Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

Subscriptions: see


(271 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Pliny names three species of fern ─ felix, dryopteris, and polypodium ─, all of which are characterized by the absence of flowers and seeds. Plin. HN 27,78-80 describes two varieties of felix, one of which the Greeks on account of its pinnae referred to as πτέρις ( ptéris) or respectively βλάχνον ( bláchnon) and male (perhaps Aspidium filix mas L., the Male or Shield Fern, cf. Dioscorides 4,184 p. 2,332f. Wellmann = 4,183 p. 471f. Berendes), the other as female fern θηλυπτερίς ( thēlypterís) or respectively νυμφαία πτέρις ( nymphaía ptéris; Dioscorides 4,185 p. 2,333 W…


(460 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen)
[German version] Name of a goddess with several cult-places in central Italy, which were all located outside of municipal centres, as well as a sacred spring in Aquileia. The etymology of her name is as uncertain as the origins of the cult. In line with Varro, Ling. 5,74, modern scholars assume that F. was a Sabine deity. In contrast with earlier assumptions, Etruria is now generally rejected as the cult's place of origin [1. 309; 2. 407]. The archaeological findings in particular support the noti…


(89 words)

Author(s): Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen)
[German version] Deacon in Carthage, d. AD 546/547, pupil and friend of bishop  Fulgentius of Ruspe, whose vita he wrote soon after the latter's death in 532 (though his authorship is not universally recognized). F. compiled the first anthology ( Breviatio canonum) of North African canon law (a summary of synodal decisions in 232 canons). Also extant are 14 of his letters, mainly dealing with theological questions (Monophysitism, Three-Chapter Controversy). Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) Bibliography PL 65,117-150; 67,949-963; 88,817-830 LThK2, 4,87 H. Jedin (ed.), Hdb. der Ki…


(106 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Gallic aristocrat, grandson of the consul of 381 AD Afranius Syagrius, related by marriage through his wife Papianilla to  Sidonius Apollinaris (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,7,4; 7,12,1f.; Carm. 24,35-38). As praefectus praetorio Galliarum, he supported  Aetius [2] in 451 in the repulse of the Huns, protected Arelate from the Goths in 452/3, and granted tax concessions in Gaul (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 7,12,3). In 469, he came to Rome as an envoy of his homeland to raise charges against Arvandus, his successor in office (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,7,4; 9). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibl…


(222 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] A domesticated form of the polecat ( Mustela putorius furo), specially bred to hunt for rabbits in their underground burrows, a member of the genus Mustela of the weasel family ( Mustelidae). Plin. HN 8,218 mentions the existence of ferrets (under the name of viverra) on the Balearic Islands. Isid. Orig. 12,2,39 is the first to transmit the description furo, derived from furvus (‘dark’). The earliest detailed description is provided by Thomas of Cantimpré 4,42 ([1. 135f.] c. AD 1240). He notes the similarity of the furunculus (popularly known as furetus) with the pole…

Fertile crescent

(5 words)

see  Mesopotamia


(652 words)

Author(s): Christmann, Eckhard (Heidelberg)
[German version] Fertilizer was used in ancient agriculture in order to preserve or improve the fertility of the soil used for cultivation; the choice of fertilization method in each case depended crucially on the social environment, economic conditions, climate, and local traditions. Even though intensive soil cultivation was seen as more important than fertilization (Cato Agr. 61,1: Quid est agrum bene colere? Bene arare. Quid secundum? Arare. Tertio? Stercorare), agrarian writers wrote about this problem at great length. It was one of the fundamental problems…

Fescennini versus

(163 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
[German version] Improvized songs, sung at weddings, which fall into the category of quite commonly found apotropaic obscenity. The custom even continued in Christian times. The reason for the (unproven) etymological derivation of the name from Fescennia or -ium, a Faliscan town in southern Etruria, is unclear. An alternative derivation from fascinum (Paul Fest. 76; cf. 76, where he offers the form Fescemnoe) is linguistically impossible. Literary versions are found in  Catullus 61,119ff. (alluding to the bridegroom's previous homosexual relations), and also  Claudianus [2], De…

Festival dress

(444 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] It is safe to assume that the dress worn at private and public festivals differed in colour or adornment from everyday wear; women in  Sybaris, for example, who were to partake in one of the municipal festivities, received a year's notice in order to prepare their attire accordingly (Ath. 12,521c; Plut. Mor. 147e). A public appearance called for a clean attire (cf. Pl. Symp. 174a). On some festive occasions, a cloak was worn, referred to as ξυστίς ( xystís) (Aristoph. Lys. 1190, Nub. 70; Theoc. 2,74; Plut. Alcibiades 32,2). The ‘Phoenician’ red chitons, wor…

Festivals; Feasts

(4,658 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] I. The Ancient Orient The ancient Mesopotamian calendar was based on the phases of the lunar cycle and was observed in the cult on a monthly basis (1st, 7th, 15th day). Annual feasts were frequently associated with the agrarian cycle (sowing, harvest), whereby regional differences must be drawn into consideration (e.g., irrigation vs. rainfed agriculture). Non-cyclical feasts were generally related to the ruler (crowning, temple and palace construction, war, death). In the family sphe…

Festive processions/Trionfi

(2,407 words)

Author(s): Helas, Philine (Berlin RWG)
Helas, Philine (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Festive Processions or trionfi are processions of vehicles, based upon the Classical triumph, bearing representations of allegorical, historical, mythological or religious themes or figures in a visual, literary or staged form.  The triumph of the god Dionysus in India, recorded in mythology, was the model for the honouring of victorious generals, as was carried out in the triumphs of the Roman emperors [7.90-116].  The carrus navalis, part of the festivals of Dionysus, may be seen as the root of later …


(1,041 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] see Marcius Festus see  Marcius Festus Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Iulius F. Hymetius Rom. official, proconsul Africae AD 366-368 served around AD 350 as corrector Tusciae et Umbriae, later as praetor urbanus and consularis Campaniae cum Samnio (before 355). In 362, he became vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 11,30,29), and from 366 to 368 proconsul Africae (Cod. Theod. 9,19,3; his entire career: ILS 1256). As proconsul, he helped to alleviate a famine in Carthage, and in this context was sentenced to a fine as a result of b…


(499 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] Roman priests, who formed a   collegium of 20 life-time members. They were co-opted from Rome's noble families (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,72). Their name was linked with foedus (Serv. Aen. 1,62), fides (Varro, Ling. 5,86), and ferire (Fest. 81 L.). According to tradition, the founder of this collegium was either Numa (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,72,1; Plut. Numa 12,4-13,67f-68c; Camillus 18,137b-f), Tullus Hostilius (Cic. Rep. 2,31), or Ancus Marcius (Liv. 1,32,5; Ps. Aur. Vict. De viris illustribus 5,4; Serv. Aen. 10,14). The fetiales upheld the ius fetiale (Cic. Off. 1,36…

Feudal Law

(1,486 words)

Author(s): Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG)
Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG) [German version] A. Terms (CT) Feudal law ( ius feodale) (FL) describes legal norms relating to the medieval feudal system in general and, more specifically, the feudal relationship between lord and vassal. The German word Lehen ('fief') is derived from Old High German lehan ('loan', 'lend') and describes the transfer of economically useful land (property, law, office, etc.,) against the performance of services. From the late 9th cent., the Middle Latin term feodum/feudum was also used. In Latin texts lehan, lehen, len is routinely called benefici…


(438 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (πυρετός/ pyretós, Lat. febris) strictly refers to a symptom only, i.e. a raise in body temperature, but all ancient medical authors frequently use this term to refer to a specific illness or class of illness. In modern diagnostic usage, the term covers a variety of conditions; thus the identification of any ancient ‘fever’ without any further sub-classification or other description of symptoms is bound to fail. Such aids to identification could consist of observations regarding the periodicity of fever attacks, as in the febris tertiana or febris quartana, when epi…
▲   Back to top   ▲