Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(143 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] In 88 BC, F. hid the ostracized C. Marius in her house in Minturnae In 88 BC, F. hid the ostracized C. Marius in her house in Minturnae, after he had helped her to win back her dowry in a divorce case in 100 BC against C. Titinius (Val. Max. 8,2,3; Plut. Marius 38,3-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Daughter of Clodius [II 15] Full name perhaps Clodia F. Daughter of the senator and Stoic Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus and of Arria [2]. Wife of Helvidius Priscus, whom she accompanied into exile under Nero and Vespasian. He…


(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen (Schulze 266; 424), attested historically from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F.M. f., C. Rom. senator and historian, partaker in the storming of Carthage Roman senator and historian (in Cic. Brut. 99 falsely differentiated from a relative). F. distinguished himself in 146 BC with Ti. Gracchus at the storming of Carthage (Plut. Gracchi 4,6), fought in 141 as tribunus militum in Spain (App. Ib. 287), was the son-in-law of C.  Laelius and heard  Panaetius (Cic. Brut. 100f.). In…


(262 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (Etymology: *dhh1s-no-; but Oscan-Umbrian fēsnā < stressed form *dheh1s- [1]). Generic expression for the holy place ( locus sacer, Liv. 10,37,15) consecrated to the deity by the pontifices (Varro, Ling. 6,54; Fest. 78 L.;   pontifex ). Initially designating the location without regard for the form and function of the cult site contained within the sacred precincts (e.g. grove, spring, cave, temple, altar etc.). Later, fanum really comes to mean only the ancient sanctuary as opposed to the temple ( aedis) as an architectural entity. Attempts to differentiate fanum fr…

Fanum Fortunae

(255 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | | Coloniae Umbrian harbour-city north of the mouth of the Metaurus ( regio VI), where the via Flaminia reaches the Adriatic coast; the modern Fano (Pesaro; It. Gaditanum 95; It. Ant. 126; It. Burd. 615; Tab. Peut. 5,2). The name derives from the cult of Fortuna. F. had the status of a municipium, tribus Pollia. The city was occupied by Caesar after his crossing of the Rubicon (Caes. B Civ. 1,11,4); under Augustus it was the veterans' colony of Iulia Fanestris (CIL XI 6232); basilica of Vitruvius (5,1,6-10; [1; 2])…

Fan Ye

(265 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Chinese author of a dynastic history that contains i.a. information on the geography of the Parthian empire and on contacts between the Parthians and the Chinese. Born AD 398 into a family of Chinese imperial officials, F. himself held the posts of administrative district officer and general in the imperial guard. Implicated in a conspiracy under emperor Wen (Sung Dyn.), he was executed in AD 446, which prevented the completion of his 100-chapter ‘History of the later Han Dynasty (AD 25-220)’, Hou Hanshu (10 chs. ‘basic annals’, benji of emperors and empresses, 80 b…


(373 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally probably ‘corn’ in the sense of grain [1]. In the historical period, however, the name applied especially to spelt as opposed to common wheat ( triticum). Synonyms are ador and alicastrum; evidently a short form of far adoreum. Plin. HN 18,82 maintains that the zones of cultivation for far (emmer) and ζειά/ zeiá (ζέα/ zéa) are mutually exclusive. According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,25,2, however, these two kinds of grain, along with arinca (ὄλυρα; ólyra) as grown in Gaul, Italy and elsewhere, are identical. 3 kinds of the highly cold-resistant …


(52 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Tiber in the region of the Sabini (Ov. Met. 14,330; Sil. Pun. 4,182); Latinized as Fabaris (Verg. Aen. 7,715; Vibius Sequester 148), the modern Farfa; it flows by Trebula Mutuesca. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 478 M. P. Muzzioli, s.v. Fabaris, EV 2, 451.


(1,783 words)

Author(s): Osborne, Robin (Oxford) | Rathbone, Dominic (London)
[German version] I. Greece No Greek term corresponds exactly to the English word farmer. The Greek word γεωργός ( geōrgós) described someone who cultivated the land, whether landowner, simultaneously proprietor and farmworker, or merely a farmworker (Xen. Oec. 5,4); it thus applied to rich and poor, citizen and non-citizen, slave or free man. The relatively unusual term αὐτουργός ( autourgós) meant someone who worked for himself or with his own hands, and was restricted to free men; although it means ‘men who have no leisure’ (Thuc. 1,141,3-5), it relat…


(5 words)

see  Ash (tree)


(250 words)

Author(s): Christmann, Eckhard (Heidelberg)
[German version] was a mixed crop (mixed mash, Mengkorn, Mischel, méteil, mistura), used for food into the 20th cent. AD, but already in antiquity relegated for the most part to use as cattle fodder; thus farrago served as green or dry fodder as well as forage for draught animals (Fest. 81 L.) and domestic animals. It consisted of the threshings of emmer ( ex recrementis farris, Plin. HN 18,142) and weed-seeds, of which many accompany this spelt-wheat; farrago could also be sown mixed with vetch seed (Varro, Rust. 1,31,5; Plin. HN 18,142). Columella had a high regard for farrago hordeacea (2,…


(296 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] is to be understood as ‘that which is divinely sanctioned’; its opposite is nefas. The adjective fastus is derived from it. Fas and nefas appear at first with verbs (e.g. fas est), later also as nouns in expressions such as contra fas. The derivation is disputed: 1. from * fēs-/ * fas<* dh(e)h1s- as festus, feriae, fanum; 2. from * <* bheh2 - as fari, fama, fabula, fatum [1]. The relationship between fari and the adj. fastus was already recognised by Varro (Ling. 6, 29-30; 53). According to [2] fari indicates the existence of the utterance removed from the speaker a…


(500 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] Bundle of rods made of elm or birch, held together by red straps. The fasces, more than likely of Etruscan origin, were carried in front of supreme Roman magistrates (  Consul ,   Praetor ) by public servants ( lictores;   Lictor ) as a symbol of their authority (  Imperium ). Outside of Rome (cf.   Pomerium ), an axe was placed in the centre of the fasces as symbol of absolute military authority over Roman, as well as allied and provincial, soldiers [1. 196 f.; 2. 119 f.]. The   dictator was allotted 24 fascia, the two consuls 12 each, the praetors 6 each, and the proma…


(4 words)

see  Ornament


(238 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Bandages, bindings, straps of different kinds were made of various materials (felt, leather, linen, wool), and could be white or coloured. Fasciae as a category includes the straps of the bed ( lectus,   kline ) on which the mattress was laid,  swaddling cloths (σπάργανα, spárgana) and fasciae crurales, bindings designed to protect the lower legs ( fasciae tibiales) or thighs (  feminalia) against the cold. The use of fasciae was regarded as unmanly, and for men was restricted to invalids, but even Augustus (Suet. Aug. 82,1) and Pompey (Cic. Att. 2…


(4 words)

see  Magic


(7,576 words)

Author(s): Pisani, Salvatore (Florence) | Cagnetta, Mariella (Bari RWG) | Schiano, Claudio (Bari RWG)
Pisani, Salvatore (Florence) [German version] I. Art and Architecture (CT) Pisani, Salvatore (Florence) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The Italian Fascist image of Antiquity between 1922 and 1943 was first and foremost characterized by its use as a propaganda tool. The focus was almost entirely on the Rome of the Imperial Age and, most particularly, Rome under Augustus, who as a person and in his work was stylized and idolized in every imaginable way. An important reason for this lay in the apparent analo…


(2,807 words)

Author(s): Reichel, Andrea
Reichel, Andrea [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The reception of ancient fashion is inextricably linked with the reception of ancient art. It is examples of that art - sculptures, frescoes, mosaics, terracottas and vase paintings - that shape our image of clothing fashions in Greek and Roman Antiquity. Since only few original pieces have been preserved, the study of clothing styles up to the Middle Ages and beyond largely depends on art history in order to reconstruct the materials used for cloth…


(2,200 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] A. The term Formed as an adjective from the Latin fās (‘divine right’; no etymological link with *fēs or *făs and their derivative terms fēriae, fēstus and fānum can be demonstrated [11. 134]), fastus in technical language is found only in association with dies, and in Rome then signifies those days on which certain public acts were held to be permitted. This concept gave a calendrical digest of such days ─ among which the dies fasti predominate ─ the name fasti. As regards both name and graphic form, the word displaced all other competing terms for  calenda…


(95 words)

Author(s): Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam)
[German version] Bishop in Britain in the 5th cent. AD; according to Gennadius (vir. ill. 57) author of two texts: De vita Christiana (ad Fatalem) and De viduitate servanda. His adherence to the Pelagians ( Pelagius), named in  Prosper Tiro's Chronicon of 429 (MGH AA 9,1, 472), is not proven. Leaving aside the Epistula ad Fatalem (cf. CPL 763) used in sermon 20 of  Caesarius of Arles (CPL 1008), any attribution of texts, including the so-called Corpus Caspari (CPL 732-736), is disputed. Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) Bibliography F. G. Nuvolone, s.v. F., Dictionnaire de Spiritu…

Fasti Ostienses

(354 words)

Author(s): Brehmer, Bernhard (Tübingen)
[German version] Marble calendar extant in fragmentary form, with added list of Roman consuls and suffect consuls as well as Ostia's duumviri. The list is expanded by substantial reports from Rome and Ostia, thus acquiring the character of a chronicle. While only fragments of the calendar covering three months are comprehensible, parts of these provide highly detailed notes on the various feasts, and the historiographical component regarding the magistrature makes the Fasti Ostienses (FO) one of our most important Latin inscriptions. The fragments cover ─ with gaps …
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