Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 6 : History of classical Scholarship - A Biographical Dictionary

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Peter Kuhlmann (Göttingen) and Helmuth Schneider (Kassel)

This compendium gives a comprehensive overview of the history of classical studies. Alphabetically arranged, it provides biographies of over 700 scholars from the fourteenth century onwards who have made their mark on the study of Antiquity. These include the lives, careers and works of classical philologists, archaeologists, ancient historians, students of epigraphy, numismatics, papyrology, Egyptology and the Ancient Near East, philosophers, anthropologists, social scientists, art historians, collectors and writers. The biographies put the scholars in their social, political and cultural contexts while focusing on their scholarly achievements and their contributions to modern classical scholarship.

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Salmasius, Claudius

(863 words)

Author(s): Döpp, Siegmar
Saumaise, Claude; French philologist. Born 15. 4. 1588 in Sémur-en-Auxois (Burgundy), died Spa (Spanish Netherlands) 3. 9. 1653. 1604–1606 studied philosophy in Paris, then from 1606 jurisprudence and philology at Heidelberg. Return to Burgundy in 1610 and long period as a private scholar. 1632 appointed to succeed Joseph Justus Scaliger as prof. at Leiden; 1650/51 at the Swedish court on the invitation of Queen Christina; 1651 return to Leiden. Work and influence S. had important teachers in Joseph Justus Scaliger, Isaac Casaubonus (Paris) and Dionysius Gothofredus…

Salutati, Coluccio

(1,330 words)

Author(s): Riesenweber, Thomas
Colucius Salutatus; Italian statesman and Humanist. Born Lino Coluccio di Pierio di Salutati, Stignano 16. 2. 1331, died Florence 4. 5. 1406. Studied at Bologna, then worked as a notary; 1367 chancellor in Todi, 1370/71 in Lucca; 1371–1374 notary in Stignano; 1375–1406 chancellor in Florence. Career S.’s father was the local leader of the Guelph party. Soon after his birth, the family went into exile when the city fell to the Ghibellines. At Bologna, his father entered the service of the ruling de’ Pepoli in 1337, and this benefited the family. At the age of 14, S. began his studies of the ars d…

Sambucus, Ioannes

(390 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Zsámboky, János; Hungarian physician, historian and philologist. Born Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia), July 1531, died Vienna 13. 6. 1584. Studied from 1542 in Vienna, then 1543 in Leipzig, 1545 in Wittenberg and Ingolstadt, 1550 in Strasbourg, 1551–1552 in Paris. 1558–1564 travelled to Venice, Padua, Genoa, Naples, Milan, Ghent and Antwerp. 1555 doctor of medicine at Padua; from 1564 doctor and historian at Vienna. Work and influence The Humanist S. was skilled at pursuing political objectives through literature. His publishing speciality lay in the relati…

Sandrart, Joachim von

(523 words)

Author(s): Schreurs, Anna
German painter, engraver and writer on art. Born Frankfurt 12. 5. 1606, died Nuremberg 14. 10. 1688. Teachers: Peter Isselburg in Nuremberg 1620–1622, Gerrit van Honthorst in Utrecht 1625–1627. Extended stays in Italy (Venice, Rome) 1629–1635 and Amsterdam 1637–1645; studio at the Hofmark (‘enclosed estate’ within a Bavarian manor) of Stockau in Upper Bavaria until 1670. Living later in Augsburg (1670–1673) and Nuremberg (1674–1688), he had a hand in the foundation and organization of two academies of art. From 1676, a member of what wa…

Santi Bartoli, Pietro

(742 words)

Author(s): Hermanns, Marcus Heinrich
Also Sante, Santo or Sancti Bartoli; Latin Petrus Sanctus Bartolus. Italian engraver, draughtsman and painter. Born Perugia 1635, died Rome 7. 11. 1700. Lived in Rome from 1643. Career, works S. B. first learned painting in Rome, but abandoned these studies to devote himself to engraving. He worked for various ecclesiastical and secular dignitaries, including Cardinal Camillo II Massimo [2] and Queen Christina of Sweden. It was probably while working for the Queen that S. B. met the antiquarian Giovanni Pietro Bellori, who w…

Sarton, George

(544 words)

Author(s): Praet, Danny
Belgian-American historian of science and scholarship. Born Ghent, 31. 8. 1884, as George Alfred Léon S.; died Cambridge, Massachusetts, 22. 3. 1956. Studied philosophy at Ghent from 1902, then from 1904 chemistry and mathematics. Mathematics doctorate 1911 on the principles of Newtonian mechanics in Ghent (cf. [8]). Fled Belgium during World War I, initially to London in 1914, then to the United States in 1915, becoming a researcher at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington (1915–1948) and part-time lecturer and prof., including¶ at Harvard (lecturer 1916–1918 and…

Savigny, Friedrich Carl von

(672 words)

Author(s): Nippel, Wilfried
German legal scholar. Born Frankfurt 21. 2. 1779, died Berlin 25. 10. 1861. Studied law at Marburg from 1795; doctorate there 1800. From 1803, prof. ext. at Marburg; from 1808 prof. ord. at Landshut, 1810–1842 at Berlin. 1817–1848 Prussian Staatsrat (member of the Council of State); 1842–1848 ‘minister for the revision of legislation’. Work and influence S., who was born into an old noble family, went against the family tradition in choosing a scholarly career. In [1], he cited criteria of Roman law in substantiating the distinction between ownership…

Savile, Henry

(402 words)

Author(s): Kuhn-Chen, Barbara
English mathematician and Hellenist. Born Bradley, West Riding of Yorkshire, 30. 11. 1549, died Eton 19. 2. 1622. Studied at Oxford from 1561, BA there 1566, MA 1570. Fellow of Merton College, Oxford from 1565; Warden there 1585. 1595 Provost of Eton College. Knighted 1604. Work and influence S.’s initial interest mainly lay in geometry and astronomy. His first scholarly work was a Latin translation (unpublished) of Ptolemy’s Almagest ¶ and the commentaries concerning it by Theon of Smyrna, Pappus of Alexandria and Nicholas Cabasilas. In 1620, a few years before h…

Scaliger, Joseph Justus

(1,334 words)

Author(s): Kuhn-Chen, Barbara
French philologist. Born Agen (Aquitaine) 5. 8. 1540, died Leiden 21. 1. 1609. Son of Julius Caesar Scaliger. 1558–1560 studied Greek, Hebrew and Arabic at Collège Royal in Paris. 1572/73 prof. of philosophy at Geneva Academy. ¶ 1593–1609 prof. of Greek and law at Univ. of Leiden. Biography and scholarly career S., the son of the Humanist Julius Caesar S. (who had started using the Latinized form of the family name, Della Scala), first attended the Collège de Guyenne in Bordeaux from 1552 to 1554. Teachers of Latin there included the Protestant Humanist George Buchanan an…

Scaliger, Julius Caesar

(872 words)

Author(s): Kuhlmann, Peter
Bordone, Giulio (della Scala). Italian Humanist, poet and literary theorist. Father of Joseph Justus Scaliger. Born Riva del Garda 23. 4. 1484, died Agen (Aquitaine) 21. 10. 1558. Entered the Franciscan Order as a youth, later worked at printing house of Aldus Manutius in Venice. Soldier 1509–1515; studied in Padua until 1519. Worked a physician until around 1524; from 1524 in the service of Bishop Antonio della Rovere in France (Agen) and working as physician. 1538 prosecuted (and acquitted) for heresy. Work and influence S. was born into the humble family of a miniaturist fro…

Schachermeyr, Fritz

(469 words)

Author(s): Pesditschek, Martina
Austrian ancient historian. Born Linz-Urfahr 10. 1. 1895, died Eisenstadt 26. 12. 1987. School in Linz. From 1914, studied history and geography at Graz, Berlin and Vienna, latterly Innsbruck. 1915–1919 military service, including in Mesopotamia. Doctorate 1920 Innsbruck; teaching examinations 1921. Habil. 1928, also Innsbruck. 1920 librarian at ancient history seminar in Innsbruck. Teacher at Mädchenrealgymnasium (girls’ school) from 1921 there. 1931 prof. ext. in Jena. 1933/34 Gauführer (‘district leader’) of Thuringia for the National Socialist Kampfring der Deutschö…

Schadewaldt, Wolfgang

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Mindt, Nina
German classical philologist. Born Wolfgang Otto Bernhard S., Berlin, 15. 3. 1900, died Tübingen 10. 11. 1974. Studied classical philology, archaeology, Germanic studies and philosophy at Berlin. Doctorate 1924 and habil. 1927, Berlin. 1924–1928 assistant at DAI Berlin. 1928 prof. ord. in classical philology at Königsberg, 1929–1934 in Freiburg, 1934 in Leipzig, 1941 in Berlin. 1950–1968 prof. of classical philology at Tübingen. Member of the Akademien der Wissenschaften of Leipzig (from 1934), Berlin (from 1943), Heidelberg (from 1958), Vienna and Darmstadt. Order Pour le mé…

Schaefer, Arnold

(408 words)

Author(s): Berner, Hans-Ulrich
German ancient historian. Born Arnold Dietrich S., Seehausen, 16. 10. 1819, died Bonn 19. 11. 1883. School in Bremen; studied history and classical philology at Leipzig. Doctorate there 1842. 1842 schoolteacher in Dresden, 1851 in Grimma. 1857 prof. ord. in history at Greifswald; founded the historical seminar there 1863. 1865 prof. ord. in history, specializing in ancient history, at Bonn. Rector 1871/72. Work and influence S. studied history and classical philology at Leipzig with Gottfried Hermann, Moriz Haupt, Reinhold Klotz and Wilhelm Wachsmuth. Althoug…

Scheffer, Johannes

(442 words)

Author(s): Leonhardt, Jürgen
German classical philologist and historian. Born Strasbourg 2. 2. 1621, died Uppsala 26. 3. 1679. At Strasbourg Gymnasium a pupil of Johann Heinrich Boeckler. 1648 with his teacher at the court of Queen Christina of Sweden. 1648 named prof. of eloquence and politics at Uppsala; later also honorary prof. of natural and international law, finally also director of the Univ. Library there. Work and influence S. came to prominence primarily as a classical scholar and editor of ancient literature. His editions (e.g. Arrian, Uppsala 1664; Petronius’ Cena Trimalchionis, Uppsala 1665; Phae…

Schefold, Karl

(602 words)

Author(s): Hölscher, Tonio
German-Swiss classical archaeologist and philologist. Born Heilbronn 26. 1. 1905, died Basel 16. 4. 1999. Studied at Tübingen, Heidelberg and Marburg; doctorate Marburg 1930. 1932–1935 excavation at Aeolian Larisa and assistant at DAI Athens. Emigrated to Basel in 1935, habil. there 1936. Thereafter teaching; 1952–1975 prof. ord. in classical archaeology at Univ. of Basel. Work and influence S. was a student of Ludwig Curtius and Paul Jacobsthal. He was a member of the ¶ Stefan George Circle and was closely associated with the brothers Claus and Alexander Schenk von S…

Scheller, Immanuel Johann Gerhard

(783 words)

Author(s): Leonhardt, Jürgen
German philologist. Born Ihlow (Electorate of Saxony) 22. 3. 1735, died Brieg (Silesia, now Brzeg, Poland) 5. 7. 1803. School in Apolda, Eisenberg and elsewhere after the death of his father, from 1752 Thomasschule Leipzig; from 1757 studied theology and philology in Leipzig with Johann August Ernesti. 1761 head of the Lyceum in Lübben (Niederlausitz); from 1771 until his death, rector of the Gymnasium in Brieg. Works S.’s first major work was a ‘Guide’ ( Anleitung) to the ancient authors [1], in which he rejected the mechanical learning of phrases that was still tradi…

Schenk von Stauffenberg, Count Alexander

(441 words)

Author(s): Ehling, Kay
German ancient historian. Born Stuttgart 15. 3. 1905, died Munich 27. 1. 1964. Attended Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium in Stuttgart; studied law at Heidelberg, from 1923/24 classical studies at Tübingen, Munich, Jena and Halle; doctorate 1928 in Halle with Wilhelm Weber, dissertation on the early Byzantine historian John Malalas [1]; habil. 1931 in Würzburg with Joseph Vogt on Hieron II of Syracuse [2]. priv.-doz., deputy professorships at Berlin, Giessen and Würzburg, from 1936 regular prof. ext. in Würzburg suc…

Schlegel, August Wilhelm

(529 words)

Author(s): Riedel, Volker
German writer, literary theorist and translator. Born Hannover 8. 9. 1767, died Bonn 12. 5. 1845. Brother of Friedrich Schlegel. 1786–1791 studied theology and philology at Göttingen. 1792–1795 tutor in Amsterdam; 1795–1801 at Jena, from 1798 as prof. ext. 1801–1804 private scholar in Berlin; 1804–1818 several tours of Europe. 1808 public lectures in Vienna. 1809 Swedish legation councillor, 1813/14 secretary to the Crown Prince of Sweden. Ennobled 1815. From 1819, prof. of Indian philology and head of the Antiquarisches Museum in Bonn. Work and influence The critic, aesthete, p…
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