Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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L.

(55 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Roman praenomen Lucius. In the Roman numbering system, L denotes the value 50 and probably developed from the bisection of the Greek aspirate Θ (via the form , which found no use as a letter in the early Latin alphabet). Italy, alphabetical scripts; Numerical systems Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Laarchus

(114 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Λάαρχος; Láarchos; Hdt.: Λέαρχος; Léarchos). Son of Battus [2] II. of Cyrene. L. fought together with unnamed brothers over their succession against their brother Arcesilaus [2] II. of Cyrene. L. founded Barce, about 100 km to the west. At the same time he incited the Libyan tribes to rebel against Cyrene. He murdered Arcesilaus around 560/550 BC after the lat ter's defeat at Leucon in Libya and was probably murdered by Arcesilaus's wife Eryxo while attempting to become his successor (Hdt. 4,160). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei …

Labaca

(37 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Fischer, Klaus (Bonn)
[German version] (Λάβακα; Lábaka). According to Ptol. 7,1,46, city in north-west India, in the land of the Pandoi (probably Old Indian Pāṇḍava). Renger, Johannes (Berlin) Fischer, Klaus (Bonn) Bibliography O. Wecker, s.v. L., RE 12, 239.

Labae

(106 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λάβαι; Lábai: Pol. 13,9.; Steph. Byz.). City on the north-east coast of Arabia in the Gerrhaean coastal area of Chattēnía (Arabic al-Ḫaṭṭ), south of al-Qaṭīf and opposite Bahrein. Their ethnicon is Labaíoi, and probably with a conjecture of g to l the Gabaíoi (Str. 16,4,4) are indicated here, who as merchants travelled from their capital Gerrha to Hadramaut in 40 days. Arab geographers of the Middle Ages also mention Laʿbā as the name of salt pans along the coast of that region. Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Kenntnis von Ostarabien…

Labarum

(209 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] Before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge ( Pons Milvius) against Maxentius in AD 312, in a dream described as a vision, Constantine I was advised to have the first two letters of the name of Christ, in Greek chi and rho (Χ and Ρ), inscribed on the shields of his soldiers, if he wished victory: τούτῳ νίκα (‘By this sign be victorious’; cf. Lactant. De mort. pers. 44; Euseb. Vita Const. 1,26-31). This Christogram was later fixed to the tip of a standard consisting of a long lance with a flag bearing the Imperial medallion hung on a crosspiece. It is unclear whether the name labarum given…

Labda

(138 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λάβδα; Lábda). Daughter of the Bacchiad Amphion of Corinth. According to Herodotus (5,92), L. was lame and therefore could not find a husband in the strictly endogamous circle of nobility of the Bacchiadae. Therefore she was said to have married Eëtion from the deme of Petra who did not belong this circle. As there had been a prophecy even before the birth of their son Cypselus [2] that he would rule over Corinth, the Bacchiadae were said to have planned his murder. The tradition available to Herodotus says that L. succeeded in hiding the child in a kypsélē (‘chest’) thus sa…

Labdacids

(4 words)

see Labdacus

Labdacus

(115 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
[German version] (Λάβδακος; Lábdakos). Son of the Theban king Polydorus and Nicteis. Link in the line of descent from Cadmus, the father of Polydorus, to Laius, the father of Oedipus. He is supposed to have waged a border war against Pandion and was punished with death for scorning Dionysus (Hdt. 5,59; Eur. Phoen. 8; Apollod. 3,40; 193; Paus. 9,5,5). He neither had a cult nor a known relationship to a particular place. In popular etymology, L. was known as ‘the limper’, based on the shape of the letter la(m)bda with its one shorter leg. This is Oedipus projected onto his ancestor [1]. Zingg, Ret…

Labdalum

(95 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Λάβδαλον; Lábdalon). Site at the northern rim of the Epipolai-Plateau of Syracusae, where a fortress was built by the Athenians in 414 BC. This was taken from them by Gylippus shortly after his arrival (Thuc. 6,97,5; 98,2; 7,3,4). Fabricius located it east of Scala Greca, above the descent of the antique roadway Syracusae - Megara from the plateau. Before him, it was thought to lie more to the west. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Fabricius, Das ant. Syrakus (Klio-Beih. 28), 1932, 19f. H.-D. Drögemüller, Syrakus, 1968, 15f., fi…

Labeates

(139 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Illyrian people (Liv. 43,19,3; 31,2; 44,31,10; 32,3; 45,26,15: Labeatae; the region in Liv. 44,23,3: Labeatis; Pol. 29,3,5: Λαβεᾶτις) near palus Labeatis/ lacus Labeatum (Liv. 44,31,3/10; modern Albanian Liqeni Shkodres, Serbian Skadarsko jezero); main towns Scodra and Meteon. Their territory was the core of the kingdom of Genthius, the last independent Illyrian king and an ally of Perseus, who was defeated by the Romans in 168 BC. The Romans gave them autonomy and the right to issue coinage (bronze c…

Labeo

(87 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, derived from labea, ‘lip’, originally denoting ‘the thick-lipped one’ (Plin. HN 11, 159); in the Republican period cognomen in families of the Antistii ([I 13]: the L. frequently mentioned in Cicero's correspondence [II 3] is the famous law expert), Atinii ([I 6 - 7]), Fabii ([I 20]) and Segulii; widespread in the Imperial period, among others nickname of the writer Cornelius [II 19] L. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 118; 238 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilizia, 1956, 70 Walde/Hofmann 1, 738.

Laberia

(65 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. Marcia Hostilia Crispina Moecia Cornelia. Daughter of Laberius [II 3] Maximus, cos. II AD 103, and second wife of C. Bruttius [II 4] Praesens, cos. II in 139. L. accompanied her husband to Africa during his time as proconsul there (CIL VIII 110); her estates were near Amiternum and Trebula Mutuesca (Raepsaet-Charlier, no. 478). PIR2 L 15. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Laberius

(821 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen gentile of Etruscan origin, more frequent references only towards the end of the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Military tribune 258 BC Military tribune during the First Punic War, in 258 BC he secured the retreat of consul A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus (Claudius Quadrigarius fr. 42 HRR) near Camarina. All 400 legionaries of L. were killed, he himself survived badly wounded, but nevertheless was celebrated as ‘The Leonidas of Rome’ (Gell. NA 3,7,21). Other war heroes mentioned are: Q.…

Labici

(113 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus City in Latium on the north-eastern slopes of the Alban Hills, modern Monte Compatri. Member of the Latin League; in Roman wars against the Aequi allied with the latter and destroyed by Q. Servilius Priscus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,61; 8,19); a Roman colony from 418 BC (Liv. 4,47,49; [1. 394]). Municipium (Cic. Planc. 23). Caesar had a villa in the ager Labicanus, which was known for its wine (Suet. Iul. 83). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 A. Alföldi, Early Rome and the Latins, 1963. G. Tomassetti, La campagna r…

Labienus

(862 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Nomen gentile of Etruscan origin; the family, which belonged to Rome's equestrian class, came from northern Picenum (Cic. Rab. perd. 22; Caes. B Civ. 1,15,2). [German version] [1] L., Q. Slain in the Curia c. 100 BC Uncle of L. [3], supported L. Ap(p)uleius [I 11] Saturninus in 100 BC and was slain at his side in the Curia on the Forum Romanum (Cic. Rab. perd. 14; 18; 20-22; Oros. 5,17,9). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [German version] [2] L. (Parthicus), Q. Commander in Asia Minor and Armenia c. 40 BC Son of L. [3]. At the end of 43 BC he undertook treaty negotiations at the behest of the m…

Labiovelar

(269 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (< Latin labium ‘Lip’ and velum ‘sail’). Stop simultaneously articulated with lips and velum. The labio-velars kw gw gwh , along with the velars k g gh and the palatals ǵ ǵh form the group known as the gutturals and belong to the proto-Indo-European phoneme system, which is continued in all Indo-European languages, but does not remain unchanged in any of them. Originally, the labio-velars were retained in the centum languages. In Greek they are preserved as such in the Mycenaean of the 2nd millennium BC an…

Labotas

(50 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λαβώτας; Labṓtas). Legendary Spartan king of the house of the Agiads. During his (fictional) reign (traditionally 1025/4-989/8 BC), Sparta is said to have fought against Argus for the first time (Apollod. FGrH 244 F 62; Hdt. 1,65; 7,204; Plut. Mor. 224c; Paus. 3,2,3f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Labraunda, Labranda

(312 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Λάβραυνδα, Λάβρανδα; Lábraunda, Lábranda). Locality and sanctuary of the Carian Zeus Stratios (also Labrandos), situated on a southern spur of Mt Latmus. Connected by a sacred road to Mylasa, to which it belonged as kṓmē together with the later settlement (Str. 14,2,23). Place name and name of the god are pre-Greek. The double-headed axe ( lábrys) of L. was believed to have been taken over from the Amazons or the Lydian Heraclid kings (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 45). The cult statue ( xóanon ) with the shouldered lábrys is depicted on coins of the 4th cent. BC. The shri…

Labraundos, Labrandeus

(5 words)

see Zeus

Labronios

(56 words)

Labrum

(398 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (from lavabrum, diminutive labellum, Greek λουτήριον/ loutḗrion and λεκάνη/ lekánē). The labrum, a large shallow basin with a raised, thickened rim and resting on a high pedestal, served various purposes. As materials used for the labrum, marble, porphyry, clay, stone and others are cited. In the Greek realm, the labrum is a washbasin where men and women cleansed themselves with water; on vases in Lower Italy this often takes place in the presence of Eros, with waterfowl (swans or geese) sometimes cavorting in the water of the labrum. It also often appears in love o…

Labrys

(254 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἡ λάβρυς; he lábrys) refers to the double-headed axe (Latin bipennis), which has two blades opposite each other; it is a tool as well as a ritual device and religious symbol. The expression, known in Greek only as a Lydian word in a gloss (Plut. Mor. 45,302a), was introduced into scholarly language in the late 19th cent. to refer to the Minoan ritual symbol as well as to indicate its Anatolian origin. In Minoan but more especially in Greek ritual, there is good evidence for the double-head…

Labynetus

(114 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λαβύνητος; Labýnētos; Hellenized form of Akkadian Nabû-na'id/Nabonid). The Hellenized form of the name occurs only in Herodotus [1]. By L., he is probably referring to the kings of the Neo-Babylonian Dynasty (625-539 BC)in general. Two Neo-Babylonian kings play a part in Herodotus: Nebuchadnezzar [2] II (604-562), together with a Cilician ruler ( Syennesis), he negotiated the truce of 585 BC between the Lydians and the Medes (Hdt. 1,74). Nabonid (555-539), was a confederate of Croes…

Labyrinth

(1,193 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
(λαβύρινθος; labýrinthos, labyrinthus). [German version] A. The concept The term ‘labyrinth’ denotes in current usage either the labyrinth in the narrow sense; or in the broad sense, any maze or confusing, large building (especially since the Hellenistic period as a motif in literature or in the pictorial arts); or else in a figurative sense, it is used as a metaphor or allegory for the vagaries and deceptions of human life. This last sense can increasingly be observed after the 3rd cent. AD. Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] B. The labyrinth in the narrow sense …

Lacapeni

(132 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)

Lacedaemon

(132 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λακεδαίμων; Lakedaímōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Taygete Son of Zeus and Taygete (Apollod. 3,116), name-giver of the Taygetus, mountain range; L. inherits the rule from the childless Eurotas (Paus. 3,1,1f.), gives his name to the region, and founds the city of Sparta, which he names after his spouse Sparte. One of their sons, Amyclas, founds the city of Amyclae [1] (Eust. AD Hom. Il. 295,14f.). One of their daughters, Eurydice, marries Acrisius, king of Argus, and becomes mother of Danae (Pherecydes FHG 1, fr. 26; Paus. 3,13,8). L. enjoys ritual honours in a shrine near the Taygetus Mountains (Paus. 3,20,2) and in the official state cult of Zeus…

Lacedaemonius

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λακεδαιμόνιος; Lakedaimónios). Athenian, son of Cimon [2] and Isodice (Plut. Cimon 16). He served as hípparchos around 445 BC (IG I3 511; [1. 45-49]). In the summer of 433 L., as stratēgós, was sent to Corcyra with ten ships to assist the allied island in its conflict with Corinth (Thuc. 1,45…

Lacedas

(68 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λακήδας; Lakḗdas; Hdt. 6,127,3: Λεωκήδης; Leōkḗdēs). Legendary king of Argus, by tradition the son of the historically debated Pheidon [3]. L. was regarded as the father of Meltas, the last king of the Argives (Paus. 2,19,2) [1. 385; 2. 107ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Boch…

Laceria

(80 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λακέρεια; Lakéreia). Settlement on the northern shore of Lake Boebe in Magnesia, only attested in archaic times (Pind. Pyth. 3,58f.); its location - like that of its neighbouring settlement Amyrus - has yet to be established. L. was said to be the home of Coronis, the mother of Asclepius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Le ‘Dotion Pedion’, Lakereia et les origines de Larisa, in: Journal des Savants 1987, 127ff. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 58f.

Lacerna

(172 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A fringed (schol. Pers. 1,54) open cloak, a special form of the sagum , probably introduced in the 1st cent. BC (first mention Cic. Phil. 2,30,76); used at first as a soldier's coat which in poetry might also be worn by mythical kings and heroes (e.g. Ov. Fast. 2,743-747; Prop. 4,3,18). The lacerna soon became an everyday garment and was popular in the 1st cent. AD. Initially made of coarse wool, light fabrics were also used which were dyed purple or scarlet (Mart. 2,29,3; 4,61,4; 4,8,10; Juv. 1,27). The lacerna was worn over the tunica, instead of the toga, or over…

Lacerta

(5 words)

see Lizard; Crocodile

Lacetani

(88 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (not to be confused with the Iaccetani; e.g. Ptol. 2,6,71; [1]), who settled the southern foothills of the eastern Pyrenees, west of Llobregat, east of Segre, south of Noya and Cervera (Liv. 21,61,8; 28,24,4; 34,20,1; Plin. HN 3,21). They were one of the earliest tribes to be subjugated by the Romans (Plut. Cato Maior 11,2; cf. Cass. Dio 45,10; Sall. Hist. 2,98,5; [2. 50f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. iaccos 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935. Tovar 3, 35ff.

Lachares

(480 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Λαχάρης; Lacháres). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and confidant of Cassander Athenian, demagogue and confidant of Cassander. L. succeeded, with a mercenary force, in establishing a rulership in Athens, probably from early in 300 BC to early in 295 (Olympiad Chronicle FGrH 257a F 1-4; Plut. Demetrius 33; however, IG II2 646 indicates 294 BC), which is described in ancient sources as a tyrannis, although fundamental organs of democ…

Laches

(266 words)

Lachesis

(4 words)

see Moira

Lachmann's law

(212 words)

Author(s): Haebler, Claus (Münster)
[German version] Discovered by the classical philologist and Germanist Karl Lachmann (1793-1851) in 1850, a ‘phonological rule’ in the Latin verbal system: significantly, verbs whose stem ends in a voiced occlusive -g or

Laciadae

(194 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Λακιάδαι; Lakiádai). Attic deme, gave its name to the asty trittys of the phyle Oeneis (IG I3 1120), with two (three) bouleutaí; originally the name of an Attic family. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. transmits Λακιά as a place name, with the demoticon Λακιεύς. Its location on the Sacred Road east of the Cephis(s)us [2] is confirmed by Paus. 1,37,2, who (ibid.) attests a

Laciburgium

(62 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Λακιβούργιον; Lakiboúrgion). Site in northern Germania magna, west of the Oder (Ptol. 2,11,12), not yet localized. Possibly a misspelling of Asciburgium (modern Moers-Asberg). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s.v. L., RE 12, 344f. G. Chr. Hansen, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griech. und lat. Quellen zur Frühgesch. Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jt. u.Z., Teil 3, 1991, 581.

Lacinius

(129 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λακίνιος, Λακῖνος; Lakínios, Lakînos). Iapygian king who ruled over the land of the Bruttii; eponym of the Lacinium Mountains near Croton. L. took in Croton, who had been banished from Corcyra, and gave him his daughter Laure (or Laurete) in marriage (schol. Lycoph. 1007; schol. Theoc. 4,33b). When Heracles [1] returned from his Geryon adventure, he came into conflict with L. Concerning the cause of this, there are two variant accounts: either L. refused hospitality to Heracles, c…

Lacius

(146 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Λάκιος; Lákios, ‘the ragged one’). [German version] [1] Attic hero Attic hero, after whom the deme Laciadae was named; his heroon was on the Sacred Road to Eleusis (Paus. 1,37,2). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Rhodian from Lindus Rhodian from Lindus, mythical founder of the Lycian city of Phaselis near the border with Pamphylia. When L. went to Delphi with his brother Antiphemus, to question the oracle, he was sent east, his brother west. As a result he founded Phaselis, and his brother Gela in Sicily (Aristaenetus…

Laco

(69 words)

Lacobriga

(186 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
There were three towns of this Celtic [1] name. [German version] [1] Town in the north of Palantia In the territory of the Vaccae…

Laconian

(6 words)

see Doric/Northwest Greek; Tsakonian

Laconian vase painting

(487 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] In Sparta, painted ceramics were produced for export as early as the 7th cent. BC. Initially associated with Cyrene, one of the first places where Laconian vase paintings (LVP) were found, the origin of LVP was secured with the excavation of the Artemis Orthia Sanctuary in Sparta. Dating for LVP, which is considered to have reached its peak c. between 575 and 525 BC, is primarily derived from groups of findings in Tarentum and Tocra [3. 8-9]; the representation of Arcesilaus [2] II, which was probably created during his reign [3. 195; 1…

Laconica

(993 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A. Name Lakōnikḕ gê (Λακωνικὴ γῆ) or L. chṓra (Λ. χώρα) is the customary appellation in prose literature for the national territory of Sparta, especially in Thucydides, always in Polybius, also Herodotus (1,69; 6,58,1), Xenophon (Hell. 4,7,6; 4,8,8; 6,2,31; 6,5,21), Aristophanes (Vesp. 1162; Pax 245), Strabo (8,2,2; 4,9; 5,4ff.), Pausanias (3,1,1; 21,6; 4,1,1; 16,8; 17,1) and Ptolemy (3,16,9), in Latin Laconica (Plin. HN 2,243; 4,1; 5,32; 6,214; 25,94). Epigraphically, this appellation appears only in one proxeny list from Ceos in the 4th cent. …

Laconicum

(5 words)

see Baths; Thermae

Lacrates

(36 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Spartan olympic champion; died in 403 BC during a skirmish in Piraeus against resistance fighters who freed Athens from the rule of the ‘Thirty’ ( Triakonta) (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lacringi

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] A Lugian (Vandalic) tribe (Λάκριγγοι/ Lákringoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,2; Lacringes, SHA Aur. 22,1), who fought against Rome in the Marcomannic Wars in AD 170. The L. were settled as foederati in the north of Dacia, where they defeated the Asdingi. Both tribes later counted as Roman allies (cf. Cass. Dio 71,11,6). In later years the L. intermingled with other members of the Vandalic tribes. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography L. Schmidt, H. Zeiss, Die Westgermanen, 1940, 163, 165, 167, 169.

Lactantius

(1,240 words)

Author(s): Heck, Eberhard (Tübingen) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[1] Christian Theologist and apologist, c. 250-325 [German version] A. Life L. Caelius Firmianus qui et L., Christian Latin writer, born in Africa around 250, probably died in Gaul in 325. Diocletian summoned him to teach rhetoric at Nicomedia in Bithynia where he converted, and after the outbreak of the Great Persecution of Christians in 303 he became an apologist ( Apologists). Around 315, Constantine [1] brought him to Gaul, probably to Trier, to be the teacher of his son Crispus. Heck, Eberhard (Tübingen) [German version] B. Works De opificio dei (‘On the Workmanship of God’; 303…
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