Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 4 : The Reception of Myth and Mythology

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Maria Moog-Grünewald
The Reception of Myth and Mythology highlights the routes and works through which the myths of Greece and Rome have passed into the cultural memory of Europe over the centuries, into its literature, music and art and its reflections on aesthetics and philosophy.

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(3,275 words)

Author(s): Cramer, Robert
(Ἕκτωρ; Latin Hector) A. Myth H. is the son of Priam (Hom. Il. 2,816f.) and Hecabe, brother of Paris and Cassandra, husband of Andromache (Hom. Il. 6,370–502; Sappho fr. 55D) and father of Scamandrius/Astyanax (Hom. Il. 6,399–403). Dictys Cretensis mentions a second son called Laodamas (Dict. 3,20; 6,12). When the exposed Paris returns to Troy, H. either calmly accepts his defeat in the contest with his brother, who is in the guise of a shepherd (as in Euripides’ Alexander [10. 32f.]), or moves to kill the victor in his anger (Serv. Aen. 5,370). H. leads the Trojans in the war with the …


(7,268 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Steffen
(Ἑλένη [ Helénē], Latin Helena) A. Myth The Cypria makes H. the daughter of Zeus and Nemesis, whom Zeus approaches in the guise of a swan as she takes the shape of a goose. H. hatches from the egg Nemesis then lays, after it has been found either by Leda herself or a shepherd who gives it to Leda. H. is thus in some sense adopted by Leda and her husband Tyndareus (Sappho fr. 166 L/P; Hyg. Astr. 2,8; Apollod. 3,10,7). According to a better-known variant, Zeus couples with Leda and she gives birth to H. a…


(2,348 words)

Author(s): Neubauer-Petzoldt, Ruth
(Ἥφαιστος, Latin Vulcanus, Mulciber) A. Myth H. is the god of fire and forging, and one of the twelve Olympian deities. He is a son of Zeus and Hera, but his mother rejects him when she discovers his disability (Hom. Il. 18,396–405); H. therefore grows up fostered by Thetis. He takes vengeance on his mother by forging her a golden throne to which he binds her by invisible ties (Paus. 1,20,3; but cf. Hyg. Fab. 166). Only Dionysus succeeds in making him drunk enough to let himself be taken back to Olymp…


(2,998 words)

Author(s): Martin, Günther
(Ἥρα, Ἥρη [ Hḗra/ē]; Latin Iuno) A. Mythos H. belongs to the generation of the children of Kronos, of whom Zeus, Poseidon and Hades have divided the cosmos into their respective realms. She is the sister-bride of Zeus and hence queen of Olympus (Hom. H. 12). She bears her husband the daughters Hebe and Eileithyia and the son Ares. Hephaestus, however, emerges by parthenogenesis. Her primary responsibility is for the family (e.g. Verg. Aen. 4,59). In this function, and as the wife of Zeus, she generally…


(14,337 words)

Author(s): Bezner, Frank
(Ἡρακλῆς; Latin Hercules) A. Myth H. is the son of Zeus and Alcmene, wife of Amphitryon (Amphitryon and Alcmene). His extraordinary physical strength and his courage are evident even at his birth: he strangles two snakes (sent by his lifelong nemesis Hera: Hom. Il. 15,25–28; 18,119) when they attack him in his cradle (Pind. Nem. 1,39–59; Theoc. Id. 24). Even before this, Hera delays the birth of H. and hastens that of Eurystheus, so that the latter will become the ‘next-born’ whom Zeus has prophesied…


(6,231 words)

Author(s): Huss, Bernhard
(Ἑρμῆς [ Hermês], Latin Mercurius) A. Antiquity A.1. Basis of the myth in cult and literature H., usually said to be the son of Zeus and the Arcadian mountain-nymph Maia, is a mythical figure with an extraordinarily broad repertoire of roles (cf. in general on the ancient figure of H. [5], [22], [29]; summary of names and the many interpretations [29.444f.]). He was originally a primaeval god, attested in the Mycenaean period, native to Arcadia and worshipped throughout Greece. His name makes him a god of the ‘…

Hero and Leander

(3,706 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
(Ἡρώ [ Hērṓ], Latin Hero; Λέανδρος [ Léandros], Latin Leander) A. Myth and basis of reception H. and L. are star-crossed lovers whose story probably derives from a local legend of the Hellespont and was first adapted in the Hellenistic period [12]. It was the subject of numerous artistic and literary treatments by Greek and esp. Roman writers from the 1st cent. BC, attesting to the popularity and rapid spread of the myth [5]. Two substantial versions are preserved which probably developed separately [11.21–23]…