Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Caldis

(35 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Auxiliary fort, north-west of  Cirta, west of the modern Mechta Nahar. Many steles, dedicated to Saturnus. Inscriptions: Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 3442-3569. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 8, no. 173.

Cale Acte

(133 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Καλὴ Ἀκτή; Kalḕ Áktē). Greek town on the northern coast of Sicily, founded in 446 BC by  Ducetius with the support of Archonides, the tyrant of Herbita (Diod. Sic. 12,8,2f.). As early as 495 BC,  Scythas of Zanclae had planned the foundation of an Ionian colony on that site. C.A. was probably first entered in around 200 BC into the lists of the theōrodókoi of Delphi. It was plundered by Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,3,101). Birth place of the rhetor  Caecilius [III 5]. Localized near the modern Caronia Marina. Remains of a reservoir, statue of a togatus. Coins: [1. 129f.]. Manganaro, …

Caledonii

(196 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Ancient authors applied the name C. variously: either to the inhabitants of Scotland north of a line from the Forth to the Clyde (Tac. Agr. 25), or to a tribe in the region of the Great Glen (Ptol. 2,3,8), or to a group of tribes in northern Scotland (Cass. Dio 76,12). The reference to Caledonia in Tac. Agr. 27 and to silvae Caledoniae in Plin. HN 4,102 suggests that the C. settled across a large area of eastern Scotland. Almost unknown prior to the Roman invasion, they offered fierce resistance to it, before they were decisively defeated by…

Calendar

(4,567 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Freydank, Helmut (Potsdam)
A. Basic Principles [German version] 1. Term Calendar developed its modern meaning in post-antiquity from the Latin word for ‘debt register’ (  Calendarium ). In the following, the term is taken as an element of  chronography within a culture which attempts to describe or regulate annual periodicities. Typically, a day represents the smallest unit of a calendar ( Clocks). Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) [German version] 2. Social Construction of Time Hunting and farming both demand a harmonization with seasonal variations ( Seasons), thus leading to annually repeated patte…

Calendar

(3,617 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) [German version] A. Traditions (CT) Of the many calendar systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity only the Jewish and the Julian Calendars survived in use beyond the late classical period. For many other systems, such as the Gaulish calendar, or that of Coligny, or the conventional lunisolar calendar of the Eastern Mediterranean, there are clear breaks in the tradition after the 4th cent. AD. The Julian Calendar, the system adopted by the Roman administration, was taken over by the Chri…

Calendarium

(269 words)

Author(s): Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[German version] The Roman calendarium was a register of  loans; the meaning of the word stems from the fact that loan agreements often came into force on the Kalendae, the first day of the month, and that the Kalendae or the Idus (mid-month) were commonly set as the day the loan became due. In their calendarium, private individuals kept a record in their of the sums they had loaned with interest, of the debtors, the provisions of the loan agreements and the due dates of the loans (Sen. Ep. 87,7; cf. Dig. 15,1,58). In the area of  public finances, the word calendarium could refer to the totalit…

Calenian Pottery

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Generic term for lower Italian black-glazed pottery ( Relief ware), evident from the second half of the 4th cent. to the 2nd cent. BC. The term Calenian Pottery (CP) (askoi, bowls, omphalos phialae, gutti) is commonly used for this group of vessels, yet they were undoubtedly also produced in other regions (Paestum, Sicily, Tarentum). Particularly well-known are bowls with medallions, worked in a medium relief (‘Arethusa bowls’); their origin from Cales (Calenus) or rather Campania…

Calenus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (probably for descent from Cales) in the gens  Fufia in the 1st cent. BC; frequent epigraphical attestations in the imperial age (ThlL, Onom. 79). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cales

(225 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [2] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae Main centre of the Ausones in Campania (Καλησία; Kalēsía: Steph. Byz. s.v.; Calenum: Plin. HN 3,63; Cale), on an elevated plain, enclosed on three sides by the Rio de' Lauzi and the Rio di Pezzasecca, modern Calvi Risorta. For its foundation myth cf. Verg. Aen. 7,728 (Aurunca), Sil. Pun. 8,512; 12,525 (Calais), Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,32,37 (Volsci). Conquered by the Romans in 334 BC (Liv. 8,16; Vell. Pat. 1,14,3), municipium, seat of the quaestor for Campania (Tac. An…

Calesius

(36 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle)
[German version] (Καλήσιος; Kalḗsios). Trojan ally from Arisbe (northern Troad), charioteer of Axylus, slain together with Axylus by Diomedes (Hom. Il. 6.18). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 184.

Calestrius

(153 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Tiro Proconsul of the Baetica, around 107 BC Friend of Pliny the Younger (Ep. 7,16), quaestor Caesaris, tribunus plebis, praetor in AD 93, procos. prov. Baeticae c. AD 107 (Plin. Ep. 6,22,7; 9,5; PIR2 C 222) [1. 779ff.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] T.C. Tiro Iulius Maternus Governor of Lycia-Pamphylia AD 132-135 Son of C. [3], governor of Lycia-Pamphylia AD 132-135 (AE 1972, 651a; IGR 3, 704, 1) [2. 83f.; 3. 39, 43]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] T.C. Tiro Orbius Speratus Cos. suff. in 122 Senator, probably a younger brother or …

Caletor

(87 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle)
(Καλήτωρ; Kalḗtōr). [German version] [1] Father of Aphareus Achaean, father of Aphareus who was killed by Aeneas (Hom. Il. 13.541). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Cousin of Hector Trojan, son of  Clytius [4], cousin of Hector (Hom. Il. 15.419ff.), brother-in-law of  Cycnus [2] (Paus. 10.14.2). Killed by  Ajax [1] when attempting to set one of the Achaean ships on fire (Hom. Il. 15.419ff.;  Tabula Iliaca). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliography R. Hampe, s.v. Alexandros (89), LIMC 1.1, 517 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, …

Calgacus

(59 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] One of the Caledonian leaders ( dux) in the battle at mons Graupius (possibly north of Aberdeen) in the late summer of AD 84, which gained Agricola the triumphalia ornamenta (Tac. Agr. 29ff.), but did not lead to a permanent annexation of Caledonia. Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North, 1987.

Caliadne

(21 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
[German version] (Καλιάδνη, Καλιάνδη; Kaliádnē, Kaliándē). Naiad, mother of twelve sons fathered by Aegyptus (Apollod. 2.19). Zingg, Reto (Basle)

Calibration

(652 words)

Author(s): Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover)
[German version] In Greece, the authority over calibration as well as the control over official measures and weights lay in the hands of the agoranómoi, although from the mid 4th cent. BC at the latest there is evidence that assistant officials called metronómoi were in charge of these affairs. Fireproof moulds for weights were kept in the office of the market official or the scale master ( zygostátēs). Weights were poured from bronze or lead under official supervision and then were handed over to shops and to the authorities. The weights came in varying shapes…

Calidius

(260 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested in Rome from the 1st cent. BC (Schulze, 138; ThlL, Onom. 81f.). [German version] [1] C., M. Mint master in 117 or 116 BC Mint master in 117 or 116 BC (RRC 284), perhaps later praetor or propraetor (IG VII 18, Z. 14). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., M. Praetor in 57 BC Praetor in 57 BC; as such he supported Cicero's return from exile (Cic. P. Red. Sen. 22), and on this occasion probably gave the speech De domo Ciceronis (Quint. Inst. 10,1,23). In 52 BC, he took up the cause of T. Annius [I 14] Milo, the murderer of  Clodius Pulc…

Caliga

(4 words)

see  Shoes

Caligo

(40 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of darkness, analogous to the Greek  Erebus and Skotos. She is the mother of  Chaos, and by him she is also mother of Nox, Dies, Erebos and Aether (Hyg. Fab. praef. 1). Bloch, René (Berne)

Caligula

(871 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. (Iulius) Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Roman emperor AD 37-41. Born 31 August 12 in Antium, son of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. A grandnephew of Augustus and grandson of the triumvir Mark Antony by birth, he also became Augustus' grandson, following Germanicus' adoption by Tiberius. He was given the nickname C. (‘bootee’) by the soldiers on the Rhine front, where his mother had taken him in AD 14. On the 26 May 17, he took part in his father's triumph over Germania, follow…

Calindoea

(137 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Καλίνδοια; Kalíndoia). Town in Mygdonia/Macedonia near the modern Kalamoton. In the 5th cent. BC, C. was part of the  Bottice (IG I3 76) and was probably still independent in 360 BC (IG IV2 1, 94 Ib 13), but may have come into the possession of the Macedonian kings under Philip II, and, together with neighbouring settlements, passed on to Macedonian settlers as a ‘donation’ ( dōreá) by Alexander the Great (SEG 36, 626). Latest under Augustus, C. became an autonomous city with its own council, ekklesia, and politarchs (SEG 35, 744). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/L…
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