Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Faba

(4 words)

see  Beans

Faberius

(107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman surname (Schulze, 161). F., private secretary ( scriba, γραμματεύς; grammateús) of Caesar; identical to the F. mentioned frequently by Cicero in spring 45 BC who had been given a loan by Cicero, the repayment of which involved irregularities that only Atticus could rectify (Cic. Att. 12-15). After the murder of Caesar, F. helped M. Antonius [I 9] to falsify the decrees of the dictator (App. B. Civ. 3,16; Cic. Att. 14,18,1). He probably died shortly afterwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography H. P. Benöhr, Fabianum negotium, in: ZRG 106, 1986, …

Fabia

(410 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] F. Two daughters of the patrician Ambustus with the same name Two daughters of the patrician Ambustus with the same name. The younger one had married the plebeian Licinius Stolo whilst the older one had married the patrician Ser. Sulpicius, who was able to hold high state offices because of his origin. When the messenger announced his arrival by knocking loudly on the front door, the younger F. was startled and the older one mocked her. Traditionally the incident is said to have led to th…

Fabianus

(77 words)

Author(s): Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Rom. bishop AD 236-250 Pope from AD 236 to 250, a Roman, divided the church of Rome into seven districts headed by deacons; from these later developed (12th cent.) the churches headed by cardinals. F. is mentioned in Euseb. Hist. eccl. VI,29, Jer. Ep. 84,10, Cypr. Ep. 9,1, Novatianus (Cypr. Ep. 30,5). Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) Bibliography MGH AA 9/1,75 LThK3 vol. 3, 1146f. [German version] [2] Papirius F. Philosopher and rhetor, see  Papirius

Fabius

(6,346 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Scholz, Udo W. (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman patrician family name, probably derived from Etruscan fapi [1. 162]. According to ancient etymology, however, either from faba ‘(broad)bean’ (‘legume grower’: Plin. HN 18,10; [2]) or from the original ‘Fodius’, ‘Fovius’ (‘wolf pit hunter’: Plut. Fabius 1,2; Fest. 77 L.) because the Fabii with the Quinctii originally appointed the priesthood of the Luperci; the  Lupercalia were also the family celebration of the Fabii (Ov. Fast. 193ff.). Early Imperial pseudogenealogy, which perhaps arose in the literary ci…

Fable

(3,299 words)

Author(s): Dithmar, Reinhard (Berlin RWG)
Dithmar, Reinhard (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Concept (CT) Fable (Lat. fabula, 'that which is made up'), with the addition 'Aesopic' already used by Phaedrus as a generic term for exemplary animal stories and the like, was introduced into German by H. Steinhöwel ( Der Ulmer Aesop of 1476/77, ed. O. Schäfer, 1992). The oldest fables appear in Ionic poetry and are called ainos, a term that embraces parable as well as proverb and riddle. The terms most often used are mythos and logos, stressing respectively the fantastic/magical and the rational element of fables. Since the …

Fable

(4,354 words)

Author(s): Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Luzzatto, Maria Jagoda (Florence) | Küppers, Jochem (Düsseldorf)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient No evidence exists of there being a term for the fable itself either in the Sumerian or the Akkadian fable. The fable is a short, fictitious story with an inherent moral, the characters of which are personified animals. Reduced to the moral, several fables have attained the status of a proverb. The fable has its origin in oral literature; it represents a simple form of the allegory. Rank disputes/tenzons (main protagonists: personified animals, natural phenomena and…

Fabrateria

(210 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] F. Vetus Town of the Hernici on the Trerus (modern Sacco) near Frosinone ( Frusino) in Latium adiectum ( regio I), called F. Vetus from the end of the 2nd cent. BC, near the church of Santa Maria del Fiume near Ceccano (cf. CIL X p. 552, 5647-5661; EEpigr 8, 888f.). As a Volscian town, it was involved in Rome's disputes with the Samnites (Liv. 8,19,1) in 330. Initially civitas sine suffragio, then municipium, tribus Tromentina (CIL X 5657); under dictatores, later administered by IV viri and decuriones. Cult of Ceres and Hercules. Centuriation area. Uggeri, Giovanni (…

Fabri

(264 words)

Author(s): Wierschowski, Lothar (Oldenburg)
[German version] In the military context fabri were craftsmen of the Roman army who were under the command of the praefectus fabrum. According to Livy (1,43,3), they initially formed two independent cohorts; at the latest from the time of Caesar onwards they were classified as soldiers of the legion (Caes. B Gall. 5,11,3). Vegetius (2,11) mentions the tignarii, structores, carpentarii, ferrarii and pictores (carpenters, bricklayers, cartwrights, smiths and painters) as some of the fabri. It was their duty to set up the winter camp and to produce or repair catapults a…

Fabrica, fabricenses

(763 words)

Author(s): Herz, Peter (Regensburg)
[German version] Originally fabrica only refers to the finished work (ThlL VI 12ff.), but later it primarily refers to the place where something was manufactured. Fabricae as production centres for equipment first appear in the direct military environment [11]. The first five fabricae with civilian employees were established in the Orient under Diocletian (Ioh. Mal. 307,21ff.). Not. Dign. Or. 11,18ff. and Not. Dign. Occ. 9,15ff provide an overview of the stock at the end of the 4th cent. The fabricae were subordinate to the praefectus praetorio (Cod.Theod. 10,22,2) up to c. 388, then…

Fabricius

(716 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian nomen gentile, probably not from faber (‘smith’), but from Etruscan hapre like Faberius and others. [1; 2]. Perhaps the family immigrated to Rome [3], in the 3rd cent. BC it became part of the nobility with F. [I 3] but was unable to maintain this status in the 2nd cent. In Rome there was a compitum Fabricium (Fest. 180L) or a vicus Fabrici (ILS 6073) between Caelius and Palatine, perhaps named after the place of residence of F. [I 3] [4], and the pons Fabricius,  F. [I 1]. I. Republican period [German version] [1] F., L. People's tribune 62 BC In 62 BC probably people's trib…

Fabulla

(97 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Wife of a certain Asiaticus, mentioned in the will of Domitius [II 25] Tullus as the recipient of a legacy (AE 1976, 77); she is presumably identical to the F. mentioned in Apollonius [14] of Tyana as the wife of Valerius, proconsul of Asia (Epist. 58). The latter is perhaps identical to Valerius Asiaticus, cos. in AD 94, proconsul of Asia 108/9 [1. 292ff.]. In this case the Letter of Apollonius would be fictitious. Cf. PIR2 F 92. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, Zum neuen Fr. des sog. Testamentum Dasumii, in: ZPE 30, 1978, 277-295.

Fabullus

(151 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Friend of  Catullus, recipient of the poem of invitation of Catull. 13, mostly mentioned together with Veranius: from Hispania Citerior they send Catullus a serviette (Catull. 12,14ff., cf. Catull. 9); about the time of his journey to Bithynia (57/6 BC) they are part of the cohors of a governor Piso (probably L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus) and are disappointed, just as Catullus, in their financial expectations (Catull. 28 and 47). So this probably concerns two different jou…

Facial expression

(469 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] FE means the expressive motions of the entire face (moods) or parts of it that spontaneously indicate a momentary human mood or are deliberately assumed with the intention of making a particular expression. FE's are often situation-related and supplemented by  gestures ( Gestus) or even only become comprehensible through the latter. On the stage individual characters were shown with differing FE's ( Masks,  Mimos). FE's were also a means of providing a person (e.g. a philosopher, …

Factiones

(1,211 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Hönle, Augusta (Rottweil)
[German version] I. Republic In Rome the permanent or temporary union between people who were mostly of high rank so as to preserve or assert similar interests. Initially used in the sense of a kinship connection (Plaut. Trin. 452; 466; 490), factiones gain a pejorative meaning in the late Roman Republic (‘clique’, ‘coterie’ in [1. 103 and passim]) as the term for an oligarchical group (Cic. Rep. 1,68; Caes. B Civ. 3,82f.) that was mostly reproached for moral inferiority (Sall. Iug. 31,15) and always for striving for power ( dominatio). For instance, political fellow travellers ( Syllana …

Fadius

(140 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile, attested to from the 1st cent. BC (Schulze, 132; 516). I. Republican period [German version] [1] F., T. Quaestor in 63 BC; in 57 as plebeian tribune he supported the recall of Cicero (Cic. P. Red. Sen. 21; Ad Q. Fr. 1,4,3; Att. 3,23,4). In 52 he was exiled for unknown reasons (Cic. Fam. 5,18). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Syme, RP 2, 594 (Name). [German version] [2] F. Gallus, M. Epicurean the Epicurean, M.  Fabius [I 18] Gallus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] L. F. Rufinus Cos. suff. AD 113 ; belonged to P…

Faenius Rufus, L.

(103 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Eques who in AD 55 became praefectus annonae through the support of Agrippina [3] and was held in high esteem by the people of Rome. Appointed by Nero in 62 to the position of praefectus praetorio along with Tigellinus; when the latter accused him of having had a relationship with Agrippina and Nero mistrusted him, he joined the Pisonian conspiracy. After it was uncovered, he was executed. It is still very uncertain whether the horrea Faeniana go back to him (CIL VI 37796). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography H. Pavis d'Escurac, La préfecture de l'annone, 1976, 322 PIR2 F 10…

Faesulae

(281 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Natural catastrophes Town in northern Etruria ( regio VII) on a rise above Florence north of the Arno, modern Fiesole. Etruscan name Vipsl [1. 675ff.]. Mentioned by Pol. 2,25,6 in relation to the Celtic invasion of 225 BC. In 217 Hannibal marched from F. to Lake Trasimena (Pol. 3,80; 82). In the Social War, F. was destroyed by L. Porcius Cato (Flor. 2,6,1…

Fagifulae

(94 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Samnites Pentri ( regio IV) on a hill to the right of the Tifernus. In 217 BC won back from the Carthaginians by Q. Fabius Maximus (Liv. 24,20,5). Municipium, tribus Voltinia (Plin. HN 3,107; CIL IX p. 237). Its location was pinpointed at the Church of Santa Maria di Faífula (Faífoli) near Montágano north of Campobasso. Epigraphical evidence: CIL IX 2551-2561; EEpigr 8, 109. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Degrassi, Quattuorviri, in: Id., Scritti vari 1, 1962, 150ff. G. De Benedettis, F., in: S. Capini (ed.), Samnium. Archeologia del Molis…

Fagus

(4 words)

see  Beech

Faience

(697 words)

Author(s): Briese, Christoph (Randers)
[German version] The term faience describes earthenware with a coating of pewter glaze that looks like porcelain and was produced for the first time in Spain in the 13th cent. AD and traded via Mallorca ( Majolica), although it got its name from earthenware manufactured from the 16th cent. onwards in northern Italian Faenza that borrowed from Chinese porcelain. In the archaeological literature faience is a common but incorrect term for a glass-like, silicated, glazed or unglazed product of chalky to sandy consistency (hence more accurately termed silic…

Fairy-tale

(539 words)

Author(s): Rölleke, Heinz
[English version] Jacob Grimm [1. 194] stated that a valuable addition to scholarship in the field of the fairy-tale (FT) would be "to track down in the Latin and Greek classical authors any anilis fabula, any graódēs mýthos mentioned by them" (“bei den lateinischen und griechischen classikern jede anilis fabula, jeden graódēs mýthos aufzuspüren, deren sie erwähnen”). This demand has been met: a wealth of ancient FT motifemes has been discovered and catalogued [5]. There is no evidence from Antiqu…

Faiyum

(185 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Large oasis c. 80 km south-west of Cairo with a lake in the north. Name from Egyptian p-jm (‘the sea’, older names ts̄, ‘lake land’ and š-rsj, ‘southern lake’, Greek ἡ λίμνη ( hē límnē) or Κροκοδιλοπολίτης νομός ( Krokodilopolítēs nomós), from 256/5 onwards Ἀρσινοίτης νομός/ Arsionoḯtēs nomós). The capital city Šdjt ( Arsinoe [III 2]) is mentioned early but it was not until the 12th Dynasty that F. was developed through dam construction, especially under Amenemhet III ( c. 1853-1808) who was still considered a local hero in Roman times. The chief god wa…

Falacrinae, Falacrinum

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Settlement of the Sabini ( regio IV) at the sources of the Avens in the area of Reate on the border with Picenum. Station of the via Salaria (It. Ant. 307; Tab. Peut. 5,4), near the church of S. Silvestro in Falacrino in Collicelle (Cittareale, Rieti). Birth place of Vespasianus (Suet. Vesp. 2,1). Inscriptions.: CIL IX, p. 434. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 468 N. Persichetti, Viaggio archeologico della via Salaria, 1893, 79f.

Falarica

(4 words)

see  Pilum

Falcata

(103 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] Modern technical term derived from falcatus (‘sickle-shaped’) that describes the cutting and stabbing weapon of the Iberian foot soldier that was about 60 cm long and had a slightly crooked back, an s-shaped curved blade and a pommel bent downwards with bird or horse head ends. The distribution of the falcata, which goes back directly to the Italian cutting swords and is attested from the 2nd half of the 5th cent. at the latest to the 1st cent. BC, is concentrated in the Hispanic south-east ( Contestani(a),  Bastetani).  Sword Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography F. Oue…

Falcidius

(65 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Italian personal name (Schulze 272). F., C. (P.?), people's tribune in 41 BC and originator of one of the last known plebiscites ( lex Falcidia), which prescribed that a testator could only leave so many legacies as allowed the heir to remain with a quarter of the inheritance ( quarta Falcidiana) (Dig. 35,2; Gai. Inst. 2,227). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kaser, RPR 2, 756f.

Falcons

(175 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] While ἱέρακες generally denotes goshawks and ἰκτῖνοι harriers, only the kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus) is identifiable among falcons. Aristophanes calls it Κερχνῇς (Av. 1181 in Ael. NA 12,4), Aristotle κεγχρίς (Hist. an. 6,2,559a 26; cenchris, Plin. HN 10,143f.). According to Aristot. Hist. an. 6,1,558b 28-30, it lays four or more red eggs (as well Plin. HN 10,143f.), has a crop (Hist. an. 2,17,509a 6) and drinks a fair bit (8,3,594a 1f.). Pliny claims that the tinnunculus is a friend of domestic pigeons whom it defends against goshawks (HN 10,109). Like P…

Falerii

(786 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Oracles Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria on a tuff spur of the eastern Monti Cimini between two righthand tributaries of the Tiberis (Vicano and Fosso Maggiore). Founded by the Argive hero  Halesus (Ov. Fast. 4,73), according to others a Chalcidian foundation (Iust. 20,1,13). Had its own Italic dialect (Str. 5,2,9; [1; 2; 3]). Cu…

Falesia

(75 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Harbour on the Etruscan coast opposite Ilva (modern Elba), 12 miles south of Populonia (It. Ant. 501; Faleria, Rut. Namat. 1,371, should be corrected to Falesia [2]). In the Middle Ages Porto di Felesa [1], modern Piombino (Livorno). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 G. Targioni Tozzetti, Relazione d'alcuni viaggi fatti in diverse parti della Toscana 4, 1751, 250 2 R. Gelsomino, Nota a Rut. Nam. 1,371, in: Rivista di Cultura Classica e Medioevale 15, 1973, 35-47.

Faliscan

(438 words)

Author(s): Meiser, Gerhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] is sketchily known as a result of c. 280 inscriptions primarily from Falerii that are generally fragmentary (Civita Castellana; after the destruction in 241 BC, Falerii Novi, modern S. Maria di Falleri). They begin around 650 BC (Old F.) with a few longer texts [2. no. 241-243], become more numerous from the 5th cent. onwards (Middle Faliscan; generally stereotypical except for [2. no. 244] foied vino pipafo/pafo, cra carefo = hodie vinum bibam, cras carebo). New Faliscan (from 240 BC onwards) shows a strong Latin influence. In the 2nd cent. BC the l…

Falisci

(199 words)

Author(s): Naso, Alessandro (Udine)
[German version] Tribe north-east of Rome between the Monti Cimini and the Tiber, culturally closely connected with the Latins and Etruscans. The capital city was  Falerii (Civita Castellana), and there were also towns called  Narce (Fescennium?),  Capena, Nepi ( Nepete) and Sutri ( Sutrium). From the 8th cent. BC Falerii and Narce flourished under the influence of Etruscan  Veii. The fossa burials ( Funerary architecture) contain not just Italian bronze and clay wares but also Oriental imports (n…

Falsification (of texts)

(1,460 words)

Author(s): Grafton, Anthony (Princeton)
[German version] A. The term The falsification of texts is almost as old as writing itself. Long before the origin of Greek literature, Egyptian scribes had falsely maintained that the texts written by them were word-for-word copies of older, more authoritative originals (ANET 414; 495). Jewish and Etruscan priests emphasized the mysterious circumstances under which prophetic and legal scripts had turned up, obviously brought to light by the hand of the divine [1; 2]. Not every adulteration of a text is a falsification. In many religious traditions authors have expres…

Falsum

(195 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law the crime of forgery. Gell. NA 20,1,53 calls the false bearing of a witness, which according to the XII Tables was punishable with death, testimonium falsum. However this probably had nothing to do with the criminal acts for which Sulla (probably in 81 BC) introduced a public suit ( quaestio de falso) in the lex Cornelia testamentaria nummaria (Dig. 48,10). The jurisprudence of the Imperial period dealt not just with the forging of wills and the counterfeiting of coins as Sulla's law but also for example with the bribing of wi…

Fama

(517 words)

Author(s): Scheuer, Hans Jürgen (Göttingen)
[German version] (Greek Φήμη ( Phḗmē): Hesiod; cf. Ὄσσα ( Óssa): Homer). Personification of public speech from the point of view of its origin, increase and effect as rumour and (good or bad) defamation of character. Like  Peitho and  Eris she is part of a group of figural concepts of the communicative power and momentum dynamism of language to which is accorded attributes of the divine and the demonic. Her threatening nature comes from the fact that through the many voices of her speech the difference be…

Fames

(110 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] (Greek λιμός/ limós). Personification of hunger; also called the most powerful of the Furies ( Furiae) (Serv. Aen. 6,605) who arouses a voracious appetite that cannot be assuaged (in Plaut. Stich. 155-170 the never sated parasite describes F. as his mother). She is often listed in the catalogue of the great evils that populate the entrance to the Underworld (Verg. Aen. 6,273-281; Sen. Herc. f. 650ff.; Claud. Carm. 3,30ff.). Ovid (Met. 8,796-822) has F. ─ brilliantly represented as a…

Family

(7,857 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Feucht, Erika (Heidelberg) | Macuch, Maria (Berlin) | Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg) | Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Orient The family in Mesopotamia was organized in a patrilineal manner; remnants of matrilineal family structures are to be found in Hittite myths, among the Amorite nomads of the early 2nd millennium BC and the Arab tribes of the 7th cent. BC. As a rule monogamy was predominant; marriage to concubines with lesser rights was possible, while there is evidence of polygamy particularly in the ruling families. The family consisted of a married couple and their children althoug…

Family

(6 words)

Family see Marriage

Family planning

(619 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Although a distinction was made in ancient gynaecology between abortion and contraception (Sor. 1,60), the corresponding methods and practices cannot be precisely separated the one from the other. On the one hand, conception was regarded as a process, and its interruption at an early stage of pregnancy was certainly regarded as contraceptive; on the other hand, in view of deficiencies in understanding as to the point of conception, a device used as a contraceptive could also produce an abortion.  Child Exposure must also be regarded as a form of family planning. If Hipp…

Fan

(391 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ῥιπίς, rhipís; flabellum). Fans were used in the Orient and in Egypt from ancient times as symbols of status. The fan probably did not reach Greece until the 5th cent. BC; Eur. Or. 1426-1430 (first mention) still calls the fan ‘barbaric’, but it quickly became one of a woman's most important accoutrements (cf. Poll. 10,127); she would either cool herself with it or have a female servant fan her (cf. the flabellifera in Plaut. Trin. 252 and the flabrarius as her male counterpart in Suet. Aug. 82). On Greek vases and terracotta (‘Tanagra figurines’) fans are…

Fannia

(143 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] In 88 BC, F. hid the ostracized C. Marius in her house in Minturnae In 88 BC, F. hid the ostracized C. Marius in her house in Minturnae, after he had helped her to win back her dowry in a divorce case in 100 BC against C. Titinius (Val. Max. 8,2,3; Plut. Marius 38,3-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Daughter of Clodius [II 15] Full name perhaps Clodia F. Daughter of the senator and Stoic Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus and of Arria [2]. Wife of Helvidius Priscus, whom she accompanied into exile under Nero and Vespasian. He…

Fannius

(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen (Schulze 266; 424), attested historically from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F.M. f., C. Rom. senator and historian, partaker in the storming of Carthage Roman senator and historian (in Cic. Brut. 99 falsely differentiated from a relative). F. distinguished himself in 146 BC with Ti. Gracchus at the storming of Carthage (Plut. Gracchi 4,6), fought in 141 as tribunus militum in Spain (App. Ib. 287), was the son-in-law of C.  Laelius and heard  Panaetius (Cic. Brut. 100f.). In…

Fanum

(262 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (Etymology: *dhh1s-no-; but Oscan-Umbrian fēsnā < stressed form *dheh1s- [1]). Generic expression for the holy place ( locus sacer, Liv. 10,37,15) consecrated to the deity by the pontifices (Varro, Ling. 6,54; Fest. 78 L.;   pontifex ). Initially designating the location without regard for the form and function of the cult site contained within the sacred precincts (e.g. grove, spring, cave, temple, altar etc.). Later, fanum really comes to mean only the ancient sanctuary as opposed to the temple ( aedis) as an architectural entity. Attempts to differentiate fanum fr…

Fanum Fortunae

(255 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | | Coloniae Umbrian harbour-city north of the mouth of the Metaurus ( regio VI), where the via Flaminia reaches the Adriatic coast; the modern Fano (Pesaro; It. Gaditanum 95; It. Ant. 126; It. Burd. 615; Tab. Peut. 5,2). The name derives from the cult of Fortuna. F. had the status of a municipium, tribus Pollia. The city was occupied by Caesar after his crossing of the Rubicon (Caes. B Civ. 1,11,4); under Augustus it was the veterans' colony of Iulia Fanestris (CIL XI 6232); basilica of Vitruvius (5,1,6-10; [1; 2])…

Fan Ye

(265 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Chinese author of a dynastic history that contains i.a. information on the geography of the Parthian empire and on contacts between the Parthians and the Chinese. Born AD 398 into a family of Chinese imperial officials, F. himself held the posts of administrative district officer and general in the imperial guard. Implicated in a conspiracy under emperor Wen (Sung Dyn.), he was executed in AD 446, which prevented the completion of his 100-chapter ‘History of the later Han Dynasty (AD 25-220)’, Hou Hanshu (10 chs. ‘basic annals’, benji of emperors and empresses, 80 b…

Far

(373 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally probably ‘corn’ in the sense of grain [1]. In the historical period, however, the name applied especially to spelt as opposed to common wheat ( triticum). Synonyms are ador and alicastrum; evidently a short form of far adoreum. Plin. HN 18,82 maintains that the zones of cultivation for far (emmer) and ζειά/ zeiá (ζέα/ zéa) are mutually exclusive. According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,25,2, however, these two kinds of grain, along with arinca (ὄλυρα; ólyra) as grown in Gaul, Italy and elsewhere, are identical. 3 kinds of the highly cold-resistant …

Farfarus

(52 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Tiber in the region of the Sabini (Ov. Met. 14,330; Sil. Pun. 4,182); Latinized as Fabaris (Verg. Aen. 7,715; Vibius Sequester 148), the modern Farfa; it flows by Trebula Mutuesca. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 478 M. P. Muzzioli, s.v. Fabaris, EV 2, 451.

Farmers

(1,783 words)

Author(s): Osborne, Robin (Oxford) | Rathbone, Dominic (London)
[German version] I. Greece No Greek term corresponds exactly to the English word farmer. The Greek word γεωργός ( geōrgós) described someone who cultivated the land, whether landowner, simultaneously proprietor and farmworker, or merely a farmworker (Xen. Oec. 5,4); it thus applied to rich and poor, citizen and non-citizen, slave or free man. The relatively unusual term αὐτουργός ( autourgós) meant someone who worked for himself or with his own hands, and was restricted to free men; although it means ‘men who have no leisure’ (Thuc. 1,141,3-5), it relat…

Farnus

(5 words)

see  Ash (tree)

Farrago

(250 words)

Author(s): Christmann, Eckhard (Heidelberg)
[German version] was a mixed crop (mixed mash, Mengkorn, Mischel, méteil, mistura), used for food into the 20th cent. AD, but already in antiquity relegated for the most part to use as cattle fodder; thus farrago served as green or dry fodder as well as forage for draught animals (Fest. 81 L.) and domestic animals. It consisted of the threshings of emmer ( ex recrementis farris, Plin. HN 18,142) and weed-seeds, of which many accompany this spelt-wheat; farrago could also be sown mixed with vetch seed (Varro, Rust. 1,31,5; Plin. HN 18,142). Columella had a high regard for farrago hordeacea (2,…

Fas

(296 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] is to be understood as ‘that which is divinely sanctioned’; its opposite is nefas. The adjective fastus is derived from it. Fas and nefas appear at first with verbs (e.g. fas est), later also as nouns in expressions such as contra fas. The derivation is disputed: 1. from * fēs-/ * fas<* dh(e)h1s- as festus, feriae, fanum; 2. from * <* bheh2 - as fari, fama, fabula, fatum [1]. The relationship between fari and the adj. fastus was already recognised by Varro (Ling. 6, 29-30; 53). According to [2] fari indicates the existence of the utterance removed from the speaker a…

Fasces

(500 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] Bundle of rods made of elm or birch, held together by red straps. The fasces, more than likely of Etruscan origin, were carried in front of supreme Roman magistrates (  Consul ,   Praetor ) by public servants ( lictores;   Lictor ) as a symbol of their authority (  Imperium ). Outside of Rome (cf.   Pomerium ), an axe was placed in the centre of the fasces as symbol of absolute military authority over Roman, as well as allied and provincial, soldiers [1. 196 f.; 2. 119 f.]. The   dictator was allotted 24 fascia, the two consuls 12 each, the praetors 6 each, and the proma…

Fascia

(4 words)

see  Ornament

Fasciae

(238 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Bandages, bindings, straps of different kinds were made of various materials (felt, leather, linen, wool), and could be white or coloured. Fasciae as a category includes the straps of the bed ( lectus,   kline ) on which the mattress was laid,  swaddling cloths (σπάργανα, spárgana) and fasciae crurales, bindings designed to protect the lower legs ( fasciae tibiales) or thighs (  feminalia) against the cold. The use of fasciae was regarded as unmanly, and for men was restricted to invalids, but even Augustus (Suet. Aug. 82,1) and Pompey (Cic. Att. 2…

Fascinum

(4 words)

see  Magic

Fascism

(7,576 words)

Author(s): Pisani, Salvatore (Florence) | Cagnetta, Mariella (Bari RWG) | Schiano, Claudio (Bari RWG)
Pisani, Salvatore (Florence) [German version] I. Art and Architecture (CT) Pisani, Salvatore (Florence) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The Italian Fascist image of Antiquity between 1922 and 1943 was first and foremost characterized by its use as a propaganda tool. The focus was almost entirely on the Rome of the Imperial Age and, most particularly, Rome under Augustus, who as a person and in his work was stylized and idolized in every imaginable way. An important reason for this lay in the apparent analo…

Fashion

(2,807 words)

Author(s): Reichel, Andrea
Reichel, Andrea [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The reception of ancient fashion is inextricably linked with the reception of ancient art. It is examples of that art - sculptures, frescoes, mosaics, terracottas and vase paintings - that shape our image of clothing fashions in Greek and Roman Antiquity. Since only few original pieces have been preserved, the study of clothing styles up to the Middle Ages and beyond largely depends on art history in order to reconstruct the materials used for cloth…

Fasti

(2,200 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] A. The term Formed as an adjective from the Latin fās (‘divine right’; no etymological link with *fēs or *făs and their derivative terms fēriae, fēstus and fānum can be demonstrated [11. 134]), fastus in technical language is found only in association with dies, and in Rome then signifies those days on which certain public acts were held to be permitted. This concept gave a calendrical digest of such days ─ among which the dies fasti predominate ─ the name fasti. As regards both name and graphic form, the word displaced all other competing terms for  calenda…

Fastidius

(95 words)

Author(s): Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam)
[German version] Bishop in Britain in the 5th cent. AD; according to Gennadius (vir. ill. 57) author of two texts: De vita Christiana (ad Fatalem) and De viduitate servanda. His adherence to the Pelagians ( Pelagius), named in  Prosper Tiro's Chronicon of 429 (MGH AA 9,1, 472), is not proven. Leaving aside the Epistula ad Fatalem (cf. CPL 763) used in sermon 20 of  Caesarius of Arles (CPL 1008), any attribution of texts, including the so-called Corpus Caspari (CPL 732-736), is disputed. Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) Bibliography F. G. Nuvolone, s.v. F., Dictionnaire de Spiritu…

Fasti Ostienses

(354 words)

Author(s): Brehmer, Bernhard (Tübingen)
[German version] Marble calendar extant in fragmentary form, with added list of Roman consuls and suffect consuls as well as Ostia's duumviri. The list is expanded by substantial reports from Rome and Ostia, thus acquiring the character of a chronicle. While only fragments of the calendar covering three months are comprehensible, parts of these provide highly detailed notes on the various feasts, and the historiographical component regarding the magistrature makes the Fasti Ostienses (FO) one of our most important Latin inscriptions. The fragments cover ─ with gaps …

Fat

(162 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] Fluid, semi-solid or solid material obtained from vegetable or animal cells, and of great importance to human  Nutrition as a source of energy and vehicle of flavour. In early antiquity  Butter, lard and suet predominated. Use of these animal fats subsequently remained at a high level in antiquity, especially in northern regions; in the Mediterranean region, olive oil eventually gained absolute pride of place. Although relatively expensive (CIL III 2, p. 827 3,1-3; 4,10-11; p. 828…

Fat

(5 words)

see → vol. 6, Addenda

Fate

(739 words)

Author(s): Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg)
[German version] A. General As can be seen from the multitude of names ─ some of them impersonal ─ for the powers of fate in Homer (  aísa , aísimon,   anánkē ,   moîra (i), móros, mórsimon,   némesis , peproménē), these are not personal deities, but rather explain inescapable events, such as the early death of prominent heroes. Even the gods' ability to assert their authority was limited when faced with this ‘lot’ [1; 2]. Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) [German version] B. Graeco-Roman Philosophical Theories of Fate In early Greek philosophy the question of human destiny is replaced, in…

Fates

(5 words)

see  Parcae;  Moira

Fatima

(137 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Fāṭima). Daughter of  Muhammad and his first wife Ḫadı̄ǧa; wife of the future Caliph Alı̄ b. Abı̄ Ṭālib ( Ali), mother of al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusain; she is the only daughter of the prophet to be universally venerated by Muslims, who ascribe extraordinary powers to her. Especially among the  Shiites and the Ishmaelites she is regarded as a miraculous woman, in whom Christian (equated with the Virgin Mary) and gnostic traits (F. as the incarnation of light) come together. Little is known about the historic F. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. Lammens, Fāṭ…

Fatum

(5 words)

see Fate

Faunus

(929 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
Roman god of the outdoors, early identified with the Greek  Pan. In poetry and especially in the figurative arts the two generally coincide: F., lover of the  Nymphs (Hor. Carm. 3,18,1) and insatiable erotomaniac [1], comes from Hellenistic mythology. F. does not have his own iconography [2; 3]. Like Pan, he is associated with forest and mountains as well as with goats and sheep. More his own is his role as originator of nightmares and numinous voices (and then generally as a seer), his association with the   Lupercalia and his integral place in the line of origi…

Fausta

(104 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Flavia Maxima F., daughter of Emperor Maximian and Eutropia; when still a minor, at the end of AD 307, she was married to Constantinus [1] in order to reinforce the alliance between Maximian and Constantine, after the former had returned to politics. Mother of three emperors: Constantinus [2], Constantius [2] and Constans [1]. At the end of 324 she was elevated with Helena to the rank of Augusta, but a little later, in circumstances that remain unexplained, killed by order of her imperial husband. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 325f. J. W. Drijvers, F…

Faustina

(799 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Annia Galeria Aurelia F. Daughter of Marcus Arelius, born after AD 151 Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and F. [3]. Born probably AD 151 [1. 108, 247; 2. 161], married to Cn. Claudius [II 62] Severus, cos. II 173. Her son was Ti. Claudius [II 65] Severus Proculus, cos. ord. 200. PIR2 C 1028. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21988 2 W. Ameling, Die Kinder des Marc Aurel..., in: ZPE 90, 1992, 147-166. [German version] [2] Annia Galeria F. Wife of Antoninus Pius Wife of Emperor  Antoninus [1] Pius. Daughter of  Annius [II 15] Verus, cos. III A…

Faustinupolis

(5 words)

see vol. 6, Addenda

Faustinupolis

(105 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Φαυστινούπολις; Phaustinoúpolis, colonia Faustinopolitanorum). Originally the village of Halala, 24 km south-east of Tyana; the modern Başmakcı. Here died in AD 176  Faustina the Younger [3] (SHA Aur. 26,4; 9), for which M. Aurelius elevated F. to the status of colonia. Attested since 431 as a bishopric. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography M. H. Ballance, Derbe and F., in: AS 14, 1964, 139-145 R. P. Harper, s.v. F., PE, 326 Hild/Restle, 258f. T. Drew-Bear, Inscriptions de Cappadoce, in: J. DesCourtils (…

Faustinus

(309 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] see Faustulus See Faustulus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wealthy friend of the poet Martial Wealthy friend of the poet Martial, who dedicated bks. 3 (3,2) and 4 (4,10) to him; he owned villae in Baiae (3,58), Tibur (4,57), Tarracina (10,51,8) and Trebula (5,71). PIR2 F 127. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Governor, in AD 273, of the province of Belgica under Esuvius [1] Tetricus Governor, probably in AD 273, of the province of Belgica under Esuvius [1] Tetricus; according to Polemius Silvius (Chron. Min.…

Faustulus

(382 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] Foster father of Romulus and Remus, husband of Acca Larentia. According to the tradition [1. 9f.] going back to Diocles [7] and Fabius Pictor (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,79,4; Plut. Romulus 3,1,19a; 8,9,22c; Ps.-Aur. Vict. Origo 20,1), F. is either Amulius' leading shepherd, to whom the other shepherds hand over the newly-born brothers Romulus and Remus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,79-83), or the one who finds the twins with the she-wolf on the Tiber banks (Liv. 1,4). He in his turn gives …

Faustus

(805 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
Supposedly an ancient Latin praenomen (Liber de praenominibus 4), but historically only attested (with meaning ‘The Fortunate’) for F. Cornelius [I 87] Sulla, the son of the dictator Sulla and his descendants ( Cornelius [II 57] and [II 60]). Epithet of the Anicii ( Anicius [II 2-6]); also a favourite name for slaves. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Anicius Acilius Glabrio F. Consul AD 438 Scion of the most important late Roman senatorial family who became praefectus urbi Romae three times under Honorius and Valentinian III, in AD 437/8 and 442 praefectus praetorio…

Faventia

(288 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) A town of eastern Aemilia located on the via Aemilia (Itin. Gaditanum 90; It. Ant. 100; 126; 287; It. Burd. 616; Tab. Peut. 4,5) at the crossing of the Anemo (Lamone), modern Faenza. Late Republican foundation (augural name), municipium, tribus Pollia [5. 93]. In 82 affected by the Civil War (Liv. Epit. 88; Vell. Pat.2,28; App. B Civ. 1,91). Famous for wine (Varro Rust. 1,2,7) and linen production (Plin. HN 19,9). Early Christian diocese. Prehistoric settleme…

Favonius

(377 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Flamant, Jaques (Venelles)
Rare Roman family name, occurring in Latium (Schulze 563). [German version] [1] F., M. Opponent of P. Clodius Pulcher He came from the municipal elite and was a follower of M.  Porcius Cato (Uticensis), whose political and personal intransigence he attempted to imitate, leading to envy and numerous electoral defeats. In 61 BC he attacked P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, in 60 he unsuccessfully charged Q. Caecilius [I 32] Metellus Pius Scipio. In the 50s he opposed Caesar, Pompey and Crassus in vain. He became aedile in 5…

Favorinus

(523 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Rhetorician with philosophical interests, author of  Buntschriftstellerei, a representative of the  Second Sophistic, born about AD 80-90 in Arelate. His life is recounted in Philostr. VS 1,8 and the Suda (also s.Gell. NA 16,3,1 et passim). He was described as a hermaphrodite (Philostr.: ἀνδρόθηλυς, εὐνοῦχος; andróthēlys, eunoûchos; Polemon in Förster Scriptores physiognomonici 1,160,10: sine testiculis natus, cf. [6]). He was trained in Massalia, heard Dio Chrysostom speak in Rome (?) and became an acclaimed speaker. In Ephesus he wa…

Febris

(192 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] Personification of malarial fever. The inhabitants of Rome, which was originally located in a swampy area where malaria posed a real threat, built F. sanctuaries at an early time (Cic. Leg. 2,28; Aug. Civ. 3,25). A main sanctuary on the Palatine (Plin. HN 2,16; Cic. Nat. D. 3,63; Ael. VH 12,11) and other temples on the Quirinal and near the Mariana monumenta (Esquiline?) are known (Val. Max. 2,5,6). In the Quirinal sanctuary, persons afflicted by the fever dedicated remedia that had been attached to their disease-stricken bodies (Val. Max. 2,5,6). Apart fro…

Fecunditas

(85 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] Personification of fertility, which was only created in association with the imperial family. When  Poppaea Sabina gave birth to a daughter of Nero in AD 63, the Senate resolved to dedicate a temple to F. (Tac. Ann. 15,23). Since the reign of Antoninus Pius, F. was pictured on the obverse of coins. She is often depicted with children in her arms or at her side, occasionally also with a cornucopia [1]. Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle) Bibliography 1 T. Ganschow, s.v. F., LIMC 8.1 (Suppl.), 583ff.

Federal states

(7 words)

see States, confederation of

Federation

(3,092 words)

Author(s): Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG)
Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) As reflected in this concept’s multi-faceted historical breadth, Federation is a many-layered institution.  As a basic concept in the history of human socialization, and in legal constitutional history as well, federation is able to represent both social and political organizations [10. 582f.]  Federation came about through the 'binding together' of socially or politically definable groups of individuals or organizational units s…

Felicissimus

(93 words)

Author(s): Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich)
[German version] Head of the treasury under Aurelianus [3] (SHA Aurelian. 38,3), who incited the workers to forge coins in AD 271 or 274. When this became known, he organized an uprising on Caelius Mons, which imperial troops were able to put down only with heavy losses. F. was killed in the process (Eutr. 9,14; Aur. Vict. Caes. 35,6; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 35,4; Suda s.v. μονιτάριοι). Polemius Silvius (Chron. min. 1, 521f. Mommsen) lists him among the usurpers. Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) Bibliography PIR2 F 140 PLRE 1, 3311 Kienast, 21996, 238.

Felicitas

(293 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] The Roman goddess F., usually depicted as a wreathed figure with a cornucopia and herald's staff ( caduceus) [1], is the personification of good luck and success that supposedly endures unlike  Fortuna (Val. Max. 7,1). She received her first temple in Rome, which was built with booty from the Spanish campaigns of L. Lucinius Lucullus (Cass. Dio 43,21,1; 76,2), shortly after 146 BC in the Velabrum area (Suet. Iul. 37). Another temple (together with Venus Victrix, Honos and Virtus) was built by Pomp…

Felix

(619 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) | Et al.
Roman cognomen (‘The Fortunate One’), in the Republican period initially an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla and his descendants (Cornelius [II 59-61]); in the Imperial period, as a name invoking luck, one of the most common cognomina and the most common slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period, probably a contemporary of  Dioscurides [8], named together with  Anteros in an inscription as a gemari de sacra via [1. 44 and note 40]. He signed the famous sard…

Fel Temp Reparatio coins

(7 words)

see  Maiorina

Fencing

(4 words)

see  Sports

Fenestella

(270 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] Roman historian of the early Imperial period. The exact dates of his life are uncertain: according to Jerome he died at the age of 70 in AD 19 (Chron. p. 172 Helm), according to Pliny only ‘late in the reign of Tiberius’ ( novissimo Tiberii Caesaris principatu; HN 33,146). F. wrote an annalistic history in more than 22 books (Fr. 21 Peter from book 22 [= HRR 2, 85f.] relates to 57 BC) that extended from the early Roman period to the late Republic and perhaps even included the Augustan period (Fr. 24 Peter [= HRR 2, 86]). The …

Fennel

(189 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] ( feniculum first in Plaut. Pseud. 814, MLat. feniculum or fenuclum, μάραθ(ρ)ον; márath(r)on). An umbellifer ( Umbelliferae) introduced from the eastern Mediterranean. It differs from the closely related  dill ( anethum ) because of its size and its being perennial. As a vegetable and an astringently scented herb (cf. e.g., Plin. HN 19,186), it was particularly grown in the wine-growing areas of Germany [1. 26] (sown in February in Italy according to Pall. Agr. 3,24,9). The well-known Attic v…

Fenni

(129 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] According to Tacitus ‘an uncivilized and very poor’ ( mira feritas, foeda paupertas) but ‘happy’ ( beatius arbitrantur) northern people of hunters, whose classification as Germans or Sarmatians was left uncertain (Tac. Germ. 46). They undoubtedly were identical with the Phínnoi (Φίννοι) in northern Scandinavia, who were considered ‘neighbours’ of the Goths (Ptol. 2,11,16: Hs. X; 3,5,8; cf. Jord. Get. 3,22: mitissimi), but not Suomi Finns, who were only named thus in the 2nd half of the 12th cent. Because of the customs described in Tac. Ger…

Fenugreek

(146 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (βούκερας, αἰγόκερας, τῆλις; boúkeras, aigókeras, têlis) is an annual cultivar of the Mesopotamian species Tr. Haussknechtii (not the Mediterranean Trigonella gladiata), with a tangy fragrance that was used medicinally and as fodder. As seed finds of c. 3000 BC near Cairo show, fenugreek was cultivated in ancient Babylonia and Egypt, (Egyptian šbt, Arabic ḥulba) from where it was exported. Dioscurides 2,102 ([1. 176f.] = 2,124 [2. 206f.]) recommends the meal produced from the seed as a tonic and for cleansi…

Fenus nauticum

(803 words)

Author(s): Krampe, Christoph (Bochum)
[German version] The Roman and Hellenistic maritime loan (cf. the titles De nautico fenore Dig. 22,2 and Cod. Iust. 4,33). The name is first encountered late in the 3rd cent. AD in a statement of Diocletian and Maximian (Cod. Iust. 4,33,4) and meant both the loan principle and the maritime interest. Classical jurists called the loan object the mutua pecunia nautica (Cerv. Scaevola Dig. 45,1,122,1) or pecunia traiecticia. It is defined by Modestinus as pecunia quae trans mare vehit (Dig. 22,2,1). The loan served to facilitate financing the export and import of goods by the sea. The fenus nau…

Fer(c)tum

(4 words)

see  Strues

Ferentinum

(293 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Mountain top town (404 m) of the Hernici in Latium adiectum on the via Latina, 24 miles from Anagnia and 7 miles from Frosinone, modern Ferentino (Frosinone) on the Trerus (modern Sacco; It. Ant. 305; Tab. Peut. 6,2). Occupied by Volsci in 413, later returned to the Hernici (Liv. 4,51ff.); in 361 conquered by the consul Licinius Calvus (Liv. 7,9). It remained loyal to Rome during the Hernici uprising in 306 but suffered severe devastation in 211 from Hannibal. After 195 BC in possession of the ius Latii (Liv. 34,42,5). Du…

Ferentis, Ferentium

(287 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in southern Etruria ( regio VII), attested in the 8th/6th cents. BC on an outlier of the Poggio San Francesco (305 m), modern Ferento, 9 km north of Viterbo, on an elevation between eastern tributaries of the Tiber. In the Roman period relocated to the Northeast on the other side of the river (306 m; Pianicara). Its territory was distributed under the Gracchi [1. 216]; municipium, tribus Stellatina. The gens Salvia as well as Otho (Tac. Hist. 2,50; Suet. Otho 1,1) and Flavia Domitilla (Suet. Vesp. 3) came from F. The town decayed in the late…

Feretrius

(340 words)

Author(s): Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
[German version] An epithet of  Jupiter of uncertain meaning, which already caused etymological speculation during antiquity, reflecting antiquarian and political interests. These related the name and cult of the god to each other. Derivations ranged from ferre ( arma: Prop. 4,10,47; Liv. 1,10,5-6; cf. R. Gest. div. Aug. 19: tropaiophóros; pacem: Fest. 81 L.) and feretrum (rack on which captured weapons were carried during the triumph: Plut. Marcellus 8) to ferire ( ense ducem: Prop. 4,10,46; Jupiter who ‘strikes’ with his lightening bolt: Plut. Marcellus 8; ferire foedus [ sc. feti…

Feriae

(929 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Daniel P. (Seattle)
[German version] The Latin word for ‘holiday’; grammatically plural, it is often used as if in the singular (cf. Kalendae, Nonae, Idus, nundinae). Its ancient form (Paul Fest. 76 L., 323 L.1) is fesiae (cf. the etymologically related festus). Dies feriatus is frequently used as a synonym. Offerings and prescribed rituals could form a regular part of certain holidays. Generally, the main characteristic of feriae was the cessation of all profane activities. Corresponding to the sacra (Fest., 284 L.), feriae fell into two broad categories: feriae privatae and feriae publicae. Feriae …

Feriae Latinae

(556 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] was the annual celebration of the league of Latin towns on the Albanus mons, in honour of  Jupiter Latiaris. The organization of the festival lay with Rome; all information regarding the foundation of the celebration, its changes and development refers to its mythical ancient history (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,49; 6,95; Plut. Camillus 42,5 p. 151; Str. 5,3,2 p. 229). These   feriae conceptivae (Varro, Ling. 6,25) were of great political importance: Roman consuls had to set the date for this festival immediately after their acc…

Feriale

(1,164 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] A. Term Feriale is the term used in the title of a Campanian inscription of AD 387, containing a list of seven annually celebrated rituals (InscrIt 13,2,283). From this text, known as the feriale Campanum, historians now apply this term to similar compilations within the Latin sphere: In contrast with actual calendars (  fasti ), ferialia do not list all of the days within a year, but only those associated with certain specific rituals. It makes sense to extend the academic application of the term feriale to include comparable written compilations in other culture…

Feriale Duranum

(469 words)

Author(s): Herz, Peter (Regensburg)
[German version] The feriale Duranum is a papyrus found during excavations in 1931/32 in the garrison town of Dura-Europus (prov. Mesopotamia) with a calendar of feast days dating from the rule of Severus Alexander, which was originally intended for official use by the cohors XX Palmyrenorum (2/3 extant, from beginning of January to the end of September). Alongside date and reason for a particular festival, it also contained information on what kind of sacrificial animal was to be used. It has been possible to identify with a sufficient de…

Fer(i)culum

(132 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Occasionally feretrum (e.g., Ov. Met. 3,508; 14,747), the name for various types of devices employed for carrying goods. In particular, it refers to the racks on which objects were presented during processions (triumphs, funerals etc.), e.g., booty, prisoners, images of deities etc. (Suet. Caes. 76). The fericulum was also used to transport the deceased and objects to be interred or cremated (Stat. Theb. 6,126). Fericulum was also the name for the trencher ( Household equipment), the flat bowl in which foods were served during meals (e.g., Pet…
▲   Back to top   ▲