Brill’s New Pauly Supplements II - Volume 9 : The Early Mediterranean World, 1200–600 BC

Get access Subject: Classical Studies

Ranging in time from the end of the Bronze Age to the dawn of the so-called historical period (12th-6th centuries BC), this compendium presents the first complete survey of the early history of all the cultures along the coasts of the Mediterranean. In addition to the Phoenicians, Greeks and Etruscans, these also include many other peoples, such as the Iberians, Ligurians, Thracians, Phrygians, Luwians, Aramaeans and Libyans. The volume brings together the knowledge gained from material, textual and pictorial sources in all disciplines working in this field, including Near Eastern, Phoenician, Carthaginian and biblical archaeology, Aegean and North African studies, Villanovan studies and Etruscology, Iberology, early Greek historiography and Dark Ages studies. As a whole, this period was characterized by the intermingling of cultures around the Mediterranean Rim, and the main focus of content is therefore on contacts, the transfer of culture and knowledge and key common themes, such as mobility, religion, resources, languages and writing. With indices and numerous tables and maps of Pauly quality.

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2.1.11. Early Celtiberian culture

(732 words)

Author(s): Fernández-Götz, Manuel | Ruiz Zapatero, Gonzalo
A. Definition and periodization [German source] The Celtiberians, well known from Greek and Roman written sources of the 2nd and 1st millennia [1], originated in the 6th century in the east central region of the Iberian Peninsula (northeast of the meseta and the right bank of the middle reaches of the Ebro). Their world ended, symbolized by the fall of the city of Numantia in 133, in Roman conquest and integration into the Roman Empire. The roots of the Celtiberians’ language, their social, economic and religious organization and thei…
Date: 2018-08-16

1.2.2. Early concepts of time and calendars

(3,941 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara
A. Ancient concepts of time [German source] The linear, critical, scientific concept of time intrinsic to modern historical research is generally at odds with the concepts of time that gave rise to ancient chronological and era-related dates. In its consideration of time, the history of philosophy [3915–17] suggests that the linear perception of time is not an anthropological constant, but rather derives from a historical type of time perception that emerged in early Christian Antiquity and continued to develop through the early modern period into the late 19th century [3527–75]; [39…
Date: 2018-08-16

3.7.2. Early sciences

(3,815 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara
A. Definitions [German source] ‘Science’ today is understood to mean the systematic process of acquiring knowledge of natural and social phenomena and organizing that knowledge on the basis of theoretically generalizable principles. Modern science is based on ‘reason’ and ‘empiricism’ and has emancipated itself from religion and, largely, from philosophy. At its heart is the modern scientist equipped with a local and relative capacity for acquiring knowledge. This concept of science differs from the…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.6.9. East central Asia Minor

(3,628 words)

Author(s): Aro, Sanna | Wittke, Anne-Maria
A. Location, geography and settlement [German source] East central Asia Minor, which in the time of the Hittite Empire (13th cent.) was the heartland of  Ḫattusa and the northern part of the ‘Lower Land’, can be roughly divided into two cultural and linguistic zones for the EIA and MIA, separated approximately by the southern arc of the Halys (Kızılırmak).The northern zone, the so-called inner Halys arc, which today is a plateau exhibiting mostly steppe vegetation, was more heavily forested in Antiquity and contained many settlement clusters. To the n…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.2.9. Eastern Hallstatt zone

(3,474 words)

Author(s): Teržan, Biba
A. Heartland [German source] A.1. Geography and settlementThe territory of the  Eastern Hallstatt Culture extended southwards from Lower Austria and Burgenland, southwestern Slovakia south of the Lesser Carpathians as far as the Danube bend at Vác (Hungary), through Pannonia and Transdanubia as far as Slavonia in the south. To the west, it reached deep into the eastern Alps, Burgenland, Styria and Carinthia. In the east, its frontier was determined by the mighty River Danube. Beyond the Danube, the pre-Scythian ‘ Füzesabony-Mezöcsát’ Group initially settled the upper and mi…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.8.4. Eastern Maghreb and Sahara

(2,922 words)

Author(s): Mattingly, David
A. Geography, state of research, sources [German source] In general, researchers have paid little attention to the early history of North Africa. It has always been overshadowed by work on the ancient ‘colonial powers’, the Phoenicians and Greeks, and in later phases with the Romans [6]; [2643–72]; [27], and by a preoccupation with extraordinary funerary monuments [3]. In consequence, the peculiarities and accomplishments of indigenous African societies have been understated. The western Maghreb (2.8.7.) comprises the mountainous, mostly Mediterran…
Date: 2018-08-16

3.5.1. Economy and exchange

(12,627 words)

Author(s): Von Reden, Sitta
A. Forms of value and exchange [German source] A much-cited passage from the Iliad, probably written down in the late 8th century, offers an insight into the problems of studying and interpreting the EIA economy. In it, Homer tells the story of a silver krater, which  Achilles offers as the victor’s prize in the funerary games for  Patroclus:Peleus’ son [Achilles] right away set up the prizes for swiftness:One was a silver krater, skilfully wrought, to hold sixMeasures: of greater beauty than any other on earthFor artful Sidonians had made it admiringlyAnd Phoenicians fetched it o…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.7.10. Edom

(1,278 words)

Author(s): Kühn, Dagmar
A. Name, geography, history [German source] The name Edom (Hebrew: ‘red’) was used in Antiquity to denote a landscape, a political entity and an ethnicity. Originally, the name probably referred to the rugged Transjordanian landscape southeast of the Dead Sea, where the middle levels of the highlands are dominated by red Nubian sandstone as they decline toward the sea. As a political entity and settlement area of the Edomites, however, Edom extended much farther. In addition to Edom, the name Seïr was…
Date: 2018-08-16