Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 6 : History of classical Scholarship - A Biographical Dictionary

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Peter Kuhlmann (Göttingen) and Helmuth Schneider (Kassel)

This compendium gives a comprehensive overview of the history of classical studies. Alphabetically arranged, it provides biographies of over 700 scholars from the fourteenth century onwards who have made their mark on the study of Antiquity. These include the lives, careers and works of classical philologists, archaeologists, ancient historians, students of epigraphy, numismatics, papyrology, Egyptology and the Ancient Near East, philosophers, anthropologists, social scientists, art historians, collectors and writers. The biographies put the scholars in their social, political and cultural contexts while focusing on their scholarly achievements and their contributions to modern classical scholarship.

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Maas, Paul

(810 words)

Author(s): Berner, Hans-Ulrich | Schelske, Oliver
German classical philologist and Byzantine scholar. Born Frankfurt 18. 11. 1880, died Oxford 15. 7. 1964. 1898 Abitur at Freiburg; then studied classical philology and Byzantine studies at Berlin and Munich; doctorate Munich 1903. Habil. 1910 Berlin; 1920 prof. ext. there. 1930 prof. ord. in classical philology Königsberg. Forced to retire 1934; thereafter private scholar, Königsberg. 1939 emigration, then private scholar at Oxford. From 1955, corresponding member of the Akademie der Wissenschaften at Berlin (East); 1963 accepted Bundesverdienstkreuz in Oxford. Work and inf…

Mabillon, Jean

(829 words)

Author(s): Göbel, Johannes
French historian. Born Saint-Pierremont (Ardennes) 23. 11. 1632, died Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris) 27. 12. 1707. After attending school at Rheims, entered the seminary of the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur; 1654 took the oath of the order, then living at the Abbey of Corbie (1658) and 1663 in Saint-Denis, where he made a study of Merovingian documents. 1664 until his death, living at Saint-Germain-des-Prés as a publisher and historian. Travelled through Europe looking for documents: fr…

Machiavelli, Niccolò

(909 words)

Author(s): Kuhlmann, Peter
Florentine philosopher, politician and writer. Born Florence 3. 5. 1469, died there 22. 6. 1527. 1498 member of the Florentine Chancery and secretary for foreign affairs. 1498–1512 travels through Italy and Europe as Florentine emissary. Arrested at Florence 1513, then banished by the Medici; 1514 private retirement to Sant’ Andrea in Percussina. From 1519 again some small assignments for the Medici. 1526 military advisor and emissary for Pope Clement VII. Career, works and influence M.’s life and work were closely linked with the political history of the city of Flor…

Madvig, Johan Nicolai

(461 words)

Author(s): Lather, Ralph
Danish classical philologist and politician. Born Svaneke (Bornholm) 7. 8. 1804, died Copenhagen 12. 12. 1886. 1820–1825 studied classical philology at Copenhagen, lecturing there from 1826, 1828 doctorate. 1829–1848 prof. of Latin language and literature, 1851–1879 prof. of classical philology at Copenhagen. 1848–1851 Danish Minister of Culture. Work and influence M. was one of the most important Scandinavian Latinists of the 19th cent., and a proponent of an encyclopaedic classical discipline in the tradition of Friedrich August Wolf and Augu…

Maffei, Francesco Scipione

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Pastorino, Anna Maria
Italian poet, historian and epigraphist. Born Verona 1. 6. 1675, died there 11. 2. 1755. Educated at Jesuit college in Parma from 1698; 1718–1720 Provveditore del Comune (government civil servant) in Verona. 1732–1736 travelled through Europe to collect ancient inscriptions. Thereafter in Verona. Career and works M. was the youngest of eight children of the Marchese Gianfrancesco M., and like his brother Alessandro, he was probably destined for a military career. In 1698 he travelled to Rome, where he was admitted to the Accademia degli Arcadi and wrote his first poetry. In 1704…

Maffei, Paolo Alessandro

(809 words)

Author(s): Heenes, Volker
Italian antiquarian and author. Born Volterra 11. 1. 1653, died Rome 26. 7. 1716. Nothing is known of his education. At Rome, honorary member of the Papal Guard. Career and works M. was the son of Paolo and Giovanna di Raffaele Maffei, members of a noble family from Volterra; one of his ancestors was the Humanist Raffaele Maffei. His family sent M. to Rome. There, he became an honorary member of the Papal Guard, having just been elevated to Knight of the Order of St. Stephen. M. undertook antiquarian studies and corresponded with many European scholars, including Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Dom…

Mai, Angelo

(873 words)

Author(s): Gerhardt, Thomas
Italian classical philologist and cardinal. Born Schilpario (near Bergamo) 7. 3. 1782, died Albano 8. 9. 1854. Seminary in Bergamo from 1796; entered the Jesuit order in 1799; studied at Parma and elsewhere, then from 1806 at the Collegio Romano in Rome and at Orvieto; 1806 holy orders. 1810 examination. 1811–1819 clerk at the Bibliotheca Ambrosiana in Milan; 1813 custodian. After leaving the Society of Jesus, 1819 prefect of the Vatican Library in Rome. 1833 secretary of the Congregatio de propaganda fide; 1838 cardinal. Career and works After attending school in his home village…

Manutius, Aldus

(860 words)

Author(s): Wolkenhauer, Anja
Manuzio, Aldo Pio (Latin Pius); Italian Humanist and printer. Born Bassiano (near Rome) c. 1450/52, died Venice 6. 2. 1515. 1467–1475 studied at Rome, then Ferrara. 1480– c.1490 tutor and court librarian at Carpi. Working at Venice from 1490, from 1495 as printer. Career All that is known of M.’ background and education is the little he himself reveals in his forewords. He worked as a Humanist and teacher until he was around 40 years old, and his career as printer of books began only in the last third of his life. M. studied from 1467 to …

Marchesi, Concetto

(474 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Italian classical philologist, politician and writer. Born Catania 1. 2. 1878, died Rome 12. 2. 1957. From 1895, studied lettere at Catania; 1899 graduated ( laurea) in Florence, then worked as schoolteacher in Pisa [10]. 1915–1923 prof. of Latin literature at Univ. of Messina. 1921 joined the Italian Communist Party. 1923 second univ. degree, in law; 1923 appointed to Univ. of Padua; 1928 member of the Accademia dei Lincei. 1931 took oath of allegiance to Fascism. 1943 participated in activities of anti-Fascist parties; September 1943 appointed rector of Univ. …

Mariette, Auguste

(571 words)

Author(s): Schenkel, Wolfgang
French Egyptologist. Born Auguste-Ferdinand-François M., Boulogne-sur-Mer 11. 2. 1821, died Bulaq (Cairo) 18. 1. 1881. Self-study of ancient Egypt from 1842; from 1849 employed at the Louvre in Paris. 1851–1854 discovered and excavated the Memphis Serapeum. Extensive excavation work in Egypt from 1858. Pasha 1879. Career and achievements M. was living in modest circumstances when in 1842 his family came into the inheritance of Nestor L’Hôte, who had taken part in the 1828–1829 expedition of Jean-François Champollion and Ippolito Rosellini to …

Marinatos, Spyridon

(463 words)

Author(s): Panagiotopoulos, Diamantis
Greek classical archaeologist. Born Lixouri (Kefalonia) 17. 4. 1901, died Akrotiri (Thera) 1. 10. 1974. 1917–1921 studied archaeology at Athens; 1926 doctorate there. Further study at Berlin and Halle. 1919–1939 ephor of the Greek Antiquities Service; 1939–1969 prof. of classical archaeology at Athens; 1937–1940, 1955–1958 and 1967–1974 director-general of the Greek Antiquities Service. From 1955 member and 1971 president of the Academy of Sciences at Athens. Career and works In only the third year of his studies of prehistory and classical archaeology at the Uni…

Marouzeau, Jules

(772 words)

Author(s): Lather, Ralph | Clamor, Annette
French Latinist. Born Fleurat (Creuse) 20. 3. 1878, died Iteuil (Vienne) 27. 9. 1964. 1889–1896 school at Guéret and 1896–1899 Paris; 1901–1907 studied classical philology at Paris, doctorate there 1910. War service and captivity from 1914. From 1920, lecturer at Paris École des hautes études; 1925–1948 prof. at Sorbonne, Paris, from 1951 honorary prof. there. Career, works and influence M. studied with the linguists Antoine Meillet and Louis Havet. From the outset, he studied not only philology but also Latin linguistics and stylistics. Throughout his …

Marquardt, Karl Joachim

(361 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
German ancient historian. Born Danzig 19. 4. 1812, died Gotha 30. 11. 1882. After school at Danzig, studied classical philology, Protestant theology, philosophy and Germanic studies at Berlin from 1830, then at Leipzig 1831/32. Assistant teacher at Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium zu Berlin 1834; from 1836 teacher at Danzig Gymnasium. Doctorate Königsberg 1840; 1856 rector of the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasium in Posen; 1859 rector of the Ernestinum at Gotha. M. was also director of collections at Friedenstein Castle (Gotha) from 1862. Work and influence M.’s father was a Kommerz- und …

Marrou, Henri-Irénée

(554 words)

Author(s): Kirbihler, François
French ancient historian and ecclesiastical historian. Born Marseille 12. 11. 1904, died 11. 4. 1977 at Châtenay-Malabry near Paris. 1925–1929 studied humanities at École normale supérieure; 1929 Agrégation d’histoire et géographie. 1930–1932 member of École française de Rome; 1932–1937 teaching at Institut français in Naples. 1937 doctorate at Sorbonne. 1937 prof. d’histoire ancienne at Univ. of Cairo, 1938 at Univ. of Nancy, 1941 at Univ. of Lyon; from 1945 Maître de conférences and from 1949 prof. d’histoire du christianisme at Sorbonne in Paris. 1967 elected to Académie des i…

Martinius, Matthias

(383 words)

Author(s): Leonhardt, Jürgen
German classical philologist. Born 1572 in Freienhagen (Waldeck, Nordhessen), died 30. 12. 1630 in Kirchtimke near Bremen. Studied theology at the Hohe Schule Herborn from 1589. From 1592, tutor to the sons of the Count of Wittgenstein; 1596 also teacher at the Hohe Schule; from 1598 Paedagogiarch at Siegen; ¶ from 1607 pastor at Emden. From 1610 rector of the Gymnasium illustre and prof. of theology at Bremen. At Herborn, M. taught Johann Heinrich Alstedt and was also instrumental in the development of the thought of Johann Amos Comenius. Work and influence M. gained an international …

Martin, Roland

(420 words)

Author(s): Hellmann, Marie-Christine
French classical archaeologist. Born 15. 4. 1912 at Chaux-la-Lotière in Franche-Comté, died Fixin, Burgundy, 14. 1. 1997. 1934–1938 studied classical studies at the Sorbonne and École normale supérieure in Paris. 1938–1946 member of the École française d’Athènes; Habil. in Paris 1950 on the Greek agora. 1946–1971 at Univ. of Dijon, initially as lecturer, then from 1956 as prof. ord. in archaeology. 1965–1980 Directeur d’études at École pratique des hautes études (EPHE) in Paris. 1971–1980 prof. ord. at Univ. of Paris I. Career, works and influence In Greece, M. worked at Epidaur…

Marx, Friedrich

(414 words)

Author(s): Lozar, Angelika
German Classical philologist. Born Bessungen (now part of Darmstadt), 22. 4. 1859, died Bonn 17. 10. 1941. 1877–1882 studied classical philol-¶ ogy at Giessen and Bonn, doctorate 1882 Bonn. Habil 1887 in Berlin. 1888–1889 prof. ext. in classical philology at Rostock; 1889–1893 prof. ord. at Greifswald; 1893–1896 prof. ord. at Breslau; 1896–1899 prof. ord. at Univ. of Vienna. 1899–1906 prof. ord. in Leipzig; 1906–1927 prof. ord. in Bonn, 1917/18 rector there. 1925–1934 editor of Rheinisches Museum. Work and influence M. studied at Giessen and Bonn, his teachers including Fr…

Marx, Karl

(1,273 words)

Author(s): Kloft, Hans
German philosopher and social theoretician. Born Trier 5. 5. 1818, died London 14. 3. 1883. Publisher and theorist-in-chief of socialism, born into a Jewish immigrant family, baptized a Protestant in 1824. Humanist education at Trier Gymnasium from 1830; 1835 Latin Abitur essay on the Principate of Augustus [2]; studied law at Univ. of Bonn, from 1836 at Univ. of Berlin, teachers including Friedrich Carl von Savigny and the radical theologian Bruno Bauer, the “most venturesome biblical critic of the modern age” ( Meyers Konversationslexikon 2, 41885, 466). Diss. in philosophy 18…

Mashkin, Nikolai Alexandrovich

(410 words)

Author(s): Heinen, Heinz
Russian ancient historian. Born Sokolki (Bugul’ma uyezd, Samara gubernia) 9. 2. 1900, died Moscow 15. 9. 1950. School in Bugul’ma; 1918–1921 studied at Faculty of History and Philosophy at Univ. of Samara, 1921/22 at Faculty of Social Sciences, Univ. of Moscow. Thereafter teaching, initially Russian at various institutions, then ancient history at the Faculty of History reopened in 1934 at State Univ. of Moscow. Doctorate 1938; continued teaching and research at Univ. of Moscow and Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Habil. ( doktorskaya dissertatsiya) 1942 in Sverdlovsk. 1943–195…

Maspero, Gaston

(772 words)

Author(s): Schenkel, Wolfgang
French Egyptologist. Born Paris 24. 6. 1846, died there 30. 6. 1916. 1865–1867 studied at École normale supérieure, Paris; 1869 repetitor for Vicomte Emmanuel de Rougé at École pratique des hautes études (EPHE), Paris. 1873 doctorate ( docteur ès lettres); 1874 prof. of Egyptian philology and archaeology at Collège de France, Paris. 1881 head of Mission archéologique française au Caire; 1898 director of Institut français d’archéologie orientale, Cairo; 1881–1886 and 1899–1914 director of Service des antiquités de l’Égypte (now the Supreme Court of Antiquities) and the Eg…
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