Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Anne Wittke, Eckhart Olshausen and Richard Szydlak
This new atlas of the ancient world illustrates the political, economic, social and cultural developments in the ancient Near East, the Mediterranean world, the Byzantine Empire, the Islamic world and the Holy Roman Empire from the 3rd millennium BC until the 15th century AD.

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The Roman Empire in the Civil War, 44-30 BC

(2,080 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
I. On 27 November 43 BC, on the basis of the lex Titia, the proconsuls M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Antonius (Mark Antony), with C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (‘Caesar the Younger’), who had been elected consul suffectus on 19 August of that year, were equipped with consular imperium for five years, i.e. until the end of 38 BC, and charged with the task of reconstituting the commonwealth ( triumviri rei publicae constituendae). In this function, they decreed sweeping proscriptions (to which Cicero was among those who fell victim, on 7 December 43), chose 18 Italian tow…

The Roman Empire in the Civil War 49–45 BC

(2,080 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
The causes and provocations of wars have been a constant subject of lively discussion since Thucydides, and the Civil War brought about by Caesar is no exception. One crucial cause of this war was probably the circumstance that Caesar ran the risk, in his confrontation with opponents in the Senate and with Pompey, of losing his political identity and with it his dignitas. However, the war was provoked by the senatus consultum ultimum issued by the Senate on 7 January 49 BC, which aimed at forcing the proconsul to relinquish his army. Caesar reacted to this as close …

The Roman Empire under Justinian (527–565)

(1,887 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
Justin I (518-527) prepared his nephew Justinian well for government, and he duly acceded on his uncle’s death. Justinian (527–565) made the most of his long reign with energy and stamina. Justinian is one of many to suffer from the tendency of the Thucydidean historiographical tradition to focus on foreign policy and the military aspects of government, while doing insufficient justice to achievements in internal government. His efforts in pursuit of an orderly fiscal policy, administrative and legal reforms ( Corpus iuris civilis) and the unification of the Orthodox Church (…

The Roman Social War (91 – 87 BC)

(1,591 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
This war grew out of a revolt within the Roman alliance system ( bellum Marsicum, bellum Italicum, bellum sociale). In the main, it was the Italic socii of central and southern Italy who fought the Romans, and their real purpose was to obtain Roman citizenship for all the Italic peoples. It is possible that some Italic groups were also striving for complete independence from Rome (according to Mouritsen, it was their intention to win more participation in the process of political governance). The conflict had long been brewing, fuelled by the Italic peoples’ gr…

The Sassanid Empire (AD 224–651)

(1,735 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
I. Political developments 1. The relationship with Rome The homeland of the Sassanids, who were named after their dynastic founder Sāsān (Sassan), was the territory of Pārsa (Greek Persis) north of the Persian Gulf, more precisely, the city of Staḫr. The connection between Sāsān and Papak, the father of the kingdom’s founder, Ardashir I, is unclear. The royal history of the Sassanids, the dynasty as well as the Iranians and Persians living in its empire, really begins with Ardashir’s elevation to Prince of Staḫr early in the 3rd cent. AD. Ardashir asserted himself in a revolt against…

The six Syrian Wars (275/74 –168 BC)

(1,769 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M.
Modern scholarship uses the term ‘Syrian Wars’ to denote the group of six conflicts that took place from 275/274 to 168 BC between the Ptolemies and Seleucids, over possession of southern Syria. The initial cause was the state of occupation following the partition of the kingdom of Antigonus in 301 BC. Seleucus I gave southern Syria, which had been allocated to him, to his ally Ptolemy I, who had recently (302/01) conquered the territory; however, Seleucus did not give up his claim to it (Diod. …

The so-called Batavian Revolt and the Roman civil war of AD 69/70

(1,705 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
The events we generally refer to as the Batavian Revolt probably began as aspects of the civil war which broke out in the wake of the death of the Emperor Nero, only gradually taking on the character of a full-scale revolt of Germanic and Gaulish tribes against Roman rule as matters unfolded. Nero was forced to take his own life on 9 June AD 68. The brief reign of his successor Galba, who was never equal to his position – particularly in view of his lack of understanding of the political power games surrounding the throne – ended with his murder …

The territorial development of the Imperium Romanum in the Republican Period

(2,575 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
The map shows the development of the Roman Empire in 19 chronological steps, marked in the legend and commentary with the years in which the expansions took place. Date Province Sources 241 BC Sicilia, western part Pol. 3,27,2; App. Sic. 2,4; Oros. 4,11,2 237 Sardinia et Corsica Pol. 1,88,8–12; Liv. 21,1,5; 21,40,5; 22,54,11; Fest. 430,14–20 229 Illyrian protectorate App. Ill. 21 f. 210 Kingdom of Syracuse incorporated into the province of Sicilia Liv. 26,40 206 Hispaniae, all of Sicilia App. Ib. 152; Liv.25,31,5; 25,40,4; cf. 31,31,8 148 Macedonia Flor. Epit.1,30; 1,32 146 Achaea inco…

The three Roman wars against Mithridates VI (89–85, 83/82, 74–63 BC)

(2,063 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
I. The 1st Mithridatic War (89–85 BC) From the outset, Mithridates VI pursued the same path as his grandfather, Pharnaces I, and his father, Mithridates V, in conducting a policy characterized by aggressive diplomacy and military intervention. This won him dominion of the Bosporan kingdom in 115/14, then protectorship of the trading cities on the north-western coast, from Olbia to Apollonia. In Asia Minor, he won Colchis and Armenia on the right bank of the Euphrates and eastern Paphlagonia in 104/03. …

The unification and expansion of the Arabs under the first four caliphs (632–661)

(1,243 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
The first four caliphs, successors of Muḥammad (d. 632): ʿAbdallāh Abū Bakr (632–634) ʿUmar ibn al-Ḫaṭṭāb (634–644) ʿUtmān ibn ʿAffān (644–656) ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (656–661) Muḥammad met such resistance to his doctrine in Makka/Mecca, the town of his birth, that he emigrated with his followers in 622, after long preparations, to the oasis city of Yaṭrīb, subsequently al-Madīna (‘City [of the Prophet]’), where he had engendered great hopes as a mediator in the conflicts between various Arab tribes of the region. To bring some degree of economic independence, he carried out a nu…

The world through the eyes of ancient authors

(1,555 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
Information about cartography in the Graeco-Roman world has come down to us from a number of ancient writers, but there are only a few rare cases of actual maps surviving, and even those have only been preserved in fragmentary form. In the present context the ongoing debate about the scope and purpose of these maps will have to be be put aside, as the focus is on the geographical world picture that emerges – i.e. can be reconstructed – from these maps and from what can be derived – i.e. can be reconstructed – from their portrayal in the writings of the ancients. The use of the term ‘reconstructio…
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