Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(697 words)

Author(s): Briese, Christoph (Randers)
[German version] The term faience describes earthenware with a coating of pewter glaze that looks like porcelain and was produced for the first time in Spain in the 13th cent. AD and traded via Mallorca ( Majolica), although it got its name from earthenware manufactured from the 16th cent. onwards in northern Italian Faenza that borrowed from Chinese porcelain. In the archaeological literature faience is a common but incorrect term for a glass-like, silicated, glazed or unglazed product of chalky to sandy consistency (hence more accurately termed silic…


(539 words)

Author(s): Rölleke, Heinz
[English version] Jacob Grimm [1. 194] stated that a valuable addition to scholarship in the field of the fairy-tale (FT) would be "to track down in the Latin and Greek classical authors any anilis fabula, any graódēs mýthos mentioned by them" (“bei den lateinischen und griechischen classikern jede anilis fabula, jeden graódēs mýthos aufzuspüren, deren sie erwähnen”). This demand has been met: a wealth of ancient FT motifemes has been discovered and catalogued [5]. There is no evidence from Antiqu…


(185 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Large oasis c. 80 km south-west of Cairo with a lake in the north. Name from Egyptian p-jm (‘the sea’, older names ts̄, ‘lake land’ and š-rsj, ‘southern lake’, Greek ἡ λίμνη ( hē límnē) or Κροκοδιλοπολίτης νομός ( Krokodilopolítēs nomós), from 256/5 onwards Ἀρσινοίτης νομός/ Arsionoḯtēs nomós). The capital city Šdjt ( Arsinoe [III 2]) is mentioned early but it was not until the 12th Dynasty that F. was developed through dam construction, especially under Amenemhet III ( c. 1853-1808) who was still considered a local hero in Roman times. The chief god wa…

Falacrinae, Falacrinum

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Settlement of the Sabini ( regio IV) at the sources of the Avens in the area of Reate on the border with Picenum. Station of the via Salaria (It. Ant. 307; Tab. Peut. 5,4), near the church of S. Silvestro in Falacrino in Collicelle (Cittareale, Rieti). Birth place of Vespasianus (Suet. Vesp. 2,1). Inscriptions.: CIL IX, p. 434. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 468 N. Persichetti, Viaggio archeologico della via Salaria, 1893, 79f.


(4 words)

see  Pilum


(103 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] Modern technical term derived from falcatus (‘sickle-shaped’) that describes the cutting and stabbing weapon of the Iberian foot soldier that was about 60 cm long and had a slightly crooked back, an s-shaped curved blade and a pommel bent downwards with bird or horse head ends. The distribution of the falcata, which goes back directly to the Italian cutting swords and is attested from the 2nd half of the 5th cent. at the latest to the 1st cent. BC, is concentrated in the Hispanic south-east ( Contestani(a),  Bastetani).  Sword Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography F. Oue…


(65 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Italian personal name (Schulze 272). F., C. (P.?), people's tribune in 41 BC and originator of one of the last known plebiscites ( lex Falcidia), which prescribed that a testator could only leave so many legacies as allowed the heir to remain with a quarter of the inheritance ( quarta Falcidiana) (Dig. 35,2; Gai. Inst. 2,227). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kaser, RPR 2, 756f.


(175 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] While ἱέρακες generally denotes goshawks and ἰκτῖνοι harriers, only the kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus) is identifiable among falcons. Aristophanes calls it Κερχνῇς (Av. 1181 in Ael. NA 12,4), Aristotle κεγχρίς (Hist. an. 6,2,559a 26; cenchris, Plin. HN 10,143f.). According to Aristot. Hist. an. 6,1,558b 28-30, it lays four or more red eggs (as well Plin. HN 10,143f.), has a crop (Hist. an. 2,17,509a 6) and drinks a fair bit (8,3,594a 1f.). Pliny claims that the tinnunculus is a friend of domestic pigeons whom it defends against goshawks (HN 10,109). Like P…


(786 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Oracles Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria on a tuff spur of the eastern Monti Cimini between two righthand tributaries of the Tiberis (Vicano and Fosso Maggiore). Founded by the Argive hero  Halesus (Ov. Fast. 4,73), according to others a Chalcidian foundation (Iust. 20,1,13). Had its own Italic dialect (Str. 5,2,9; [1; 2; 3]). Cu…


(75 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Harbour on the Etruscan coast opposite Ilva (modern Elba), 12 miles south of Populonia (It. Ant. 501; Faleria, Rut. Namat. 1,371, should be corrected to Falesia [2]). In the Middle Ages Porto di Felesa [1], modern Piombino (Livorno). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 G. Targioni Tozzetti, Relazione d'alcuni viaggi fatti in diverse parti della Toscana 4, 1751, 250 2 R. Gelsomino, Nota a Rut. Nam. 1,371, in: Rivista di Cultura Classica e Medioevale 15, 1973, 35-47.


(438 words)

Author(s): Meiser, Gerhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] is sketchily known as a result of c. 280 inscriptions primarily from Falerii that are generally fragmentary (Civita Castellana; after the destruction in 241 BC, Falerii Novi, modern S. Maria di Falleri). They begin around 650 BC (Old F.) with a few longer texts [2. no. 241-243], become more numerous from the 5th cent. onwards (Middle Faliscan; generally stereotypical except for [2. no. 244] foied vino pipafo/pafo, cra carefo = hodie vinum bibam, cras carebo). New Faliscan (from 240 BC onwards) shows a strong Latin influence. In the 2nd cent. BC the l…


(199 words)

Author(s): Naso, Alessandro (Udine)
[German version] Tribe north-east of Rome between the Monti Cimini and the Tiber, culturally closely connected with the Latins and Etruscans. The capital city was  Falerii (Civita Castellana), and there were also towns called  Narce (Fescennium?),  Capena, Nepi ( Nepete) and Sutri ( Sutrium). From the 8th cent. BC Falerii and Narce flourished under the influence of Etruscan  Veii. The fossa burials ( Funerary architecture) contain not just Italian bronze and clay wares but also Oriental imports (n…

Falsification (of texts)

(1,460 words)

Author(s): Grafton, Anthony (Princeton)
[German version] A. The term The falsification of texts is almost as old as writing itself. Long before the origin of Greek literature, Egyptian scribes had falsely maintained that the texts written by them were word-for-word copies of older, more authoritative originals (ANET 414; 495). Jewish and Etruscan priests emphasized the mysterious circumstances under which prophetic and legal scripts had turned up, obviously brought to light by the hand of the divine [1; 2]. Not every adulteration of a text is a falsification. In many religious traditions authors have expres…


(195 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law the crime of forgery. Gell. NA 20,1,53 calls the false bearing of a witness, which according to the XII Tables was punishable with death, testimonium falsum. However this probably had nothing to do with the criminal acts for which Sulla (probably in 81 BC) introduced a public suit ( quaestio de falso) in the lex Cornelia testamentaria nummaria (Dig. 48,10). The jurisprudence of the Imperial period dealt not just with the forging of wills and the counterfeiting of coins as Sulla's law but also for example with the bribing of wi…


(517 words)

Author(s): Scheuer, Hans Jürgen (Göttingen)
[German version] (Greek Φήμη ( Phḗmē): Hesiod; cf. Ὄσσα ( Óssa): Homer). Personification of public speech from the point of view of its origin, increase and effect as rumour and (good or bad) defamation of character. Like  Peitho and  Eris she is part of a group of figural concepts of the communicative power and momentum dynamism of language to which is accorded attributes of the divine and the demonic. Her threatening nature comes from the fact that through the many voices of her speech the difference be…


(110 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] (Greek λιμός/ limós). Personification of hunger; also called the most powerful of the Furies ( Furiae) (Serv. Aen. 6,605) who arouses a voracious appetite that cannot be assuaged (in Plaut. Stich. 155-170 the never sated parasite describes F. as his mother). She is often listed in the catalogue of the great evils that populate the entrance to the Underworld (Verg. Aen. 6,273-281; Sen. Herc. f. 650ff.; Claud. Carm. 3,30ff.). Ovid (Met. 8,796-822) has F. ─ brilliantly represented as a…


(7,857 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Feucht, Erika (Heidelberg) | Macuch, Maria (Berlin) | Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg) | Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Orient The family in Mesopotamia was organized in a patrilineal manner; remnants of matrilineal family structures are to be found in Hittite myths, among the Amorite nomads of the early 2nd millennium BC and the Arab tribes of the 7th cent. BC. As a rule monogamy was predominant; marriage to concubines with lesser rights was possible, while there is evidence of polygamy particularly in the ruling families. The family consisted of a married couple and their children althoug…


(6 words)

Family see Marriage

Family planning

(619 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Although a distinction was made in ancient gynaecology between abortion and contraception (Sor. 1,60), the corresponding methods and practices cannot be precisely separated the one from the other. On the one hand, conception was regarded as a process, and its interruption at an early stage of pregnancy was certainly regarded as contraceptive; on the other hand, in view of deficiencies in understanding as to the point of conception, a device used as a contraceptive could also produce an abortion.  Child Exposure must also be regarded as a form of family planning. If Hipp…


(391 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ῥιπίς, rhipís; flabellum). Fans were used in the Orient and in Egypt from ancient times as symbols of status. The fan probably did not reach Greece until the 5th cent. BC; Eur. Or. 1426-1430 (first mention) still calls the fan ‘barbaric’, but it quickly became one of a woman's most important accoutrements (cf. Poll. 10,127); she would either cool herself with it or have a female servant fan her (cf. the flabellifera in Plaut. Trin. 252 and the flabrarius as her male counterpart in Suet. Aug. 82). On Greek vases and terracotta (‘Tanagra figurines’) fans are…
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