Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Daunian vases

(251 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Pottery type found among the Italic peoples who inhabited the area of modern provinces around Bari and Foggia, with local production sites particularly in Ordona and Canosa. From their early phase (around 700 BC), the vessels display a geometric ornamentation independent of the Greek range of subjects, which is applied in red and brown to black earthen colours onto the manually formed vessels. Among these are diamond and triangular patterns as well as band ornaments, wavy lines, circle, cross, square, arc, …


(175 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαῦνος; Daûnos). [German version] [1] Eponymous hero of the Daunians Hero who gave his name to the Daunians ( Daunia); son of  Lycaon. Of Illyrian origin (Fest. p. 69), he immigrated to Italy together with his brothers Iapyx and Peuketios. There they expelled the native Ausonians and founded three kingdoms: Messapia, Peuketia and Daunia, which together are called  Iapygia (Nik. fr. 47 = Anton. lib. 31). When  Diomedes comes to Italy, D. receives him kindly and is supported by him against the Messapians. …


(4 words)

see  Daorsi


(1,100 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Mahé, J. P. (Paris)
[German version] [1] King David In the biblical tradition, the figure of D. appears as a singer and musician (1 Sam 16,23), as a talented fighter (1 Sam 17; 30; cf. also his life as an irregular soldier in 1 Sam 22,1-5; 23) and finally as king of Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem (2 Sam 2,-5,10), who also subjugates the neighbouring states of Aram, Moab and  Edom [1] as well as Ammon (cf. 2 Sam. 8; 10; 12,26-31). His dynasty is promised eternal royal rule by god (cf. the so-called Nathan's prophecy 2 Sam.…


(393 words)

Author(s): Burford Cooper, Alison
[German version] were among the wage-earners (μισθωτοί/ misthōtoí; Lat. mercenarii, operarii) and supplemented the regular workforce when there was a need for additional, usually heavy, labour. In Athens they gathered at the Κολωνὸς μίσθιος/ Kolōnòs místhios. They received  wages (μισθός/ misthós: Hom. Il. 21,445; Lat. merces) or sometimes grain (σῖτος/ sîtos, Lat. frumentum;  Ration). Although there are not very many references to day-labourers in the agricultural sector, their work was of considerable importance, particularly at harvest time (Hom…

Dea Augusta Vocontiorum

(89 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | City of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, one of the two religious centres with lucus Augusti (Luc-en-Diois), today called Die. Ruins: Water pipes/channels, necropoleis (NE and NW), baths, bridges, villae inside and outside the walls. Inscriptions (CIL 12, 1556-1560; 1563) attest to the existence of temples (Jupiter, Cybele and Attis, Dea Augusta Andarta). Inscr.: CIL 12, 1554-1696. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Grenier, 1, 1931, 557-560; 4, 1960, 106-111 M. Leglay, s.v. D.A.V., PE, 259f.

Dead, cult of the

(3,539 words)

Author(s): S.LU. | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia The cult of the dead in Mesopotamia is documented in written as well as archaeological sources. In the written sources, the term kispum is used for the act of supplying the dead with food and drink (monthly or bimonthly). An important part of the ritual was the ‘calling of the name’ [3. 163] ─ kispum thus served to ensure not only the existence but also the identity of the dead in the  Underworld. In the absence of the cult of the dead, the Underworld changed into a dark, inhospitable place. The living also had an inter…

Dea Dia

(95 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] An otherwise unknown female deity to whom the   Arvales fratres devoted the sacrifice of the month of May; nothing is known about the connection of the Dea Dia (DD) with a Dia from Amiternum (CIL I2 2, 1546) and the Greek Dia. Her name derives from the adjective dius and is connected with the space of heaven, probably the ‘good light of heaven’. The thesis that DD is an indigitation ( Indigitamenta) of Tellus or of Ceres cannot be maintained. Scheid, John (Paris) Bibliography R. Schilling, Rites, cultes, dieux de Rome, 1979, 366-370.

Dead Sea (textual finds)

(3,321 words)

What is referred to as the textual finds of the Dead Sea (DS,  Asphaltitis limne) is the library of MSS that were found at locations on the DS, including Ketef Jericho,  Qumrān (= Q), Ḫirbat al-Mird, Wādī n-Nār, Wādī l-Ġuwair, Wādī l-Murabbaa (= WM), Wādī Sudair, Naḥal Ḥever (= NḤ), Naḥal Mišmȧr, Naḥal Ṣeelim and the Masada (= M), as well as in the Wādī d-Dāliya (= WD) located between Samaria and Jericho. A complete list of all the texts can be found in [3, vol. 39]. [German version] I. Wādī d-Dāliya With the exception of WDSP 38 (Greek), the Wadi ed-Daliyeh Samaritan Papyri (= WDSP) were …

Dea Roma

(6 words)

see  Roma IV.

Dea Syria

(6 words)

see  Syria Dea

Dea Syria

(6 words)

see  Syria Dea


(3,898 words)

Author(s): S.LU. | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Englhofer
[German version] I. Ancient East and Egypt A range of archaeological and textual sources from varied walks of life bear eloquent testimony to the intensity of the attempts of coming to term with death in ancient eastern cultures ( Burial and mourning rituals and the related cult of the  dead), as displayed in forms of  funerary architecture, burial objects and the extensive  funerary literature. As is evident from textual sources, this struggle occupied a large part of everyday human existence [5]. On …

Death, angel of

(231 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew Malakh ha-mawet). Figure of Rabbinical angelology, can be identified with  Sammael or  Satan (e.g. bBB 16a). The angel of death, given by God the power over life and death, stands at the side of someone who is dying. If that person opens his or her mouth in fright, the angel casts a drop of gall from his sword into the open mouth, whereupon death occurs (bAZ 20b). Up until the sin of the golden calf (Ex 32,1-24), the angel was intended only for the peoples of the world, beca…

Death penalty

(661 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient The death penalty as a sanction for capital offences is attested in the ancient Near East from the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC as a penalty in varying frequency in the respective statute books and (less often) as a sentence in  documents of  procedural law. Capital offences were, in particular, homicide/killing ( Killing, crimes involving),  robbery, abduction, adultery, various cases of sodomy and incest and other statutory definitions of offences, princip…


(327 words)

Author(s): Willvonseder, Reinhard (Vienna)
[German version] The debitor had an obligation to pay what he owed to the   creditor . For the origin of such an obligation arising from a contract (  contractus ) or a prohibited act (  delictum ) see   obligatio . The creditor could make his claims against a tardy debtor (  mora ) by litigation at court ( Procedural law). If the creditor won or the debitor accepted his obligations, the ‘personal liability’ of the creditor came into effect (  nexum ). This, according to Gellius (20,1, especially 45ff.), might still have been taken literally in the law of t…

Debt, Debt redemption

(2,856 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Crawford, Michael Hewson (London)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Debt incurred by the population which lived on agriculture is a general phenomenon in agrarian societies. It ultimately led to debt bondage, thus threatening the social equilibrium. Debt redemption by sovereign decree was a common means of reducing or eliminating the consequences of debt, i.e. of restoring ‘justice in the land’. Instances of debt redemption are well attested in Mesopotamia from the 3rd millennium BC, but more especially between the 20th and 17th cen…

Debt law

(1,241 words)

Author(s): Ranieri, Filippo (Saarbrücken RWG)
[English version] The rules, principles and legal figures of Roman debt law had moulded the continental European ius commune since the rebirth of legal instruction in the law schools of the Glossators. It was precisely the Justinian sources of the Roman Law of Obligations that stood in the centre of the practical reception of Roman law. They have shaped jurisprudence and legal practice throughout continental Europe since the late Middle Ages and so represent the central core of the legal tradition of the ius commune. The individual institutions and legal figures of Roman debt l…

Debt redemption

(7 words)

see  Debt, Debt redemption


(498 words)

Author(s): Müller-Richter, Klaus (Tübingen RWG)
[English version] ‘Décadence’, especially in literary criticism and theory, is a concept derived from the comparison of the decline of Imperial and late Ancient Rome with the stylistic characteristics of Rome's literary paradigms. Associated in Ch. Montesquieu's Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (1734) exclusively with the decline of the city of Rome and extended in 1750 by J.-J. Rousseau to that city's literature, which was for him both cause and symptom of the decline, décadence becomes in D. Nisard's Études de mœurs et de critique sur…
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