pilum , the lancea, for whose origin many different opinions existed (Plin. HN 7,201; Gell. NA 15,30,7; Dio…


(300 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Town near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain Town of the Astures near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain, approximately 20 km from León (on the Celtic place name [1; 2], also [3; 4]). Conquered in 25 BC by P. Carisius, but spared (Cass. Dio 53,25,8; Flor. Epit. 2,33,37f.; Oros. 6,21,10; cf. also Plin. HN 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,28; It. Ant. 395,3; [5]). Substantial, almost exclusively Roman remains; Roman coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures ..., 1943, 107, 151 3 F. Abbad Rios, F. Jordá Cerdá, In…

Landed property

(5 words)

see Economy


(630 words)

Author(s): Kuchenbuch, Ludolf (Hagen)
[German version] The term landlordism is not documented by contemporary sources; it is a term of classification of agrarian and social structure which first arose during the transition to the modern era and designates a conglomerate of rent-bearing powers of control over ‘land and people’ which is typical for the European Middle Ages and the Ancien Régime [7]. Therefore, all applications of this term to other circumstances - including Roman antiquity - are misleading at best. M. Weber's [10] clear…

Land register

(298 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] One can only speak of a land register (LR) in the legal sense when a complete, comprehensive register of property - either of all inhabitants (personal property system) or of all plots of land in a precinct (real property system) - is generally acknowledged, thus guaranteeing the right of ownership of the registered purchaser. In antiquity, there were numerous simple property registers ( Estate register), which, however, mostly served as the basis for tax assessment (examples and literature [1]). Institutions for the control of legal transactions regarding p…

Landscape painting

(971 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] A. Greece The lack of material records for ancient Greek painting also creates difficulties when attempting a definition and evaluation of this genre. However, based on today's knowledge of the monuments, it is fairly safe to assume that it cannot be equated with independent landscape painting (LP), as practised by the Dutch painters or during Romanticism, which forms the basis of the modern concept [4. 176]. Antiquity did not know a specific term for LP as we understand it [1. 190;…

Landscape (Scenery)

(670 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] From a historio-geographical perspective, the term landscape carries several basic implications and connotations. Generally speaking, it can designate a space where historically relevant events have taken place. It is then attributed the quality of a historical source, to be interpreted in a variety of ways. Of further interest is the reciprocal relationship between man and landscape in terms such as: how did man perceive, design, and change the landscape? And how, on the other ha…

Land surveying

(895 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[English version] The writings of the Roman surveyors ( agrimensores) deal with their various areas of activity: measurement of areas; limitation, i.e. division by orthogonal boundaries; creation of land registers and general parceling maps; functioning as a judges or experts in land law, particularly in boundary disputes; collaboration in religious ceremonies; units of length and area, weights and determining area and volume. Mathematical questions are dealt with most notably by Balbus' work Expositio et ratio omnium formarum (ca . AD 100), the anonymous Liber podismi and a wo…

Land transport

(3,099 words)

Author(s): Raepsaet, Georges (Brüssel)
[German version] A. Introduction Investigation into land transport (LT) in antiquity is made difficult today because of the controversies and polemics that distinguishes much of the scholarship on the subject. The predominant viewpoint until about 1960 underestimated the significance of LT because of considerations of economic or technical history. The dichotomous view of history in Lefèbvre des Noëttes [8] - who proposed the thesis that antiquity was not capable of economic development due to inade…


(74 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Λάγγαρος; Lángaros). King of the Agrianes, already a friend of Alexander [4] during the lifetime of Philip II. In 335 BC, L. attacked the Autariatae as Philip's ally to plunder their land and cover Alexander's rear in his campaign against Cleitus [8] and Glaucias [2]. Alexander rewarded him generously and offered him his half-sister Cyn(n)ane as wife, but L. died before the wedding (Arr. Anab. 1,5,1-5). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)


(572 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (etym. Lang(a/o)-bardoz, ‘the long beards’ [9]). Germanic tribe which Tacitus (Germ. 40,1) and Ptolemy (2,11,9) count among the Suebi; according to tribal mythology [1], they wandered out of southern Sweden as the Winniler into territories south of the Baltic Sea around 100 BC and fused with other peoples. The L. are archaeologically confirmed on the lower course of the Elbe (in the Bardengau) from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Briefly driven back to the east bank by Tiberius in AD 5 (…


(1,091 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The term designates the primary medium of human communication and the ability to communicate by means of it, as well as the specific occurrences of this medium of communication as adopted by individual speech communities (i.e. individual languages). In the former definition, language was already an object of scientific consideration ( Linguistic theory) in antiquity, Plato's dialogue ‘Cratylus’ being its most prominent product. Plato discusses, among other things, the question, if ‘names’ originated θέσει/ thései (i.e. ‘by fixation’ or ‘agreement’ of th…

Language change

(756 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. General A universal tendency of human language is perpetual change on all levels caused by external factors (e.g. Language contact) as well as internal ones (e.g. anomalies). Language change (LC) over a long period of time in any given language will first lead to dialectal diversification ( Language strata), then, esp. in cases of geographical separation, may result in a division into related yet independent languages. It is therefore reasonable to assume that not only languag…

Language contact

(566 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Language contact (LC) occurs when two or more languages, usually geographical neighbours, collide through the mixing of the respective speaker communities, making communication across the language boundaries necessary or possible. A typical phenomenon of intensive LC is bilingualism, in which individual speakers have sufficient mastery of two (or more) languages and use them alternately ( Multilingualism), not to be confused with diglossia which refers to the change between diff…

Language families

(10 words)

see Indo-European languages; Semitic languages; Linguistic affinity

Language, philosophy and theory of

(2,171 words)

Author(s): ST.M.-OE.
(Signs, theory of) [German version] I. Area of study While today, linguistic theory (LT) is largely considered an integral part of a general theory of signs, in antiquity (before Augustine, about AD 400) the two theoretical fields, language and signs, were at first clearly distinguished from one another. The linguistic expression ‘sign’ (σημεῖον/ sēmeîon) is mentioned occasionally and in passing (Pl. Soph. 262a 6; Aristot. De Interpretatio 1,16a 6). Yet ‘sign’ as defined and discussed by ancient philosophy is exclusively the indexical sign, i.e. t…

Language, philosophy of/Semiotics

(4,041 words)

Author(s): Meier-Oeser, Stephan
Meier-Oeser, Stephan [German version] A. Introduction and Definition of Terms (CT) With regard to the reception history of ancient language philosophy and semiotics, two points must be made in advance: 1. In Antiquity there were no literally equivalent terms for either 'philosophy of language' or 'semiotics'. With 'philosophy of language' one is dealing with a term which was not introduced until the 18th cent.; likewise, the name 'semiotics', derived from 'σημεῖον' ( sēmeíon, sign), which is used to describe the general study of natural and artificial signaling syst…

Language society

(6 words)

see Academy

Language strata

(763 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] I. Overview From a synchronic point of view, ‘language strata’ (LS) represents a cover term for the different forms that a given language takes in its use by individual speakers (idiolect), by speaker groups defined by their social position (sociolect) or by geographically determined speaker communities ( Dialect); from a diachronic point of view, LS refers to the various historical strata of a given language that can be identified on the lexical (inherited and loan vocabulary), grammatical (syntactic or morphological) and phonological levels. The existence of L…

Language switching

(452 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] Language switching (LS) can occur on a social as well as on an individual level. In the first case, a demographic or functional minority gives up its language after a period of bilingualism, and adopts the language of the majority. Not the extinction of speakers, but LS is the most common cause of language death ( Language change and dialectal compensation are not considered LS). Typical attendant phenomena are interferences with the dominant language, non-adapted loan words, dism…
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