Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Federation

(3,092 words)

Author(s): Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG)
Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) As reflected in this concept’s multi-faceted historical breadth, Federation is a many-layered institution.  As a basic concept in the history of human socialization, and in legal constitutional history as well, federation is able to represent both social and political organizations [10. 582f.]  Federation came about through the 'binding together' of socially or politically definable groups of individuals or organizational units s…

Felicissimus

(93 words)

Author(s): Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich)
[German version] Head of the treasury under Aurelianus [3] (SHA Aurelian. 38,3), who incited the workers to forge coins in AD 271 or 274. When this became known, he organized an uprising on Caelius Mons, which imperial troops were able to put down only with heavy losses. F. was killed in the process (Eutr. 9,14; Aur. Vict. Caes. 35,6; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 35,4; Suda s.v. μονιτάριοι). Polemius Silvius (Chron. min. 1, 521f. Mommsen) lists him among the usurpers. Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) Bibliography PIR2 F 140 PLRE 1, 3311 Kienast, 21996, 238.

Felicitas

(293 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] The Roman goddess F., usually depicted as a wreathed figure with a cornucopia and herald's staff ( caduceus) [1], is the personification of good luck and success that supposedly endures unlike  Fortuna (Val. Max. 7,1). She received her first temple in Rome, which was built with booty from the Spanish campaigns of L. Lucinius Lucullus (Cass. Dio 43,21,1; 76,2), shortly after 146 BC in the Velabrum area (Suet. Iul. 37). Another temple (together with Venus Victrix, Honos and Virtus) was built by Pomp…

Felix

(619 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) | Et al.
Roman cognomen (‘The Fortunate One’), in the Republican period initially an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla and his descendants (Cornelius [II 59-61]); in the Imperial period, as a name invoking luck, one of the most common cognomina and the most common slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period, probably a contemporary of  Dioscurides [8], named together with  Anteros in an inscription as a gemari de sacra via [1. 44 and note 40]. He signed the famous sard…

Fel Temp Reparatio coins

(7 words)

see  Maiorina

Fencing

(4 words)

see  Sports

Fenestella

(270 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] Roman historian of the early Imperial period. The exact dates of his life are uncertain: according to Jerome he died at the age of 70 in AD 19 (Chron. p. 172 Helm), according to Pliny only ‘late in the reign of Tiberius’ ( novissimo Tiberii Caesaris principatu; HN 33,146). F. wrote an annalistic history in more than 22 books (Fr. 21 Peter from book 22 [= HRR 2, 85f.] relates to 57 BC) that extended from the early Roman period to the late Republic and perhaps even included the Augustan period (Fr. 24 Peter [= HRR 2, 86]). The …

Fennel

(189 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] ( feniculum first in Plaut. Pseud. 814, MLat. feniculum or fenuclum, μάραθ(ρ)ον; márath(r)on). An umbellifer ( Umbelliferae) introduced from the eastern Mediterranean. It differs from the closely related  dill ( anethum ) because of its size and its being perennial. As a vegetable and an astringently scented herb (cf. e.g., Plin. HN 19,186), it was particularly grown in the wine-growing areas of Germany [1. 26] (sown in February in Italy according to Pall. Agr. 3,24,9). The well-known Attic v…

Fenni

(129 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] According to Tacitus ‘an uncivilized and very poor’ ( mira feritas, foeda paupertas) but ‘happy’ ( beatius arbitrantur) northern people of hunters, whose classification as Germans or Sarmatians was left uncertain (Tac. Germ. 46). They undoubtedly were identical with the Phínnoi (Φίννοι) in northern Scandinavia, who were considered ‘neighbours’ of the Goths (Ptol. 2,11,16: Hs. X; 3,5,8; cf. Jord. Get. 3,22: mitissimi), but not Suomi Finns, who were only named thus in the 2nd half of the 12th cent. Because of the customs described in Tac. Ger…

Fenugreek

(146 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (βούκερας, αἰγόκερας, τῆλις; boúkeras, aigókeras, têlis) is an annual cultivar of the Mesopotamian species Tr. Haussknechtii (not the Mediterranean Trigonella gladiata), with a tangy fragrance that was used medicinally and as fodder. As seed finds of c. 3000 BC near Cairo show, fenugreek was cultivated in ancient Babylonia and Egypt, (Egyptian šbt, Arabic ḥulba) from where it was exported. Dioscurides 2,102 ([1. 176f.] = 2,124 [2. 206f.]) recommends the meal produced from the seed as a tonic and for cleansi…

Fenus nauticum

(803 words)

Author(s): Krampe, Christoph (Bochum)
[German version] The Roman and Hellenistic maritime loan (cf. the titles De nautico fenore Dig. 22,2 and Cod. Iust. 4,33). The name is first encountered late in the 3rd cent. AD in a statement of Diocletian and Maximian (Cod. Iust. 4,33,4) and meant both the loan principle and the maritime interest. Classical jurists called the loan object the mutua pecunia nautica (Cerv. Scaevola Dig. 45,1,122,1) or pecunia traiecticia. It is defined by Modestinus as pecunia quae trans mare vehit (Dig. 22,2,1). The loan served to facilitate financing the export and import of goods by the sea. The fenus nau…

Fer(c)tum

(4 words)

see  Strues

Ferentinum

(293 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Mountain top town (404 m) of the Hernici in Latium adiectum on the via Latina, 24 miles from Anagnia and 7 miles from Frosinone, modern Ferentino (Frosinone) on the Trerus (modern Sacco; It. Ant. 305; Tab. Peut. 6,2). Occupied by Volsci in 413, later returned to the Hernici (Liv. 4,51ff.); in 361 conquered by the consul Licinius Calvus (Liv. 7,9). It remained loyal to Rome during the Hernici uprising in 306 but suffered severe devastation in 211 from Hannibal. After 195 BC in possession of the ius Latii (Liv. 34,42,5). Du…

Ferentis, Ferentium

(287 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in southern Etruria ( regio VII), attested in the 8th/6th cents. BC on an outlier of the Poggio San Francesco (305 m), modern Ferento, 9 km north of Viterbo, on an elevation between eastern tributaries of the Tiber. In the Roman period relocated to the Northeast on the other side of the river (306 m; Pianicara). Its territory was distributed under the Gracchi [1. 216]; municipium, tribus Stellatina. The gens Salvia as well as Otho (Tac. Hist. 2,50; Suet. Otho 1,1) and Flavia Domitilla (Suet. Vesp. 3) came from F. The town decayed in the late…

Feretrius

(340 words)

Author(s): Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
[German version] An epithet of  Jupiter of uncertain meaning, which already caused etymological speculation during antiquity, reflecting antiquarian and political interests. These related the name and cult of the god to each other. Derivations ranged from ferre ( arma: Prop. 4,10,47; Liv. 1,10,5-6; cf. R. Gest. div. Aug. 19: tropaiophóros; pacem: Fest. 81 L.) and feretrum (rack on which captured weapons were carried during the triumph: Plut. Marcellus 8) to ferire ( ense ducem: Prop. 4,10,46; Jupiter who ‘strikes’ with his lightening bolt: Plut. Marcellus 8; ferire foedus [ sc. feti…

Feriae

(929 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Daniel P. (Seattle)
[German version] The Latin word for ‘holiday’; grammatically plural, it is often used as if in the singular (cf. Kalendae, Nonae, Idus, nundinae). Its ancient form (Paul Fest. 76 L., 323 L.1) is fesiae (cf. the etymologically related festus). Dies feriatus is frequently used as a synonym. Offerings and prescribed rituals could form a regular part of certain holidays. Generally, the main characteristic of feriae was the cessation of all profane activities. Corresponding to the sacra (Fest., 284 L.), feriae fell into two broad categories: feriae privatae and feriae publicae. Feriae …

Feriae Latinae

(556 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] was the annual celebration of the league of Latin towns on the Albanus mons, in honour of  Jupiter Latiaris. The organization of the festival lay with Rome; all information regarding the foundation of the celebration, its changes and development refers to its mythical ancient history (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,49; 6,95; Plut. Camillus 42,5 p. 151; Str. 5,3,2 p. 229). These   feriae conceptivae (Varro, Ling. 6,25) were of great political importance: Roman consuls had to set the date for this festival immediately after their acc…

Feriale

(1,164 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] A. Term Feriale is the term used in the title of a Campanian inscription of AD 387, containing a list of seven annually celebrated rituals (InscrIt 13,2,283). From this text, known as the feriale Campanum, historians now apply this term to similar compilations within the Latin sphere: In contrast with actual calendars (  fasti ), ferialia do not list all of the days within a year, but only those associated with certain specific rituals. It makes sense to extend the academic application of the term feriale to include comparable written compilations in other culture…

Feriale Duranum

(469 words)

Author(s): Herz, Peter (Regensburg)
[German version] The feriale Duranum is a papyrus found during excavations in 1931/32 in the garrison town of Dura-Europus (prov. Mesopotamia) with a calendar of feast days dating from the rule of Severus Alexander, which was originally intended for official use by the cohors XX Palmyrenorum (2/3 extant, from beginning of January to the end of September). Alongside date and reason for a particular festival, it also contained information on what kind of sacrificial animal was to be used. It has been possible to identify with a sufficient de…

Fer(i)culum

(132 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Occasionally feretrum (e.g., Ov. Met. 3,508; 14,747), the name for various types of devices employed for carrying goods. In particular, it refers to the racks on which objects were presented during processions (triumphs, funerals etc.), e.g., booty, prisoners, images of deities etc. (Suet. Caes. 76). The fericulum was also used to transport the deceased and objects to be interred or cremated (Stat. Theb. 6,126). Fericulum was also the name for the trencher ( Household equipment), the flat bowl in which foods were served during meals (e.g., Pet…
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